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The slave community during the early centuries of North America brought forth the process of capturing, preservation of culture, and the element of survival. Slaves were traded and sold by their own people. Native born Africans and their American born descendants “Africanized” the south, and strong willed, rebellious slaves and free blacks decided to not stand for their forced institution by breaking away from their physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual restraints.The “peculiar”institution [1] of southern slavery came the most trivial and horrifying case of human enslavement in the history of the world. The Process of Enslavement and The Middle Passage.

The institution of slavery began in Africa. The people of the Bib, Ewe, Batavia, Baking, Wolf, Bombard, Bobbie, Serer, and Radar were most of the Africans sold into the system. These were peaceful, and sometimes helpless tribes that were accustomed to hard labor, and some accustomed to no labor at all.Advanced Africans like the people of the Your, Doomed, Shanty, Filial, Com, Madding, and Hausa tribes were the ones responsible for their enslavement. With their social and political hierarchy, and through cultural differences, the latter were able to easily put the former under the bridge through war because of their access to goods and items that the others did not have. Europeans turned to Africans because of their intimidation by and unreliability of the Native Americans of North America. In the beginning, Native Americans outnumbered the Europeans but they were still able to break the natives down and use them as slaves.

They reduced the highest ranking Native Americans, fishermen, hunters etc. , to nothing more than secants. The Native Americans succumbed to European disease, and were taken aback by the Europeans way of living. They proved to not be effective as workers and servants. With so many problems, the Europeans turned to Africa for labor. The Europeans were not able to enslave some Africans because of their advancements in government, military, and society just like some of the Native Americans, but the Africans that were considered docile were the ones betrayed by their people, and sent on the voyage of the Middle Passage.Ten million [2] Africans were brought along this journey.

The Middle Passage consisted of taking Africans that were slaves, criminals, or prisoners, along a journey across the Atlantic ocean that lasted anywhere from three weeks to three months. Before this journey however, Africans were forced marched to the coast where they suffered thirst, hunger, and exhaustion. Many of whom died or became useless before they reached the destination. Many also revolted by running away, refusing to leave their home, and by even killing the Europeans who were taking them away.Once at the shore, those who made it were examined by doctors, and those who were deemed useful were then branded and taken aboard. The now enslaved Africans were chained, and packed tightly together in the hold of the ships that would take them to their new world. Once the voyage started, the slaves were let out of the hold ;ice a day for food and exercise although women and children were allowed more time on deck.

The men, on the other hand, were reduced to being trapped in filth and heat.They remained chained up in their own bodily fluids and in turn, this caused sickness and more deaths aboard the ship. The first weeks of the voyage remained the worst for such new experiences and degrading acts caused some of the slaves to not hold their ill to live anymore. Many jumped overboard, many were driven insane, and many refused to eat, drink, and receive aid altogether. The same revolts that occurred while on the mainland of Africa, occurred on the ships as many slaves killed Europeans mid-voyage.So many of these revolts started happening that slaveholders started using insurance to cover the damages. After landing in America, the slaves continued to revolt and run away.

Some felt no need and accepted slavery as their new life due to the trauma faced along the long trip across the Atlantic, while others did not take being enslaved kindly. If he must be broke, from Greatness of Soul, will require… Hard Discipline…

You would really be surprised at their Perseverance; . They often die before they can be conquered. “CO] This quote is one that thoroughly describes the process of enslavement.It was not an easy one for the slaves nor the Europeans. Even though the slaves were used to hard labor and slavery in their homeland, they had lives and their roles in their societies were known. They were thrown into a world where who they once were no longer mattered. Venture Smith an African born slave, was one of the few who lived to tell the story of slavery.

Ventures father was a prince, and Venture remembered his father as ‘ ” a man of remarkable strength and resolution, affable, kind and gentle, ruling with equity and moderation. ‘ Venture also remembered this same man being tortured to death as slave raiders broke a previous deal of protection made with his father. This account of the demeaning and fatal treatment of Africans puts into perspective the level of importance that they were in the eyes of the Europeans. They were needed for work, but they were easily expendable. African Acculturation The moment that Africans and Europeans came in contact, they mixed and mingled within their cultures. Whether the mixing of cultures was intentional or not, Africans influenced the South, and European elements were incorporated in African tradition.One of the most prominent of the mixes was religion.

Africans believed in a Creator whom they worshiped through prayers, sacrifices, rituals, songs, and dances. They also believed in lesser important Gods that represented each aspect of life. Elements of African religion included publicly supported priests, sacred festivals, funeral rites, dirges and wakes, dances and festivals that celebrated joy and thanksgiving, sacred objects and images, and charms and amulets for protection against evil spirits [5]. Christians believed in Jehovah, Jesus, the Holy Ghost, and the Saints.The African funeral belief that those lost “go home” is a trait that is now incorporated in funerals but African traditions like songs, dances, feasts, festivals, funeral dirges, amulets, prayers, graves, images, and priests [6] are also elements that have been incorporated into funeral processes. However, some Africans did not assimilate and still preserved their religion. Africans survived through the preservation of their culture.

Like religion, many elements were fused together with those of the Europeans. Nonetheless, some aspects of African culture are extremely distinctive.Dances, folk tales, music, magic, and language patterns of West African culture [7] are examples of this assumption. Music, specifically, played a major role in the preservation of African culture in the New World. Instruments like drums and guitars were used, and changes in tone, along with clapping and stomping [8], are traits that made African music so distinctive. Improvisation and the call and response method described the type of music that was so highly different from that of the Europeans. The variation in rhythm is another trait that distinguishes African music from that of Europeans.

The elaborate movements, and excited rhythms of the dances that accompanies this music was an act that Europeans could not understand. Along with the singing and dancing used to tell stories during folk tales, the assimilation and revolts through the language barriers, and the creation of the magic of voodoo, Africans were able to obtain strength in their culture that has been passed down through the generations. Even through the will of the Europeans to take every element of their culture from their instruments to the velveteen Of the first slave code, African culture was mixed and retained.African Culture Slaves created forms of expression that freed them from life on the plantation. These forms of expression included religion, songs, stories, and dances. These creative forms of communication and therapy demonstrated that the African culture that resided in the slaves had not been destroyed. The common cultures of the motherland brought the slaves together, and in turn, provided a peace of mind that allowed them to pass down tradition, and start new ones as well.

Forms of religion and recreation were formed in order for slaves to relieve themselves of aggression held towards their masters.Saturdays became a day for pleasure as slaves occupied themselves with activities such as chores, and Sundays became a day for religious rest. These days mirror how African Americans spend their weekends in the present day. Religion helped slaves conquer their fears, and acts such as shouting and preaching became the normality for expressing worship for God. Thanksgiving and Christmas became major holidays for slaves. They were freed from their normal duties and were rewarded with feasts and rest. They partook in foods such as whole hogs, peach cobbler, and apple implying, got drunk, and used the holidays for leisure as well.

Sundays, other than serving as days of religious rest, were days of fun and slaves spent the days singing and dancing while hosting parties that other slaves were invited to. Slaves created mental walls against their masters with magic, and they passed down stories of ancestors and traditions to the children through folk tales. These stories taught the children life lessons, and how to survive. They created “slave music” [9] and the songs of the genre told stories of runaways, fear, love, their masters, and work. This music created the genre now as “the blues. [1 0] The slaves used fiddles, and banjos among other instruments to create the melodic emotions of the songs. Another form of “slave music” was the spirituals.

These songs represented all of the feelings, desires, wants, needs, and emotions of the slaves. Plantation Life “Southern whites cannot walk, talk, sing, conceive of laws or justice, think of sex, love, the family or freedom without responding to the presence of the Negroes. ” [1 1] This quote from Ralph Ellison puts into perspective the affect of the plantation on both the slaves and the masters.The slaves influenced heir new home, and whites could not function without the help of slaves. Plantation life in the antebellum south was a two way street between a belittled minority and a helpless majority. Whites were able to influence the Christian religion and the English language onto the slaves and in turn received agricultural practices, architecture, food, and life practices from the slaves. Family was almost nonexistent in the South but when it was, it provided one of the most important surviving tools.

Slave families provided companionship, love, and understanding. One of the most horrific trials of he slave family were the rapes of black women. The families of the women could not do anything to help their sisters, daughters, cousins, and granddaughters. They had no choice but to give into the advances of the slave men. White women were also guilty of having relations with slave men. The mixing of the races added to the mixes of cultures. Morals in religion, courtship, and family became stronger and weaker in some cases.

The acculturation of religion took away from the original African ancestry of the slaves but the bond in the family ties held the slaves together and brought about a love and respect among slave men and women. It was not long after that family ties were physically broken with the separation of family members through domestic slave trades. Slave children learned the importance of their African ancestry, the tradition of family and values, and obedience to the whites. This obedience, whether it was given by the elders or the children sparked up much resistance and started the movement of runaways.Slaves wanted their freedom, and tactful and resourceful individuals made names for themselves as leaders of revolt. In the slave community their were categories that slaves fell under: Samba, Jack, and Nat. [1 2] Jack was the slave homo worked cooperatively as long as he was treated well.

Nat was the slave whom was rebellious and wanted a way out of his restraints. Samba was the slave whom was faithful and loyal to the master which made him a traitor in some respects. In actuality, the domestic servants and the field slaves made up the categories.The domestic servants were considered better, in theory, whether it ranged from skin tone to working indoors but they had it worse. They did not receive the freedom that field slaves did, they were on call all hours of the day, and their tasks included not only indoor routines, but outdoor duties as well. The Slave Community The slave community was one of cruelty, tact, survival, business, and culture. Slaves were brought for labor, but came with so much more.

They influenced the lives of those who tried to control a group of people who proved that they could not be controlled.Slaves built the United States, and demonstrated the tactfulness needed to survive in an institution where they were needed but not wanted. Slaves not only lived through a demeaning, fatal, and horrific struggle. They survived and survival led to the generations of African Americans that live today.

Two part assessment

Two part assessment.

two part assessment Description The Applied Project is a two-part assessment. In Part One (500 words) you will write creatively in a style and form that is based on your own understanding of the narrative form and one genre studied in the Short-Fiction Module. In Part Two (500 words) you will analyse your creative work in a scholarly way. Your analysis should consider what form and generic characteristics you have used in your writing and how they link to the literary concepts studied throughout the unit (with particular attention to the Short-Fiction Module in weeks 3-5). Aims/Objectives In the applied project you will show your understanding of literary concepts by producing a creative piece of writing. Your work will be based on your interpretation of a particular narrative form and genre. The applied project also asks that you analyse your creative writing in a scholarly way. This means you will analytically explain the different aspects of narrative form and the generic conventions you have considered and eventually used in your creative writing piece. Details Length: 1000 words (500 for each part) 1,000 all together. Assessment Requirements In Part One of the assessment, you will produce a creative piece of writing (500 words) that focuses on one or more features of short-fiction such as character, point of view, setting or plot. Your creative writing will also be in the style of one genre studied during the Short-Fiction Module of the unit (weeks 10-12). This means you will need to consider the way character, language, plot or setting, as some examples, are typically represented within your chosen genre (Romance, Horror or Detective Fiction). In Part Two of the assessment, you will create a secondary text (500 words) that is a scholarly analysis and interpretation of your creative work. Your interpretation and analysis should include and be supported by literary concepts and terminology discussed throughout the unit, with particular attention to the Short-Fiction Module (weeks 3-5). In other words you need to be able to discuss the deliberate creative choices you have made in creating your short-fiction and how these decisions relate to your understanding of narrative form and genre. You must submit the task through Turnitin on vUWS.

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