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The Skeletal System Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Axial Portion of the Skeleton Appendicular Portion of the Skeleton Functions of the Skeleton Relationship between the Skeletal System and the Muscular System Sexual Differences in Skeletons Clinical Conditions and Disorders that Affect the Skeleton Works Cited Introduction Movement is vital for all of you because it provides you with the opportunity to live your lives to the full. Just as other human beings, you fall and stand up to continue moving forward. But what provides you with this opportunity? It is your skeletal system. It does not only facilitate your physical activity but also supports and protects your bodies. This system consists of hundreds of bones that are full of calcium, which makes them strong enough to carry your weight. Bones are connected with the help of joints that facilitate motion. The majority of you were born with about 300 bones that fuse with the course of time so that now you have only 206 bones. They all are divided into two parts: axial and appendicular skeletons. Axial Portion of the Skeleton Your axial portion of skeleton is composed of “the skull, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage” (Skeletal System: Bones and Joints 120). Due to its location, it manages to protect your brain and spinal cord from injuries. In addition to that, it supports the organs in the ventral body cavity so that you do not need to carry them in your hands. Twenty-two bones that are separated into two parts form the skull. You have 8 bones of the cranial cavity that are known as braincase. They surround your brain so that you do not hurt it when fall or receive a headnut. The rest of the bones (there are 14 of them) form your face. They are tightly connected to one another so that your nose is always in the right place. The only exception is the mandible that makes chewing possible. Otherwise, how would you eat? Minimal movement can also be observed within the middle ears. Each of them includes 3 auditory ossicles that are hidden deep in your head. The vertebral column, or backbone, usually consists of “7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 1 sacral bone, and 1 coccyx bone” (Skeletal System: Bones and Joints 125). It is the central axis of the skeleton that has four major curvatures. Normally, the cervical and the lumbar regions curve anteriorly. The thoracic, as well as the sacral and coccygeal regions, curves posteriorly. However, considering the way you sit, abnormal curvatures are widespread. The thoracic or the rib cage protects your organs and supports them. All in all, human beings have 24 ribs that are divided into 12 pairs, but you can recount them to make sure. They are categorized according to their attachment to the sternum. Thus, a direct attachment by costal cartilages is true (1-7); an attachment by a common cartilage is false (8-12); and the absence of attachment resorts to floating ribs (11-12). The sternum, or breastbone, consists of three parts: “the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process” (Skeletal System: Bones and Joints 129). Appendicular Portion of the Skeleton Your appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of limbs and girdles so that you have: “4 bones in the shoulder girdle (clavicle and scapula each side) 6 bones in the arm and forearm (humerus, ulna, and radius) 58 bones in the hands (carpals 16, metacarpals 10, phalanges 28, and sesamoid 4) 2 pelvis bones 8 bones in the legs (femur, tibia, patella, and fibula) 56 bones in the feet (tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges, and sesamoid)” (“The Axial

create inefficiencies for a manager or a company

create inefficiencies for a manager or a company.

Instructions for Project (100 points Paper and 100 points Powerpoint) 1) Read Wharton on Making Decisions (14pages) 2) Select one of the following “Lessons for Managers” and write ONE FULL page, 12pt font, single spaced analysis on which “lessons for managers” would create inefficiencies for a manager or a company. (WORTH 150 points) – (If your paper is less than ONE page points will be deducted) 3) Be should to Connect The Dots (CTDs) to other chapters in the book that discuss efficiencies and inefficiencies 4) The only thing that should be on your paper is the analysis. (If your paper is less than ONE page points will be deducted) – DO NOT upload paper and powerpoint together 5) Create a PowerPoint based off your PAPER and upload 5-10 slides that corresponds with your paper (WORTH 50 points) – DO NOT upload paper and powerpoint together Rubric for Paper (Worth 100 points) 50% of your grade will come from your ability to select (1) lesson from the Wharton on Decision Making pdf (see course materials folder within Blackboard), that could create inefficiencies for a yourself if you were a manager.50% of your grade will come from your ability to Connect The Dots (CTDs) to other chapters in the book that discuss efficiencies and inefficiencies.Please DO NOT upload paper and powerpoint together. Paper Instructions: Select one of the following “Lessons for Managers” (see Wharton on Decision attachment in COURSE MATERIALS)Write ONE FULL page, 12pt font, single spaced analyzing which “ (1) lesson for managers” would create inefficiencies for a manager or a company. The only thing that should be on your paper is the analysis.**If your paper is less than ONE page points will be deducted**Powerpoint Instructions: Create a PowerPoint based off your PAPER and upload 5-10 slides that corresponds with your paper (WORTH 50 points) Rubric for Powerpoint (Worth 100 points) 50% of your powerpoint grade will be based off the quality of CONTENT as this should reflect your paper in a sequential manner.50 % of your grade will be based off the quality of the GRAPHICS as the pictures and slides should be of a professionally manner. Please DO NOT upload paper and powerpoint together.
create inefficiencies for a manager or a company

Bioanalytical Technique Practical

assignment writer Bioanalytical Technique Practical. Introduction Improvement in technology has widened the domain of bioanalytics, reliable and reproducible data can be obtained from several instruments and protocols. The drug arena has become really competitive and it is thus imperative that an understanding of the different techniques is crucial to the isolation and analysis of biomolecules. This report is focused on the BCA assay for protein estimation and data analysis of SEC using a UPLC system. The BCA assay is a modified assay that is used for the detection and quantification of total protein in a given sample. The assay generates a purple colour which is as a result of the chelation reaction of bicinchoninic acid with cuprous ions. The complex formed as a result of the reaction is known to exhibit a very strong absorbance at a wavelength of 562nm and this shows an increasing linearity with the amount of protein in a given sample. Two main components make up the assay; the standard curve and the unknown protein sample. The BCA assay is widely used because of its sensitivity and compatibility with detergents and several other buffer types. The drawback however with the assay is that it is not as rapid as some other estimation method such as the Bradford due the incubation time required and moreover it is not an endpoint reaction as colour continues to develop even after incubation. The second part of this report is concerned with running a system suitability test on the waters BEH200 SEC UPLC instrument. The American and European Pharmacopeia specifically mentioned that the requirements for a system suitability testing on the day of analysis showing that it is fit for its intended use. It is worth mentioning that this has no bearing with the qualification of the instrument. Failure of any of the parameters simply means that an assay cannot commence. This testing is concerned more about the method on the day of analysis rather than the instrument per se. 1.1 Materials: Pipettes and appropriate tips Microcentrifuge tubes Microwell Plates HPLC Vials Bovine Serum Albumin Protein 2mg/ml BCA Reagent Deionised Water Perkin Elmer Plate Reader 100Mm sodium Phosphate Buffer Waters Aquity H Class Bio UPLC instrument Waters BEH200 SEC UPLC Column 1.2 Preparation of Standards: Standards were prepared as per instruction manual Table 1: Preparation of Protein Standards [Protein Standard] (µg/ml) Dilution factor Volume Protein Standard (µl) Volume dH2O (µl) Final volume (µl) 0 0 0 150 200 25 1 in 80 2.5 197.5 200 125 1 in 16 12.5 187.5 200 250 1 in 8 25 175 200 500 1 in 4 50 150 200 750 1 in 3 75 125 200 1000 1 in 2 100 100 200 Calculations: Dilution factor = concentration of stock solution / concentration of diluted solution Volume of stock to add to water = Required volume of diluted solution/ Dilution factor Volume of water to add = required final volume / Volume of stock required 1.3 Preparation of Sample: The sample was prepared as per the instructions on the practical manual. Table 2: Test Sample Dilution Sample Dilution Factor Volume (µl) Sample Volume (µl) Added Water Final Volume (µl) Biopharmaceutical 1 in 5 20 80 100 1.4 Preparation of BCA Reagent and Well: The BCA reagent was prepared and the 96 –well microplate was prepared and read in the spectrophotometer@ 562nm as per the instruction manual. 1.5 Data Analysis: Concentration mg/ml Absorbance 1 Absorbance 2 Absorbance 3 Average 0 0 0 0 0 25 0.085141386 0.050185522 0.149322437 0.094883 125 0.014410967 0.117177903 0.100239697 0.077276 250 0.051610414 0.087607308 0.174962059 0.104727 500 0.53853473 0.338323087 0.351367406 0.409408 750 0.622078392 0.563260249 0.452668921 0.546003 1000 0.773383051 0.85954018 0.870560367 0.834495 Sample (x) 0.155851667 0.056575722 -0.105354519 0.035691 Calculation: Equation of the linear least square fit can be represented as outlined below. Y = 0.0008 (X) – 0.0051 0.035691= 0.0008 (X) – 0.0051 X = 0.035691 0.0051/0.0008 X = 0.040791/0.0008 X = 50.98875 Taking the dilution factor into account we multiply by 5 The protein concentration is thus 50.98875 x 5 = 254.94mg/ml Discussion: The sample data had an anomaly, showing a negative reading on the third well. This is suggestive of contamination. The possibility of interference from the reagent can be ruled out because the standard was treated the same way and also taking into cognisance the fact that the experiment was not carried out under a non-denaturing condition. The likely cause could be due to dirt on the Microwell thus blocking out the necessary wavelength for the absorbance reading or the sampling pipette not delivering the right amount of reagent. The intensity of the colour change for the third well was observed to be less than the other two wells. There is also the possibility of the sample not being vortexed properly or sample settling to the bottom of tube. As mentioned earlier there seem to be an anomaly with our absorbance reading and this can be validated from our standard curve as it is not quite linear and on this basis we cannot absolutely rely on the result of the experiment. 2.1 Size Exclusion Chromatography Experiment The priming and purging of the UPLC instrument was carried out by the trainer as per the instruction manual. System suitability testing was then carried out to ensure that it is fit for purpose. The test serves to assure the reproducibility of the instrument and the method. It is a regulatory requirement which was mentioned in both the EU and US pharmacopoeias. The testing is important as it can allow for critical factors that could affect the performance of the instrument to be adjusted to meet the test criteria. Parameters such as the resolution, efficiency of the column, tailing factors, relative standard deviation etc. are used as criteria for comparison with regards to standards and test samples. The table below details the results obtained from the system suitability testing, reference standard and our test sample. The UPLC system used in our experiment can be said to be fit for purpose taking into consideration, the system suitability test. The results obtained were within our test criteria. The resolution of the peak and standard deviation of the different retention time was less than 1 which as a rule of the thumb is quite acceptable. Comparing the test sample to the reference standard one would not fail to notice that the first peak in the reference standard was a dimer while the second peak was a monomer but in our test sample the retention time of the first peak was really short showing evidence of a high molecular weight aggregation .Also from our result the second peak was our product dimer while the third peak was our product monomer. This result serves to highlight the mechanism of protein aggregation and the reason why it should be minimised as it impacts on the yield of the product and moreover it can affect the potency and therapeutic potential of the parenteral. It is also worth mentioning that sometimes early elution may not necessarily mean that there is aggregation, it could be for the simple reason that sometimes intrinsically unstructured proteins can elute so fast that they tend to behave like aggregates. A molecular weight comparison testing can be used to differentiate them. From our experiment the test sample showed increase aggregation and this can be explained given the fact that the experiment was not carried out under a non-denaturing environment. The possibility of column contamination or buffer contamination can help to encourage aggregation. It is also important that samples should be free of extraneous particles during injection as this can also be a determining factor. The changing environment of the mobile phase can also be construed as a possible cause of the aggregation observed. The temperature of the instrument is another factor that can play a role and as we all know that the Arrhenius theory of a 10°C increase in temperature speeding up a reaction does not relate to proteins as it rather opens up the pathway of denaturation and aggregation. RT % Area Pass? Peak MEAN RSD MEAN RSD (Y/N) 1 3.035 0.5 18.00 0.8 Y 2 3.475 0.5 1.88 0.8 Y 3 3.817 0.5 27.83 0.8 Y 4 4.295 0.5 19.14 0.8 Y 5 4.885 0.5 3.54 0.8 Y 6 5.279 0.5 16.36 0.8 Y 7 5.957 0.5 0.59 0.8 Y 8 6.694 0.5 11.73 0.8 Y 9 8.035 0.5 0.04 0.8 Y Reference Standard Pass? RT % Area Peak MEAN RSD MEAN RSD (Y/N) 1 3.754 0.5 6.92 0.53 Y 2 4.251 0.5 93.08 0.53 Y Test sample Pass? RT % Area Peak MEAN RSD MEAN RSD (Y/N) 1 3.095 0.5 47.93 0.8 Y 2 3.754 0.5 3.14 0.8 Y 3 4.251 0.5 48.93 0.8 Y Questions: Estimation of protein concentration is important as we have to know the amount of protein in our final product after fermentation to know if the bioprocess has to be optimised with regards to the expected titre value. The concentration of the protein can also allow for the portioning of the product into the right dosage formulation, certain therapeutic proteins are required in a very high dosage form and their production can be sometimes targeted at a particular section of the population e.g. during an epidemic outbreak to ensure potency and biological activity. The knowledge of the concentration of proteins can also allow us to work out the economy of scale with regards to the profit margin taking into account, the expense incurred in research and development and other aspect of the production process. It is also important to estimate the amount of protein in our biomass so as to be able to optimise our subsequent purification steps. The estimation of the protein concentration can also give us an idea of product related impurities and those associated with the process. Proteins are very complex molecules and are prone to several types of condition than cause instability from the starting stage of production to the end of their shelf life. Aggregation can be described in a layman’s term as the propensity for proteins to stick together under conditions such as a slight increase in temperature, pH, shear force, ionic strength of the solution they are contained in etc. Aggregation have been seen to cause delay in several novel biologics due to the debilitating effect on the health of the population that the drug is directed at and also in the context of compliance to regulatory authority as there is a specification to the amount of aggregates that can be allowed. It is extremely difficult if not impossible to totally eradicate aggregation from the process. It is worth mentioning however that the mechanism of aggregation is still subject to debate as it has not been fully understood. Aggregation can be reversible or irreversible depending on the stage it has attained as can be loss of primary structure. The potency of biologics as we all know are normally related to them being in their native structure, in most instances aggregation leads to the loss of activity and moreover the overall yield of the biotherapeutic is greatly affected. Aggregation has also been known to spur immune response in patients that have been administered with protein therapeutics affected by aggregation this could be by way of the neutralisation of antibodies that helps to ensure the effectiveness of the drug. In a worst case scenario the immunogenic reaction can lead to incurable conditions such as seen in patients with pure red cell aplasia where the red blood cells are attacked and blood transfusion is needed for life. The route of administration of biologics is intravenous and the presence of aggregation especially those of very high molecular size can result in the blockage of blood vessels. It is thus very important that at each stage of our production testing should be carried out to check for aggregation. Size exclusion chromatography is a purification system that exploits the molecular size of the compound of interest. Simply put it works just like a molecular sieve, smaller particles passes through the sieve which is the stationary phase and could be a bead coupled to a resin. The pore size of the beads are defined and on this basis it will only allow certain particle sizes to pass through while excluding those that are too large for the pore. The larger particles because they are not passing through the beads are thus excluded quickly, their retention time is thus said to be short. The smaller particles are retained longer while the larger particles earlier mentioned are eluted through the void volume. Different gels in use would typically have different pore sizes and can be used to determine the size of the molecules to be separated. Despite all the numerous advantages of size exclusion chromatography which has made it the gold standard over the years for analysing protein aggregation there are still some limitation associated this method. The possibility of the stationary phase and the analyte reacting together can be sometimes rife thus leading to a longer retention time which serves to mimic the compound as being of low molecular size. The cost associated with running this type of separation technique can also be enormous due to the fact that large columns and eluents are required and this serves to add to the overall cost of the unit operation. In comparison to other modes of separation, size exclusion chromatography can be said to have an inherent low resolution as there is a limited range of molecular weight that can be separated as a result of dependence on the pore size of the beads in use. There is also the possibility of proteolytic degradation as the protein of interest can become targets for proteolytic enzymes still present in solution. The accuracy of this technique can sometimes come into question due to the fact some aggregates will remain in solution and as such would not be detected. Also taking into consideration the fact that larger molecular aggregate leaves the column through the void volume, there is also the possibility. The possibility of the polymer in use to degrade is also a drawback as this can occur at a very high flow rate. The high flow rate as mentioned earlier can degrade the polymer and it also has the ability of altering the geometry of the beads in use making the separation technique inefficient Bioanalytical Technique Practical

Cloud Service Provider Government Cloud Service Provider Report

Cloud Service Provider Government Cloud Service Provider Report.

I’m working on a cyber security report and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Scope: A medium sized Cloud Service ProviderundefinedPurpose/Description: The purpose of this deliverable is to gain a deeper understanding of the current laws and compliance requirements surrounding the industry or specialization (Government Cloud Service Provider).Companies face different national and state laws and compliance requirements based on industry, location, and company goals.Healthcare is required to comply with HIPAA, government entities have FISMA, financial institutions have PCI-DSS, publicly traded companies have Sarbanes-Oxley, etc.International organizations may need to consider GDPR or China’s Cybersecurity Law (CSL).Also consider that organizations can have multiple compliance regulations.In detail define the scope of your research.For example, a small, regional hospital vs a large, multi-national financial institution.Once your scope is defined research the laws and compliance requirements that affect your organization within the defined scope.Include a section of your report detailing how metrics will help to achieve compliance for organization.undefinedDeliverable:A properly formatted (APA style), doctoral level research paper detailing the laws and compliance requirements of your chosen industry or specialization.1 ½ or double spaced, standard font and font size (for example, Times New Roman 12), including an introduction and conclusion along with the body of the paper.Submit either a pdf or Word document to the Dropbox.undefinedKey compliance laws – FedRAMP, FISMA as well as others that affect the organizations scope. undefinedUtilize appropriate charts and figures that give credence
Cloud Service Provider Government Cloud Service Provider Report

University of South Florida Complementary and Alternative Healthcare Discussion

University of South Florida Complementary and Alternative Healthcare Discussion.

In December 2016, Dr Oz published, in his magazine, a one-day mini-cleanse pick one you would like to try and fits into your current health practice. Describe the cleanse you chose, preparation, how you felt during and after the cleanse. What did you consume in food and/or fluids during the chosen cleanse? Were the foods/fluids palatable/appealing? What results did you anticipate to accomplish? Did you have any weight loss from at the end? Would you recommend this cleanse to others? Explain why or why not. Do you see this cleanse being used to prevent illness, to promote or restore health? Are there any precautions or contraindications to your chosen cleanse? What education would need to be given if sharing this with a client? What was the cost of the cleanse? include recipe APA Format 400 words 2 resources.
University of South Florida Complementary and Alternative Healthcare Discussion

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