Throughout this course the ideas of religion, shapes, mathematics, symmetry and perspective have been examined within numerous works of the Italian Renaissance and reflected upon during passionate discussions over the semester. In Heninger’s article The Semantics of Symmetry in the Art of the Renaissance he discusses many of these same ideals. The integration of these concepts within Renaissance art was a deliberate message to the viewer.
Proto-renaissance works are an appropriate example of this; displaying a lack of naturalism these images focus more on the ideals than the representation of the human form. Later Renaissance works, although more naturalistic, still embody the awareness of an inner meaning but was also a ‘[…] transition period between those who sought to lead a life of the spirit [from those who sought to] lead a life of the senses, and its art reflects both attitudes’ (Heninger 306).
Most works created during the proto-renaissance, from about the thirteenth century to the early fifteenth century, stressed symbolism and an internal message more than naturalism and perspective. This is the ‘substance’ in which Heninger references in his statement ‘at the same time that Pater made art the end-all and be-all of life, he emptied it of substance’ (286). Walter Pater’s view of art is that it ‘[…] should induce an immediate, intense emotion without the necessity of cerebral analysis.
Intellectual effort, in fact, not only clutters but undermines the art event,’ when in fact intellectual effort is what the proto-renaissance was about entirely (Heninger 285). This notion is apparent in works like Berlinghieri’s Saint Francis Altarpiece in that the depiction of Saint Francis is almost two-dimensional giving him a flat appearance. Berlinghieri’s placement of Saint Francis in the middle of a gold background that lacks any perspective or depth makes him look as though he is floating in the space.
Brunelleschi’s Church of Santo Spirito is architecturally designed to resemble a Latin cross with a symmetrical transept. The dimensions of the side chapels and the chancel are equal-sized squares and two of those squares are equal to the length of the nave. ‘Since the godhead behind this cosmogony is good, his creation will image a comparable goodness, a comparable perfection, insured by the exercise of symmetry’ (Heninger 301). In addition there are 40 niches around the perimeter of the entire building perhaps representing the significance of the number 40 throughout the Bible.
There are numerous references in the Bible of 40 days or 40 years denoting significant occurrences, punishments or denoted periods such as it rained for 40 days and 40 nights and there are 40 days between Ash Wednesday and Easter Sunday. Masaccio’s Trinity was ‘[…] the first painting to obtrude the new laws of perspective’ (Heninger 286). This new law that Masaccio followed was Brunelleschi’s one-point system of perspective. The vanishing point is created at the center of the bottom step, which is at eye-level for most when viewing this piece at the Church f Santa Maria Novella. Having a low vanishing point causes the viewer to look upwards to the architecture and the Trinity, of God the Father, the Holy Spirit in dove form, and a crucified Christ. Heninger states that in his opinion ‘[…] linear perspective was introduced and codified in strict mathematical laws in order to allow the painter to demonstrate that underneath the transient phenomena of nature there is the mathematical underpinning of proportion and harmony and divine beauty’ (306).
Trusts and Equity – Charity Law – The Public Benefit Test
Trusts and Equity – Charity Law – The Public Benefit Test.
‘A group of persons may be numerous but, if the nexus between them is their personal relationship to a single propositus or to several propositi, they are neither the community nor a section of the community for charitable purposes’ (per Lord Simmonds, Oppenheim v Tobacco Securities Trust Co Ltd  AC 297, 306).’
Discuss the above statement in relation to the public benefit test within the ambit of Charity Law. Your answer should also analyse whether the personal nexus test differs in charities set up for the relief of poverty
Essay Help “>Essay Help
Essay Writing at Online Custom Essay
Review This Service