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The Second Industrial Revolution History Essay

New technologies changed the look of manufacturing in late nineteenth century, which led to new heights of economic growth. The second Industrial Revolution was relied on steel, electricity and chemicals; were in The First Industrial Revolution it engrossed on coal, steam and iron. Electricity benefits were pretty well-known during that time. By the end of the century, large power stations were capable to send current over vast distance. The third important new technology that contributed to this industrial revolution was the chemical industry. Alongside sudden developments in industries, many other changes were taking place. Heavy industry and mass marketing productions were improving. The production was going through very big changes. Overall there was a significant drive towards larger business enterprises because of want of increased profits. Aside from products, demand and supply, as well as strong desire of bigger business sparked the second industrial revolution. In the aftermath of the civil war and reconstruction, the American economy grew considerably as it entered “the second industrial revolution” generally recognized as the period between 1870 and 1914. The second industrial revolution took local communities and their new products out of the shadow of large regional agricultural based economies which was assisted by new labor forces and production techniques. New technologies played an important role in the daily lives of working and middle class citizens. By 1920 about 11 million people moved to city from farms. And other 25million immigrants arrived from overseas. The economic growth during this time period was extraordinary but unstable. The world economy experienced harsh depressions in 1873 and again in 1897 business competed intensely with each other and corporations battle to gain control of the industries. The second industrial revolution was highly profitable. The second industrial revolution fueled the gilded age, a period of great extremes: great wealth and widespread poverty, great depression, new opportunities and greater standardization. Economic insecurity became a basic way of life as the depressions of the 1870s and 1890s put millions out of work or reduce pay. Skilled workers received high wages in industrial work and oversaw a great deal of production process. The visual map of the United States was transformed by unprecedented urbanization and rapid territorial expansion. These changes mutually fueled the second industrial revolution which peaked between 1870 and 1914. After the invention of steam power many products were shipped to different countries. For the first time, goods from the American interior could be shipped directly to the Atlantic and vice versa. Begin able to ship products great distances transformed the nature of economic activity in the United States. During the second industrial revolution, innovations in transportation, such as roads, steamboats, the Eerie canal and most notably railroads, link distant, previously isolated communities together. BODY: The Second Industrial Revolution marks a milestone in industrial and technological leadership in the world. Since the First industrial Revolution Britain had been the farthest in the world’s leading industrial realm as well as in the Second Industrial Revolution. Later in the nineteenth century, Britain lost its lead to German and American industries. United States had advantages of having vast supplies in natural resources, especially iron and coal. German chemical industry relied completely on imported raw materials. Transport developments made transportation of food, materials and other goods easier. Trades were also largely expanded. Steam engines freed transportation from water power dependence. More than half of the American population lived in in urban center by 1920. Second revolution was followed from first industrial revolution, which began in Britain in late eighteenth century and then extended all the way through Western Europe and North America. The Bessemer process was the first industrial progression in mass production. Later this process was followed to develop hearth process, which later became the leading steel making process in the twentieth century. Electricity also made major developments possible. In the twentieth century, electricity was called the most important engineering achievement. The U.S saw its highest economic growth during this period of Second Industrial Revolution. United States was a world leader in applied technology. American manufacturing productions exceeded Britain and took world leadership during the Gilded Age. Increase in production prepared new and cheaper ways to produce the products. STEEL: The Second Industrial Revolution was naturally related to the first. The growing textile industry encouraged most 19th century chemical research which for on dyes, bleaches, and cleaning agents. The second industrial Revolution was much more a product of science and organized research. The age of steel was started in first industrial revolution; in second revolution it reached new developments in steelmaking. In the first half of the nineteenth century, steel was very expensive refinement of iron. All kind of innovators naturally turned their thoughts to produce steel directly from pig irons. From 1840s, commercial production of steel was choosing this process. Scientists were making their efforts to determine the chemical composition of different ores, and chemical reactions that occurred in iron and steelmaking. Henry Bessemer of Britain, in 1856, developed an outwardly simple solution to the problems of steelmaking. He developed a solution which only took less than hour to make steel from pig iron, before which took days. The next advancement in steelmaking was the Siemens Martin open hearth process. This process was able to reach higher temperatures by using waste gases to reheat interior bricks, but agonized from the same deficiency of being unsuited to phosphoric ores. The first successful process that didn’t have this flaw was made in Britain. U.S steel industry produced a series of important improvements. From 1887 new process were developed continuously, from one process to the next one. This lowered the cost and also enhanced the final output. Cheaper steel and specialist alloys transformed American industry. ELECTRICITY: In 1821, the Electromagnetic induction was discovered by an Englishman name Michael Faraday. His discovery made possible to generate electricity mechanically. Electricity was mainly used in communications; it started with telegraph then to telephone and later in electroplating. The quantity of electrical power generated was very small compared to what water and steam generators generated. In 1870s two key advances took place, the translating of the mechanical energy of the rotating magnet and the development of the light bulb. The light bulb remained the key source for decades. Thomas Edison in 1879 was able to produce number of advances made in the previous couple of decades. “The cost of the electricity to users was further decreased by a number of innovations. Cables and insulations were improved. Switches, fuses, and lamp sockets were refined. Meters for accurate measurement of electricity usage were introduced.” Electric lighting was applied to areas outside lighting. Electricity was also very useful in chemical and steel productions. This broadening range of use of electricity caused the cost of lighting to fall to fraction of its past level. CHEMICAL
MGT 403 SEU Major Techniques Used to Elicit Tacit Knowledge Discussion Paper.

The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder.Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented; marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.Late submission will NOT be accepted.Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
MGT 403 SEU Major Techniques Used to Elicit Tacit Knowledge Discussion Paper

Ethics and Social Responsibility Roles in Strategic Plan Analytical Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Ethics in organizations Social Responsibility in Organizations Reference List Introduction Ethics and social responsibility are fundamental aspects when one is developing a strategic plan and considering stakeholders needs. As much as the organizations give priority to profitability, the issue of ethics and responsibility should also raise concern. The reason as to why this should be emphasized is because; the success and development of any organization’s strategic plans will depend on it (Kotler, 2001). The contents of this paper will be explanation of the roles of ethics and social responsibility in developing a strategic plan while considering stakeholder needs. My ethical perspective which has developed when learning this program is also discussed. Ethics in organizations An organization should have a set of rules made in an orderly manner, to act as the guide within it. This will ensure that the external part of the organization is incorporated in the strategic plan. Ethical values are set in an organization as a guide in balancing its interests and the interests of stakeholders. It also enables the organization to reward the best demonstrated ethics within the organization, and on the other hand punish any seen behavior in violating the same (Linda

How are gamification and algorithms (choose one or compare the two) changing audience experiences?

essay writing help How are gamification and algorithms (choose one or compare the two) changing audience experiences?. Paper details You must identify the question clearly at the top of the first page of your essay. You may use examples already discussed in the seminars but you should also show evidence of your own research and thinking by using new examples and case studies. Do not choose an essay topic that is too similar to your seminar presentation topic. If you are not sure, check with your Coordinator. The essay needs to clearly address the essay question in the introduction and throughout the essay. The essay should also show your argument and develop a clear position on the essay question, but it is important that this point of few is clearly argued, illustrated with examples, and backed up by references and quotations. The essay questions are designed to enable you to demonstrate your understanding of relevant critical ideas and theories that have been introduced in the Unity of Study. You are expected to show your understanding of key theories and the critical context of your topic through paraphrasing, referencing and quoting from key readings and then apply these ideas to specific examples or case studies. You are also expected to show your independent research by finding additional relevant theoretical references to help support your own ideas and arguments. As a general guide, there should be at least five reference sources in your bibliography that go beyond the set readings. Some suggestions for further readings can be found at the end of this unit profile. The audience for the essay is an ‘intelligent reader’ but one who is not necessarily an expert in the field, i.e. the typical academic essay audience. Hence students will need to explain key terms and theories, etc. and write in an academic but accessible manner. Marking Criteria An effective introduction and conclusion, presenting a clear argument / point of view in response to the essay question. Research indicating wide reading of relevant literature. Demonstrated knowledge and understanding of relevant literature. A logical, well-developed argument supported by evidence and sound conclusions. Use of original examples to illustrate your argument. Writing style, grammar and clarity of expression. Correct referencing and acknowledgement of sourcesHow are gamification and algorithms (choose one or compare the two) changing audience experiences?

ProTech Company’s Ethical Dilemma Case Study

Table of Contents Introduction Analysis Decision-Making Works Cited Introduction There are many cases where companies provide doctored financial reports to enhance the chances of attracting investors. The development of false financial reports has been traditionally used by companies that have fraudulent leadership and management functions, and they always end up losing their investors’ money. There are many financial risks associated with a fraudulent and incompetent leadership function, and external auditors should be very careful when they have suspicions of false financial reporting in a company. The use of false financial statements may mislead the decision-making process on the part of the auditors when making recommendations to the business entities and their respective stakeholders. Analysis According to the analysis of the data performed by Staci, the company seems to be having a high potential for growth over the next half-decade. It is apparent that the company has been financially stable, and it has a performance level that will be attractive to investors. However, there are indications that the information provided by the company might have been doctored to reflect an image of a company that is doing extremely well in business processes. Staci demonstrated her suspicions that the initial data seems to be “quality financial statements’. The data promises investors a growth rate of 30% in the next five years, but Staci does not believe that the company has such a great potential. Additionally, she has been provided with claims that the company has been conducting fraudulent purchases and sales with an affiliate company to boost its financial records. The fact that this information was provided by a friend who was an executive at the ProTech Company shows that Staci’s suspicions might be valid. Staci’s boss at the IIBS is strongly advocating for the stock to be priced above $34, which is suspicious because of the allegations that he has been seen in the amusement park having friendly talks with the CEO of ProTech. Based on the evidence and the allegations, it is clear that Staci’s suspicions might be valid, and she should make a decision based on her instincts. Decision-Making Staci should refer to the case of Enron, whereby the leadership function in the company developed false financial statements to lure the investors into believing that it was performing better (Nogler and Jang 54). The fraudulent leadership function led to the bankruptcy of Enron, and the associated managers were to blame for failing to raise an alarm when they discovered that the executive function was following partisan interests at the expense of stakeholder’s money (Wade 20). Staci should avoid such a scenario by ensuring that the data and information provided is valid (Craft 2013). The first step should involve an independent audit of the ProTech Company. Staci should recommend the postponement of the IPO because the data and information provided to determine the price of the stock cannot be trusted (Collier 28). Staci should also confront her boss about the issue to ensure that he has not been bribed to push the IPO and to ensure that the price of the stock is relatively high. Staci is protected against termination of employment by the boss under the employment law if she fails to make a fraudulent decision as compelled by the boss (Miceli, Near and Dworkin 12). She has the right to observe a utilitarian approach toward ensuring the decision made in this case is ethical (Hursthouse 645). It is, therefore, imperative for the IIBS to conduct an independent financial audit of the ProTech Company before making a decision on the price of the stock. Works Cited Collier, Paul. Accounting for managers: Interpreting accounting information for decision making. New Jersey: John Wiley

Surgical Nail Intervention Techniques Comparison

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Introduction Critical appraisal is a methodical progression through which the strengths and weaknesses of a research study can be acknowledged. This progression enables the reader to gauge the study’s worth and whether its conclusions are dependable. The most significant element of critical appraisal is attentive appraisal of the study design; however, other steps, such as evaluation of the statistical methods used, interpretation of the findings and possible conflicts of interest are also important. Finally, reflection of the importance of the research to one’s own patients will help clinicians recognise the most relevant, high-quality studies available to monitor their own clinical practice In nail surgery, the hallux is typically involved; however surgery may also include the lesser toes (DeLauro 2004). Nail surgery may be accessed for an assortment of pathologies; onychocryptosis, an ingrowing nail being the most common; the patient can develop a tender and draining lesion, along with the formation of granulation tissue at the side of the pierced skin (Heidelbaugh 2009); onychogryphosis or onychomycosis. Any of these indicators can cause a great deal of distress, and they often have an influence on everyday activities experienced by the patient (Yang 2008). Surgical nail interventions intend to eradicate the troublesome portion of the nail (in combination with matrix obliteration), thus, relieving symptoms and hopefully averting regrowth of the bothersome nail. Surgical nail interventions are most likely to be of use when the ingrowing toenail is at a more severe stage of development (stage II and stage III). There are variations of different surgical nail interventions. Virtually every surgical nail intervention aims to remove the bothersome part of the nail and destroy the underlying matrix so that there is a slight risk of recurrence. The techniques used nowadays are mostly modifications of the techniques originally described by Winograd, Zadik, and Ross (Ross 1969; Winograd 1929; Zadik 1950). The terminology in the classification of the surgical nail interventions is based on the description of the technique, instead of the names of the inventor of the technique. Table 1 shows technique and combinations of techniques which are used as surgical nail interventions. Description of Technique Known as 1 Radical excision of the nail fold ‘Vandenbos’ procedure 2 Rotational flap technique of the nail fold Unnamed 3 Wedge excision, wedge segmental excision, or wedge resection combined with application of a caustic liquid, like phenol or sodium hydroxide ‘Winograd’ procedure 4 Total nail avulsion (TNA) combined with total (chemical or surgical) excision of the matrix ‘Zadik’ procedure 5 Partial nail avulsion (PNA) combined with surgical (partial) matricectomy combined with chemical (partial) matricectomy with phenol or sodium hydroxide combined with physical matricectomy electrofulguration ‘Ross’ procedure Table 1: Surgical Nail Intervention Techniques Study Method Intervention Outcome Participants Anderson 1990 Randomised Control Trial A: Zadik (n17) B: Phenol and Zadik (n14) Symptomatic recurrence Total recurrence after 12 months Postoperative infection after 1 month Participant satisfaction Total 31 (A/B 17:14 Ratio) Arista 2006 Randomised Control Trial A: Partial lateral matricectomy and phenol cauterization n(17) B: Partial lateral matricectomy only (n16) Postoperative pain Time to heal Total 33 (M/F Ratio 17:16). Bos 2006 Randomised Control Trial A: Partial nail avulsion (PNA) with excision of the matrix (n38) B: PNA with excision of the matrix and application of antibiotics (n22) C: PNA with application of phenol (n37) D: PNA with application of phenol and application of antibiotics (n26) Recurrence after 12 months Infection after 1 week Regrowth/spike formation Total 123, (M/F Ratio 72:45) Flores 2006 Randomised Control Trial A: surgical partial matricectomy (n17) B: partial matricectomy with electrofulguration (n21) Postoperative pain intensity Postoperative oedema, secretion, and bleeding Healing time Total 33 (A/B 17:21 Ratio) Gem 1990 Randomised Control Trial A: Chemical ablation with a 3-minute application of 80% phenol (n109) B: Chemical ablation with a 2-minute application of 10% sodium hydroxide (n110) Recurrence Time to become pain free Healing time Total 219 (A/B 109:110 ratio) Issa 1988 Randomised Control Trial A: phenol (n45) B: winograd (n42) C: phenol and Winograd (n53) Recurrence Pain duration first week Pain intensity (linear pain analogue scale) Total 140 (A/B/C 45:42:53 Ratio) Shaath 2005 Randomised Control Trial A: Total nail ablation (n52) B: Partial nail avulsion with chemical ablation by sodium hydroxide (n53) Recurrence Postoperative pain Number of dressings Return to normal shoe wear Return to normal activity and work Total 105 (M/F Ratio 53:30) 22 were lost to follow up. Table 2: Surgical Nail Interventions Study Critique Tool In most nail surgery, the use of epinephrine with lidocaine is not recommended due to the probable risk of tissue necrosis resulting from prolonged vasoconstriction and extended wound healing due to tissue hypoxia. (Dauber et al 1994, Salasche 2005). The use of epinephrine is especially hazardous to patients with diabetes mellitus, elderly patients and in vascular insufficiency, or vasculitis and it should be avoided if possible. Study Reason for Exclusion Aksahal 2001 Not a randomised control trial Bostanci 2007 Participants were quasi-randomised (based on their attendance at the surgery unit) Córdoba-Fernandez 2008 The follow-up period was shorter than 1 month. Foley 1994 There was no obvious distinction between onychocryptosis and onychogryphosis Herold 2001 Participants were quasi-randomised (based on their address). Table 3: Characteristics of excluded studies. Nail Surgery Pathway Figure Proposed Nail Surgery Pathway Conclusion In the studies comparing a surgical nail intervention to a surgical nail intervention with application of phenol, the addition of phenol is probably more effective in preventing recurrence and regrowth. Because there is only one study in which surgical nail interventions in both study arms were equal and where the addition of phenol leads to better results, more studies have to be done to confirm these outcomes. A more invasive surgical intervention with application of phenol is likely to reduce the risk of recurrence more effectively than a less invasive surgical intervention with the application of phenol. Postoperative interventions do not decrease the risk of postoperative infection or postoperative pain, or give a shorter healing time. This means that there is no evidence to give antibiotics to prevent postoperative infections. References Aksahal AB, Atahan C, Öztas P, Oruk, (2001) Minimizing postoperative drainage with 20% ferric chloride after chemical matricectomy with phenol. Dermatologic Surgery; 27:158–160. Anderson JH, Greig JD, Ireland AJ, Anderson JR, (1990) Randomized, prospective study of nail bed ablation for recurrent ingrowing toenails. Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh; 35:240–2. [Online] http://www.acps.edu.au/cms_files/ACPS Research Publications/Phenolisation nail matrix ablation. Historical profile and litreature review..pdf [Accessed 13/02/2015] Arista GF, Merino JE, (2006) Onychocryptosis: study comparing postoperative period after partial lateral matricectomy vs partial lateral matricectomy with phenolisation Dermatología Revista Mexicana; 50(3):87–93. Bos AMC, van Tilburg MWA, van Sorge AA, Klinkenbijl JHG, (2006) Randomized clinical trial of surgical technique and local antibiotics for ingrowing toenail. British Journal of Surgery; 94:292–6. Bostanci S, Kocyigit P, Gürgey E, (2007). Comparison of phenol and sodium hydroxide chemical matricectomies for the treatment of ingrowing toenails. Dermatologic Surgery, 33:680–5. Córdoba-Fernandez A, Rayo-Rosado R, Juarez-Jiménez JM, (2008) Platelet gel for the surgical treatment of onychocryptosis. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association; 98(4):296–301. Dawber RP, Baran R, Berker D, (1994) Science of the nail: gross anatomy. Diseases of the Nails and their Management. Oxford, England: Blackwell Science; 1-34. DeLauro T., (2004). Onychocryptosis. Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery 21: 617–630. [Online] http://www.hkcfp.org.hk/index.php/en/clinical-resource/452-past-issues/-september-2005/821-original-article-1 [Accessed 17/01/2015] Flores AV, Merino JE, (2006) Partial matricectomy vs partial matricectomy with electrofulguration as a treatment for onychocryptosis Dermatología Revista Mexicana; 50(2):54–9. Foley GB, Allen J, (1994) Wound healing after toenail avulsion. A comparison of Kaltostat and Melolin as postoperative dressings. The Foot; 4:88–91. Gem MA, Sykes PA, (1990) Ingrowing toenails: studies of segmental chemical ablation (study 1). British Journal of Clinical Practice; 44:562–3. Heidelbaugh, J., J., Lee, H., (2009). Management of the Ingrown Toenail. American Family Physician. 79(4): 303-308 Herold N, Houshian S, Riegels-Nielsen P, (2001) A prospective comparison of wedge matrix resection with nail matrix phenolization for the treatment of ingrown toenail. The Journal of Foot

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