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The Sarbanes Oxley Act Dealt With Four Major Issues Accounting Essay

The Sarbanes Oxley Act Dealt With Four Major Issues Accounting Essay. What responsibilities did David Duncan owe to Arthur Andersen? To Enron’s management? To Enron’s stockholders? To the accounting profession? David Duncan owed Arthur Anderson the responsibility to do what a reasonable employee would do in any situation to include a duty to work with reasonable care and skill. Not to disrupt business, not to compete in business against Arthur Anderson while still working for them as an employee or conduct acts of corporate espionage, nor to disclose Arthur Anderson?s confidential information. Duncan had the duty and responsibility to be honest, and carry out and follow the orders of Arthur Anderson, so long as they were legal, and if not to disclose the wrongdoing, even if this will incriminate him. As a professional accountant, David Duncan had an obligation to record, provide, and attest to information regarding the economic affairs of Enron. Because investors and creditors place great reliance on financial statements in making their investment and credit decisions, it is imperative that the financial reporting process be truthful and dependable.’ Thus, the responsibility Duncan owed to Enron?s management and Enron?s Stockholders was to exercise the general duty of performance, skill and care of the ordinarily prudent accountant in the same circumstances and observe a standard of ethical or social responsibility. This duty is not only morally right, but it is required by law, and arises from the law of negligence, contract, and fiduciaries; required by those in professional services, such as accountants. David Duncan owed a responsibility to the accounting profession to uphold and adhere to the ethical code of the profession. These codes of ethics are established throughout the professional associations of accountants such as The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, The Institute of Management Accountants and the Institute of Internal Auditors. These codes provide guidelines for responsible behavior by accounting professionals, and emphasize integrity, objectivity, confidentiality, and competency. Duncan failed in his responsibilities to Arthur Anderson, Enron?s management and stockholders, and the accounting profession. He did not maintain his integrity, objectivity, confidentiality, and competency. He did not properly follow Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and disclose Enron?s true financial status, resulting in an adverse impact to Arthur Anderson employees and Enron?s stockholders and employees. When he suspected Enron of unethical behavior, he failed to inform management at Enron or Arthur Anderson, his silence was a passive permissiveness to their behavior. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants code of ethics suggests that the best interest of the client is served when accountants fulfill their responsibility to the public, once again Duncan failed. What are the ethical responsibilities of a corporate attorney, such as Nancy Temple, who works for an “aggressive” client wishing to push the envelope of legality? The professional duties of an attorney, who represents or advises auditors, as was the case with Nancy Temple and Arthur Anderson, must incorporate an awareness of the auditor’s professional responsibilities. Nancy Temple ultimately owes her duty to Arthur Andersen as in-house counsel and was ethically bound to pursue the interests of her client and in doing so serves the public interest best by representing Arthur Andersen?s interests. As an attorney admitted to the Illinois bar, Nancy Temple was subject to the Illinois Rules of Professional Conduct. These rules impose professional obligations of competence, diligence, communication, and confidentiality. Under both the Illinois Rules and the Model Rules, if a lawyer representing an organization “knows that an officer, employee, or other person associated with the organization” is violating the law in a manner that is “likely to result in substantial injury to the organization,” the lawyer shall respond by taking “reasonably necessary” measures that are “in the best interest of the organization.” Such measures may ultimately result in the lawyer’s resignation, but shall be designed to minimize the risk of revealing confidential information. Nancy Temple, although not be required to disclose Arthur Andersen?s confidential information, she could have elected to discontinue representation of Arthur Anderson?s due to their involvement in fraud and illegal acts. Under what conditions should an employee such as Sherron Watkins blow the whistle to outside authorities? To whom did she owe loyalty? Although touted as the “Enron whistle-blower” Sherron Watkins never really blew a whistle. Whistle-blowing is the release of information by a member or past member of an organization who has evidence of illegal or immoral conduct in the organization, or conduct in the organization that is not in the public interest. Whistle-blowing reveals information that would not be ordinarily revealed in everyday context. In almost every case whistle-blowing involves an actual or at least a declared intention to prevent something bad that would otherwise occur (Beauchamp, Bowie,The Sarbanes Oxley Act Dealt With Four Major Issues Accounting Essay
Table of Contents Introduction Theoretical Approaches to cross-cultural marketing The Impact of culture on the marketing Elements Product Promotion Conclusion Reference List Introduction Businesses face various challenges and one among them is cultural differences in markets. Consumers from different cultures differ in the way they think and behave. Increased competition in the local markets has also forced businesses to venture into new markets that have different characteristics from the ones they have been serving. This has brought about the need of developing new approaches that will enable the firms sell effectively to different cultures in the new markets. Much of marketing has focused on values of different cultures and effect of those cultural values on the objectives of the firm. Previous researches show that cultures affect customer’s expectations, evaluation and reaction to goods and services. Some organizations have been successful in using the cultural differences as opportunities, while some have made mistakes in trying to sell to different cultures (Doole

TATA Consultancy Services (TCS): Organisation Culture

Understanding an organization’s culture from an employee as well as management point of view is as important as understanding one’s own job profile and responsibilities to perform well in any structural setup. Given the continuously changing environment, employee insights on his or her work culture is very important for an organization to best define and upgrade its role and objectives. To call for successful implementation of these objectives, it is pertinent to emphasize the importance of culture in motivating and maximizing the value of its human and intellectual assets. Organizational culture can be defined as the pattern of shared values, beliefs, and assumptions considered being the appropriate way to think and act within an organization. Seven key characteristics of what the organization values capture the essence of culture: (1) Innovation and risk taking, (2) Attention to detail, (3) Outcome orientation, (4) People orientation, (5) Team orientation, (6) Aggressiveness, and (7) Stability. Organization TATA Consultancy Services (TCS) Culture of TCS relevant from the employees’ perspective: The Culture of TCS is observed to be highly ethical as is the case with most TATA Group Companies. The culture according to the various interviews was found to be highly networked although the job responsibilities and positions of employees were clearly defined. This helped the employees settle down in the organization quickly and effectively along with giving providing them the autonomy to bring out the best in themselves due to highly networked nature of the environment. This is well exemplified by the fact that even the CEO of the company is addressed by his first name. The culture of TCS is also the one that supports growth and learning by providing and facilitating platforms for individuals to innovate and experiment even if that is not a direct requirement of their project. One of the most striking feature of this company is that employees are referred to as associates and not ’employees’. This reflects the pride the company wants to experience in being ‘associated’ with the concerned individuals and holds them as important and superior as the company itself. However since TCS is huge organization with approximately 170,000 employees, many-a-times underutilization of human resources is observed before the project allocation. Hence periods of inactivity is observed in such cases. The size of the company and it’s well defined hierarchy is centralized at higher management level and localized at domain or vertical level. The company is also studied to be too customer driven even when it’s not a part of the customer requirement or specification. TCS overall is an employee driven company, The Company provides the best in the class facilities to work and learn. TCS has a separate learning and development cell, which encourages the associates (yes the employees are called associates) to learn and develop their technical, managerial, interpersonal communication and other skills. The company provides a good mix of talent and challenging work which appeals to the associates. In the interviews, we didn’t find one thing that was low on culture practices at TCS. The employees are well paid, well satisfied and love the culture. The company has the lowest attrition ration of 9% for the last 4 quarters is a proof of the culture that prevails there. Apart from the learning and growth prospects, TCS also provides timely work review, assessments, various bonuses, leaves and also growth opportunities. The boundary of management and associates is low and the management is easily assessable. The level of respect for every employee is very high and is maintained with the high to low management and associates. Interview Guidelines:- The interviews should be conducted along different levels of hierarchy. The interviews should be conducted from equal participants from male/female employees The interviews should be conducted in such a way that there should be equal participation from both the fresher’s and experienced. Avoid conducting the interviews during peak working hours, to avoid any responses based on immediate happenings. Try and accommodate the interview on different days of the week and at different timings. Interview Transcripts Participant: Vanshika Shrivastva Designation: Asst. System Engg. Working with TCS for: 2 Yrs Q: How do you define the work culture at TCS? R: The work culture at TCS is bifurcated in two aspects; there is the organization work culture which follows the Tata Group ethics and beliefs, good learning atmosphere and also a healthy place to work at. The other is the project specific work culture, as there are different client, the project culture varies according to the client and the work needs. But the overall culture is filled with learning and growth option. Q: Can you elaborate with examples what are the learning and growth examples provided to you by TCS? R: TCS has the work evaluation process twice a year, once for the appraisal and once for the review, which helps employees assess their working capabilities, There are timely seminars, webinars, trainings, workshops and other such events to promote learning. TCS also encourages its employees for continuous learning and certification drives to promote a more competitive and better working atmosphere. Q: Are there any specific training program or department taking care of these? R: Yes, there are various training programs available for the associates; we have a learning and Development cell which conducts trainings across various technological platforms, also around better working skills, communications skills, managerial skills, work life balance etc. Plus apart from this, the HR department of every project keeps a fun@work event once every month to promote a healthy working culture. Q: What are the most striking features you find in the workplace at TCS? R: TCS is my first organisation and I don’t have any plans to change it in the near future. This is basically for the ethics and culture of work that we find with the company. We do not call anyone sir/mam even the CEO is called by the first name. Also TCS does not call its employees as employees they call us associates. Plus the timely review process at various levels, the apt compensation and the services at the disposal are really good at TCS. Q: What is the hierarchy like at TCS, in terms of working? R: The hierarchy is very well defined at this organisation. Apart from the technical associates like me, there are managerial hierarchies. I report to my team lead, he reports to the project lead, the project lead reports to the project manager and the project manager reports to the group manager. But the best part is, all the managers for the project/domain are present at the same location and are accessible to everyone. So the hierarchy is put across well and is also easily accessible. Participant: Ashish Rustagi Designation: IT Analyst Working with TCS for past: 4 yrs (onsite at US for past 1 yr) Q: How do you like the work culture at TCS? R: TCS is my second employer, I found the work atmosphere here challenging and refreshing at the same time. Q: How would you rate the work ethics at TCS? R: TCS is very high on work ethics, like any other Tata group company. Q: Throw some light on your relation with peers, seniors and juniors. R: At TCS there are no seniors, juniors when it comes to work, everyone is asked to make a contribution to every work, the team work is the driving force here. A team comprises of a good mix of people. So it’s always challenging and fun as I mentioned. Q: How does TCS help you shape your career? R: TCS provides you immense opportunities to learn and develop your skills. As TCS serves a number of varied clients, so learning in every field is encouraged. The managers are given some technical training so that they can understand the associates better and the associates are given managerial training to maintain small management at work. Q: How do you find TCS in providing learning and development opportunities? R: TCS has a rich culture with learning, the learning and development cell has their weekly and monthly trainings. These trainings are conducted by industry specialist and sometime in house faculty. Even the initial learning program was a fantastic builder for confidence and learning platforms. Q: How does the organisation looks towards the employees? R: TCS believes that their best assets are their employees; Employees are given all sought of comforts to help them shape their future and also help the organisation grow. With good services, Timely appraisals, proper work review, other team building activities makes you come to office with a smile. Q: What is your take on the overall organisational structure at TCS? R: TCS is divided into various segments, with multinational presence the company is divided into service segments called verticals. Apart from this, the various departments work hand in hand and with strength of over 170,000 associates is still one of the best places to work. Participant: Siddharth Khetawat Designation: Associate Consultant Worked with TCS for: 6 yrs (recently left TCS) Q: Why did you leave TCS? R: TCS was the first company I worked for; I had to move on to higher studies. Q: Do you have plans to get back to TCS after your studies? R: I would love to do that, if I get an opportunity. Q: How did you find the culture at TCS? R: TCS game me the perfect ground to work and provided great facilities to sharpen my skills. The infrastructure was well established, and it always felt good when you know everything is in place where you work. Q: How was the management at TCS? R: The management was very well established at TCS, they had a clear goal and mission stated and in my 6 years I learned that the long term plans were very well implemented. Q: Do you have anything that you thought was lacking at TCS culture? R: It’s like answering one of the things for apple; you never know what you need till the time they give it to you. Same is the case with TCS, I always thought TCS gave the best work place for associates, Till they included the quarterly appraisal and reviews, then I thought it’s the best possible thing, till they gave the TCS social service Maitri wing. Finally even before leaving, TCS gave me an opportunity to sign a 6 months working deal and sponsor me a big amount of money for my education. It’s a great place to work and I am glad I was associated with them Q: Did TCS provide sufficient learning grounds? R: Indeed, TCS gave a great variety of learning platforms. I did 4 certifications from TCS including an auditor’s certificate for 6 sigma. Now being an engg. Where can I get such an opportunity? It just reflects the amount of diversity TCS offers someone who is willing to learn. Participant: Ragini Mishra Designation: Group Lead (BFS2.2 domain) Worked with TCS for: Past 14 yrs Q: Such a long time with TCS? R: I worked initially for 6 years with TCS, when I was posted in London for the project. The client that I was working for gave me an offer and looking at the better prospects then I decided to join. But only 18 months into the job I realised that the money might be better but the culture was something that was not what I was used to. So I came back to TCS and since then have been climbing up the ladder. Q: You started your career at TCS as asst. System engg trainee. And now a group lead.. So from technology to management . How was the journey? R: Firstly the journey still continues, I joined TCS as a programmer like everyone else. Then climbing the ladder was easy. As TCS gives opportunities to learn and do everything that one wishes, I was inclined towards management, so after a few years as a technical associate I walked up to my manager and asked told him about it. He advised me to take up the training sessions from the L

Marketing Myopia Essay (Article)

research paper help Marketing myopia refers to an insular approach to marketing where the focus is mainly on short term goals or when marketing systems focus on one aspect of marketing while ignoring others (Mercer 189). For an organization to achieve long term success, it is must focus on marketing the customer needs rather than selling its products. This connotes ignoring sales. The sales function is different from marketing because marketing involves the whole process of customer satisfaction as opposed to selling which centers on ways to get people to buy products or services without regard for their value to the customer (190). Levitt suggested that management has played a key role in the growth decline of industries that were once booming (45). For example the business decline in the railroad companies was primarily due to poor marketing strategies and not because of the new entrants in competing sectors such as the buses. Managers were narrow-minded as they did not focus on the entire transport industry. Nylon and Glass companies were able to sustain their position in the market even as competitors entered the industry because they focused on the customers needs. Levitt asserts that it had nothing to do with research and development or their technical knowledge (45). Other companies that have maintained their growth profile through customer satisfaction are: Aluminum industry, supermarkets, grocery industry etc. (Levitt 46). Levitt referred to a casual survey carried out targeting business executives on their view concerning growth in industries (49). The result showed that fifty percent of them indicated that companies that maintained the growth patterns capitalized on growth opportunities while those that take a ride on growth escalators eventually ended up in stagnation. Levitt argued that every declining industry that once soared at the top is assumed to be operating under these conditions: the belief that growth is guaranteed by targeting more affluent clientele and that there are no substitutes for the major products offered by the companies. Relying on mass production and the advantages of rapidly reducing costs as output rises and low manufacturing and operational costs were also disadvantageous to an organization (49). According to Levitt, one of the main contributors to industry decline is mass production (52). Companies that focus on cutting costs by massive production often ignore the customers’ needs. Companies should understand that marketing efforts are a necessity for the product to sell since the profits are not solely on low costs of production but also on the volume of sales (47). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After manufacturing, effective marketing should be considered and this includes how, when, and in what form and condition the product or service is availed to the customer. Marketing research should therefore be geared towards consumer’s wants not on product attributes that are deemed profitable for the firm. Although the paper by Levitt has merit, other facets of strategy should not be ignored. The type of strategy adopted by an organization grossly depends on the market environment that it is in. Continuing with a specific marketing approach may actually be beneficial to a business up to a certain point. Developing products or services that fit the customers’ requirements is not profitable for an organization if they are not sold (Mercer 401). The role of the sales function in an organization should not be down played. The success of a firm requires a substantial amount of market intelligence; therefore Levitt should have discussed the issue of marketing myopia in light of this. Works Cited Levitt, Theodore. “Marketing Myopia.” Harvard Business Review, Jul/Aug 1960: 45-56. Print. Mercer, David. Marketing. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 1996. Print.

Religious Studies homework help

Religious Studies homework help. This is an assignment that focuses on the description of a job whose work efforts are not compensated. The paper also discusses the importance of evaluating processes within an organization.,The description of a job whose work efforts are not compensated,J‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍ust answer each question. Each response has to be 140+ word count and have 1 APA reference for each question.,1. Firstly, discuss one job or field (e.g., sanitation workers, education, etc.) that you feel is not adequately compensated for their work efforts. Provide an explanation for your response. Support your response with an APA cited reference(s).,2. Secondly, if you were starting a new job, would you want to be paid at the top of your pay range or in the middle? What are the advantages and disadvantages to both? Provide an explanation for your response. Support your response with an APA cited reference(s).,3. Thirdly, discuss why it is important to evaluate processes within an organization using ,flowcharting, and performance metrics.,4. Fourthly, differentiate between the following common flowchart symbols (square, diamond, inverted triang‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍le circle, and arrow) and give an example of each.,5. Discuss how your personal core competencies help you create value for the business where you work, your life, your school, or your family. What can you do to expand or improve your core competencies?,6. Also, discuss the key factors that impact location decisions. As an example, if locating a facility in India, what location decisions would a fast-food chain have to consider as compared to the location decisions of a software company?,7. Then, discuss the strategic importance of layout decisions. Additionally, how important as these decisions in terms of a company’s long-term profitability goals? What are some examples?,8. Lastly, what are flow charts ? Also, what is the value of using flow charts. How do they differ from fish bone diagrams in application? ( This question only needs 75+ word cou‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍nt)Religious Studies homework help

Ethnic Stereotype And Prejudice Sociology Essay

Introduction In this assignment, we will first discuss about the differences between ethnicity and race, as well as between stereotype and prejudice. It will be followed by the general applications of sociological perspectives in ethnic relations and overview of ethnic groups in Malaysia. “Social forces that brought about ethnic stereotype and prejudice in Malaysia” will be the most important section for this assignment. Lastly, we will talk about the efforts made in improving ethnic relations in Malaysia. 1.1 Ethnicity and Race Ethnicity refers to cultural factors which differentiate people by nationality, culture, ancestry, language and beliefs (Diffen LLC, 2012). The people in the same ethnic group share the same cultural practices and values that would distinct them from other ethnic groups. Cultural heritages are not inherited, but learned through the shared group history (CliffNotes.com, n.d.). On the other hand, races are supposed to be related to physical characteristics such as eye color, hair color, skin color, average height, bone structure etc. However, studies show that the scientific basis of racial genetic differences is weak except in skin color, and skin color is considered as socially significant (Diffen LLC, 2012; CliffNotes.com, n.d.). 1.2 Stereotype and Prejudice Stereotype means a preconceived perception (Ismail, Abdullah,

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