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The Role of Chemical Engineers in Combating the Effects of Climate Change

Abstract Climate change is the burning issue of this century. According to a recent major UN report, if we are to limit temperature rise to 1.5 °C and prevent the most catastrophic effects of climate change, we need to reduce global CO₂ emissions to net zero by 2050. This paper discusses 3 ways in which chemical engineers can contribute to the global combat against climate change. Two recent technological innovations in each method is put forth, and its advantages, disadvantages are discussed. Potential engineering problems and author’s opinions/viewpoints are mentioned. Introduction Chemical Engineers have always been an integral part of this society. Their roles can be highlighted throughout periods of time, and can be associated with the challenges at that period. For example in 1940 after the second industrial revolution had brought forth petroleum, electrical and steel industries, new concepts and innovations were put forth to thrive in the competition. At this time chemical reactors couldn’t be synthesized with unit operations alone, and chemical engineering brought forth the concept of transport phenomena that made them stand apart from chemists and mechanical engineers (Clive Cohen 1996). In 1950 the advancements in polymer science brought forth the age of plastics (Perkins 2003). Following suit, it only seems apt to discuss what the contribution of a Chemical Engineer can be towards the burning issue of this century, which is mitigating the impacts of Climate Change. According to a recent major UN report, if we are to limit temperature rise to 1.5 °C and prevent the most catastrophic effects of climate change, we need to reduce global CO₂ emissions to net zero by 2050(ipcc.ch). Chemical engineers have already been combating climate change in various fields such as carbon capture technology, water conservation, food sustainability, renewable energy sources, etc. However, there are always issues when it comes to major breakthroughs being commercialized. They can be in terms of cost, high energy demands or even policy issues. In this paper three of the many issues are taken, and two technological innovation of each field is analyzed, and a sustainable solution is given for overcoming the challenges they are facing. Keywords: Chemical Engineering, Climate Change, Water Conservation, Food Sustainability, Renewable Energy, Desalination, Nuclear Energy, Condensation, Biofuel Climate Change Climate Change is the defining issue of our time. From fluctuating weather patterns that threaten sustenance, to rising sea levels that escalate the risk of flooding, the impacts of climate change are global and unpredictable. Without drastic action today, adapting to these impacts in the future will be more difficult and costly. Our society will has to undergo rapid, profound changes to mitigate the effects of climate change and adapt to changes that have already started to occur. But, the climate crisis also points to the massive opportunity to create jobs in a more green economy. This is where chemical engineers have a large scope of making a meaningful changes to this society. Water conservation Although three fourths of the earth is covered in water, only one percent of it is available for use. Clean water is going to be a constant necessity for survival of all living organisms. Chemical engineers have played a major role in water purification technologies, whether it’s establishing water treatment plants in industries, or discovering new water purification technologies. There are several ways to obtain freshwater such as Reverse Osmosis, Desalination, UV purification, etc. However each method still poses its own challenges and as a chemical engineer it is important to work on sustainable solutions for each challenge. For Example, desalination is a process that takes away mineral components from saline water. It is the most popular method of obtaining freshwater. The problem is that the desalination of water requires a lot of energy to break ionic bonds, as salt dissolves easily in water. This means that desalinating water can be pretty costly. A new desalination project planned for California, called The Pipe, was introduced in 2016. It operates on solar energy and uses electromagnetic desalination to turn seawater into fresh water, filters the salty residue, and flushes it back into the Pacific Ocean. The Carnegie Perth Wave Energy Project does double duty, generating energy from the tides while simultaneously desalinating seawater. A built-in desalination system uses some of the electricity produced to create clean drinking water, and the rest of the electricity is fed back to shore and added to the grid. But the main disadvantages of desalinization are that it generates a lot of waste. In all these technological advancements the energy demand has been met with a renewable source such as solar or tidal energy, but the waste is pushed back into the ocean and in long term it will affect the salt balance. If these projects are commercialized, the amount of salt being dumped back into the ocean could cause disruptions in the ocean currents. The ecosystems will also be affected as aquatic life also has a threshold of salt water balance, beyond which it cannot survive. Opinions/Viewpoints A good alternative to this would be to make use of the chemicals present in the waste. Desalination waste generally comprises of sodium and magnesium salts. Apart from majorly contributing to production of Common Salt and Rock salt, both of these can be used to produce Caustic soda (NaOH) and Magnesium Hydroxide. The salt from ocean can also be used to produce Hydrochloric acid. All these chemicals are useful process chemicals in major industries. The only setback is the equipment cost (ion exchange resins, electrostatic precipitation equipment, etc.) and the electricity demand. The energy gap for desalination has already been bridged by both The Pipe and CPWEP. The only issue that remains is equipment cost. Although the initial investment seems high, the companies can profit off of the products that are obtained, making this not just a viable but sustainable option. In another example, a new prototype that can condense water from air, called WarkaWater was designed in 2012 by the firm Architecture and Vision. WarkaWater is a 9 m tall structure, made of materials such as bamboo and rattan. It weighs 60kg and is composed of 5 sections, assembled and installed from top down and it can be lifted and fixed to the ground by 4 men. A special fabric hanging inside is capable to collect potable water from the air by condensation and at the base there is a container. The special type of fabric that picks up the water with great efficiency is the significant technological innovation of this tool. The structures, made of bio-degradable materials are easy to clean and can be erected without mechanical tools in less than a week. (Doğuş Bodamyalızade
The age of globalization has broadened the perspectives of organization in terms of embracing diversity. Both employers and employees have been more aware of rights regarding equal opportunities and non-discriminatory acts. The United States is one country that has always advocated for equality and ideally, organizations can hire any employee that qualifies for a vacant position regardless of his or her gender, marital status, cultural background, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, etc. Even management positions are open to foreign aspirants who possess the required qualifications. However, any potential leader should be culturally competent. This means he or she is knowledgeable about cultural differences of workers and how these can affect their performance in their jobs as well as in working relationships with their colleagues. Modern human resource management has identified cultural differences to be one of the most crucial problems in organizations today due to various implications it has on work. Apart from psychological and political factors (Hofstede, 1994), it can also hinder the effective transfer of knowledge and information (Javernick-Will and Levitt, 2010), affect the development of trust amongst intercultural members and being a risk factor in the establishment of harmonious working relationships (Bu-Qammaz et al., 2009). Hence, it is necessary to keep such possible threats to harmony under control. One source of potential conflict in corporate management is the issue of religious diversity. Von Bergen (2008) explains that religion has become more expressed at work as more people believe in God or a supreme being that helps them find more meaning in their lives. Beliefs and practices for religion may be lived out through various acts such as how one’s manner of dressing or presentation of himself to the world, recruiting others to join them in their faith, observing religious traditions and holidays and advocating or preaching against certain principles, among others. Since religious diversity is one aspect of an inclusive workplace, more organizations have become tolerant of employees who openly express their faith. However, such expressions and religious differences among workers may provide grounds for disagreement, conflicts or even harassment (Von Bergen, 2008). Managers should be aware of these challenges and know that religious diversity can also be a factor in causing divisiveness and discrimination if potential problems are not addressed in a respectful and reasonable manner. An example that can test a manager’s support of religious diversity is when employees are expected to report to work on days of religious significance to them like Good Friday for Catholics, or Jewish or Muslim holidays. The employee may request to be excused from work on those days in order to observe his religious traditions. At least two conflicts may arise from this. One is that if the employee is allowed, it may set a precedent to other employees who may exploit the benefit and even for non-religious reasons. The other is that if the employee is not allowed, he might take it against the management for not respecting his right to practice his religion and accuse management of religious discrimination. What is a manager to do? Federal anti-discrimination law, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, rules against discrimination of employees based on their religion. Employers are required to “reasonably accommodate” their employees’ “sincerely held” religious practices unless such practice would result in “undue hardship” on the company or infringe on co-workers’ or customer’s rights (HR Specialist.com, 2013). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This implies that managers should determine if the worker’s request not to report on days of religious significance to him would affect the company’s productivity standards and process schedules, safety considerations, effect on other employees such as lowered employee morale or perception of unequal treatment (Aron vs. Quest Diagnostics, 2006); collective bargaining agreements; and customer relations issues (Von Bergen, 2008). The manager should not outright reject the worker’s request but show consideration on reasonable grounds. If there is no undue hardship caused, then the employee’s request may be approved. However, if it affects any of the aforementioned considerations, then both the manager and worker can compromise on an accommodation that meets both their needs and goals. In this way, the worker is assured that the manager is exerting best effort in understanding his situation in good faith at the same time, the manager is not compromising the company’s interests. This action alone can also resolve the other conflict of other employees using such excuse to also not report for work. They would realize that the manager is not arbitrarily making decisions but is following certain protocols in considering such requests, with the requesting employee showing sincerity in his intentions. In the spirit of equal opportunities and fairness, such action shall go for all other employees. With reference to the case provided, the foreign manager hired to oversee employees in an increasingly multicultural organization such as a large company in the United States, is recommended to develop Cultural Intelligence (CQ). This is one skill that emphasizes the capacity to grasp, reason and behave effectively in certain situations wherein cultural diversity takes place (Schmidt

Business Issues and the Contexts of Human Resources

Business Issues and the Contexts of Human Resources.

hi there .. I need your help to write academic papers to pass CIPD LVL5of 3,900 words and consider writing the following: 1. The reference number at leas tis 10 ( doesn’t count in words ) / appendix if any 2. please avoid plagiarism and attached report clarify the percentage not to exceed 13 or 11%. 3.In the INTERMEDIATE ASSESSMENT sheet, the specifications and information( guidance ) to be written on should be taken into account in the Comments column in addition take into account the Assessment brief / activity in the required order for more explanation 4. At the end of the paper, I hope to write reflected statement about this course about 260 words they will not included in word count in research paper . 5. SWOT analysis is not allow to use it as written in ( evidence to be consider in CIPD assessment Activity ) 6.use charts for explanation but words are don’t count . &. Any work of paper instance is considered null as attached ( form , 5CHR prompt sheet ( for better explanation ) , links for resources ,7. take consider with every comments or guidance & 5CHR sample i’ll attache coz i reach maximum of uploading files CIPD to watch Videos to explain assignments https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1WPD2837Ngy… resources for CHR https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1hECyRWgUT9… to see presentation title ( 5CHR JA 10.07.20 )i couldn’t drag it for big size https://drive.google.com/drive/search?q=JA%E2%80%8B
Business Issues and the Contexts of Human Resources

A Study On Becks Theory Psychology Essay

cheap assignment writing service A Study On Becks Theory Psychology Essay. Beck’s theory states that Individuals with dysfunctional attitudes are likely to show increases in depressed mood following the occurrence of negative events. From the cognitive perspective, we can say that depression is caused by one’s thinking. Someone with dysfunctional attitudes tends to think negatively toward themselves. When a negative event occurs which relates to that person, it triggers the negative thoughts over and over again which can lead to depression. Beck believed that the cognitive symptoms of depression actually precede the affective and mood symptoms of depression, rather than vice versa. Beck’s main argument was that depression was instituted by one’s view of oneself, instead of one having a negative view of oneself due to depression. For example, Abela and D’Alessandro’s (2002) found that the student’s negative views about their future strongly controlled the interaction between dysfunctional attitudes and the increase in depressed mood. The research clearly backed up Beck’s claim that those at risk for depression due to dysfunctional attitudes who did not get into their college of choice then doubted their futures, and these thoughts lead to symptoms of depression. The other cause of depression would be a person’s interpersonal relationship with their surroundings and the people around them. Hammen and Brennan (2001) found that 13% of the sons and 23.6 % of the daughters who were depressed had depressed mothers as compared to 3.9% of the sons and 15.9% of the daughters who were depressed lacked a depressed mother. From the social perspective, we see that the child becomes depressed because of the interpersonal relationship with his or her mother which shows how the social environment around someone can influence the behaviour or thinking of the person. The depressed adolescents of depressed mothers were also more likely to evidence dysfunctional cognitions about their social selves and worlds. (HammenA Study On Becks Theory Psychology Essay

Aesthetics Videos Questions

Aesthetics Videos Questions.

Assignment Criteria: Write a paragraph formatted response to the following prompts… [Please do not include prompts in your submitted work.]For this assignment, rather than participating in a class discussion, you will write a 600 word response to the following prompts. Please remember to incorporate knowledge, vocabulary and evidence from this week’s AND last week’s content to support your own original ideas. YOUR RESPONSE MUST BE IN formal English, with a clear and logical presentation of ideas, citation of any quotes, ideas, images or videos borrowed from other sources than yourself. The majority of this writing should be your own, not copied/pasted quotes info from lecture content and the internet.__Take a look at the three videos in this week’s “Aesthetics” tab:1. How are each of the choreographers utilizing the five core elements of dance (body, space, time, energy, and relationship) to express themes and ideas when partnering movement with Stravinsky’s score? Please identify each section you mention with a timestamp (2:24-2:34, for example).__2. What is important to each of these choreographers in terms of movement? Do you feel a choreographer is exploring certain elements more than others? Explain by describing your ideas and giving evidence of specific examples (via timestamps) to support your statements.__3. How does each choreographer use the music?__4. How do the different choices made by each choreographer impact your viewing experience? Give at least three examples of ways in which the choreographer used body, space, time, energy and relationship in ways you found particularly compelling or intriguing. What surprised you?Three videos: https://youtu.be/C_7ndqgwxcMhttps://youtu.be/KXVuVQuMvgAhttps://youtu.be/8xTlzAN13SA
Aesthetics Videos Questions

Contributions of Charles Darwin to Science

Contributions of Charles Darwin to Science. Title: The contribution to science by a scientist of your choice. 3000 words This paper discusses the contribution to science made by the English scientist Charles Darwin, (1809-1882), author of The Origin of Species (1859), the originator of the Theory of Natural Selection or Evolution. It examines the manner in which the work of Darwin could be related into the existing science curriculum, considering his work as an exemplar of the scientific method. It also sets out to relate the scientific discoveries and principles involved to other aspects of the school curriculum, especially in the area of citizenship. The contentious nature of Darwin’s ‘discovery’ in his own time illustrates the fact that there is a common interest in the discipline: we are, in a sense, stakeholders in scientific facts and methods, since they help to determine the shape of our daily lives. As the House of Lords points out, ‘….this is not confined to scientists; it extends to those who make policy, whether public or commercial, on the basis of scientific opportunities and advice. Policy-makers will find it hard to win public support….on any issue with a science component, unless the public’s attitudes and values are recognised, respected and weighed in the balance along with the scientific and other factors.’ (House of Lords, 2000, para 2.66). Despite its age, Darwin’s theory continues to be debated, and can inform us about the importance of observational skills and scientific integrity. It also provides precedents for the way science and society interact, which may be useful in our society. As the Royal Society observes, ‘It is thus not trust in science per se which is of concern but the speed of scientific and technological development, the uses to which science is put, and the ability of regulatory and institutional structures to keep pace with this change.’ (Royal Society, 2004, p.13). Darwin’s work brought him notoriety, but also controversy and personal vitriol. (See illustrations). This is where the link between science and citizenship can be made. How does this contribution map to the science curriculum? As a 2002 Report by House of Lords acknowledges, ‘The foundations of an interest in science are laid at primary school, between the ages of 5 and 11.’ (House of Lords, para. 6.3) The principle benefit which could be obtained through the work of Darwin is a general accessibility, which would itself enable learners to engage with the curriculum. As Meadows points out, ‘Much of cognition and learning depends on identifying the relevant knowledge that the learner already has in existing memory so that this knowledge can be used as a starting point for learning what is new. Having no starting point…will hamper learning and reasoning…’ (Meadows, 2006: p.112). A variety of authorities and analysts have noted there that are continuing conceptual problems in the way learners, and the wider community engage with science. These are attributable to a variety of factors. Qualitative (i.e. phenomenological) research commissioned jointly by the DTI and the Wellcome Trust revealed public support for the idea that ‘Science makes our lives change too fast.’ (Wellcome Trust, 2000, p.23) Beyond this apparently simple picture there lay a more complex picture, with differentiated levels of understanding and interest claimed for different areas of science. Environmental concerns, health issues and medial discoveries held the greatest interest for 82-91 per cent of respondents, whilst new technology was considered more interesting by 74 per cent. Only 48 per cent of those questioned claimed that energy issues were the most significant for them. (Wellcome Trust 2000: p.21) The same research also discovered that it was possible to categorise respondents into different groups, determined by their interest in science, and the degree of trust they felt in science and scientists. Correspondingly, subjects characterised themselves as ‘confident believers’ at the end of the continuum most engaged with science, to ‘supporters’ half way along the scale, right down to those who stated that science was ‘not for them’. (Wellcome 2000: pp.5-7) Correspondingly, there are several overlapping benefits which could be obtained through an expanded use of Darwin’s work. Firstly, an enhanced understanding of scientific method, secondly, an improved awareness of the operation of natural laws, and thirdly, the means by which research results are validated, interpreted and shared. The benefits of this could start to be felt even at the Primary phase, as Peacock et.al. argue, ‘Primary science is perhaps best regarded…as an intellectual, practical, creative and social endeavour which seeks to help children to better understand and make sense of the world in which they live…(and)…should involve children in thinking and working in particular ways in the pursuit of reliable knowledge.’ ( Peacock et al., 2007: p.1). It is in this way that a rigorous interpretation of the general principles established by Darwin might be very beneficial, in overturning and challenging pre-conceived ideas about identity and value, such as those often attributed to the so-called ‘hidden curriculum.’ As Bishop and Simpson point out, ‘The pressures of the hidden curriculum are also present with regard to structure. The children themselves can be very forceful in structuring science activities with preconceived social frameworks.’ (Bishop and Simpson, 1995: p.7). In thematic terms, Darwin’s work is thoroughly supportive of the Knowledge, Skills and Understanding element of the science curriculum, i.e. , Ideas and evidence in Science, Investigative Skills, and subsidiary disciplines such as planning and presenting evidence. By the time students reach Key Stage 3, these skills are being further developed under the headings of Practical and Enquiry Skills, Critical Understanding of Evidence, and Communication. In practical terms, principles developed from Darwin’s theory could be incorporated into the science curriculum as early as unit 1A, Ourselves, and then continued on through key Stage 2 in Life Processes and Living Things. Within the latter, it would be important to focus on sub-unit 4, Variation and Classification, and 5, Living Things in Their Environment, noting how living organisms vary and change according to their context. This theme could be carried on developmentally in the context of Key Stage Three, which incorporates two highly relevant modules, Organisms, Behaviour and Health, and The Environment, Earth and Universe. Moving away from the formal curriculum, Darwin’s theory could help by developing the foundations of causal reasoning and also problem solving, contributing to a general improvement in science standards overall, across all units of study. How does the work of the scientist demonstrate the scientific method, or is it a counter example? From an educational and scientific perspective, Darwin’s work is interesting because it is based extensively on observation and deduction, rather than extensive or repeatable physical experimentation. Because of the enormous timescales involved in the evolutionary processes which preoccupied Darwin, it is in effect, impossible to prove, in absolute terms, whether the theory is correct or not. The theory still has its detractors, and direct opponents, who object to it on ideological or theological grounds. Despite this however, it has become a generally accepted scientific principle. Darwin’s work is therefore, in one sense, the purest expression of the scientific method, especially since it was formulated in a vacuum of worthwhile antecedents, and an atmosphere of considerable ideological opposition. The only possible way in which his work might be deemed a ‘counter example’ is the manner in which it ran directly contrary to much mainstream scientific thinking amongst his contemporaries. However, it definitely was a discovery made because of – rather than in spite of – scientific method. Essentially, what Darwin did was to propose an interpretation of events, extrapolated from a vast amount of biological and geological evidence: he then formulated a specific interpretation of causality which, in his analysis, had only one possible scientific outcome. It is this kind of observational model, based on causality, which can tap into the learner’s innate cognitive ability, even from the youngest age. As Meadows observes of children’s interpretative perception, ‘…By the beginning of school years, it follows basic causal principles, for example that causes precede effects rather than following effects, that they covary with their effects – the effect regularly and predictably appears after the cause and does not appear without it, and the cause and effect are close, or at least linked, in time and space.’. (Meadows, 2006: p.109) How can the work being discussed be used to address citizenship issues in schools? As Rose and Rose indicate, it has always been possible to take the view that, ‘…science appears to advance in a more or less ordered manner, irrespective of the prevailing social environment in which it is performed.’ (Rose and Rose, 1970, p.241) The power of Darwin’s work lays in its ability to bridge the gap between science and the community, and it is here that his relevance to issues of citizenship may be found. Darwin’s contribution to science as mirrored to a great extent by the way his work reinforced other areas of academic, philosophical and social study: all of this makes it directly relevant to citizenship issues. As Wallace points out, ‘A reading of the Origin…make it difficult to assert that Darwin’s mind was ‘devoid’ of economic and philosophy. A more sustainable conclusion is that it was permeated by principles of political economy and philosophy in the form of a language which did not differentiate between the political and the biological.’ (Wallace 1995: p.11) In other words, Darwin’s work was implicitly bound up with the values of his host society: it is this which makes it an ideal link between science and citizenship. The only contrast is that we move from a Victorian context, to a present day one. This, it may be argued, has potential benefits for science, education, and society alike. As the Royal Society concluded with regard to the current science curriculum, ‘…many students lacked enthusiasm for…. the subject, and felt frustrated by a content-heavy curriculum which gave them little room to explore controversial and ethical issues that might interest them.’ (Royal Society, 2004, p.21 ) Darwin’s work, it may be argued, is perfectly adapted to facilitate the latter: it is not remote, or obscure, and on certain levels it is highly accessible. The links between science and citizenship manifest themselves in various ways. Firstly, there is the whole issue of public understanding of, and trust in science. As Meadows points out, ‘…understanding cause builds up into what has been called a ‘naïve physics’, a coherent set of notions about how objects behave; if this gives rise to the formation and testing of hypotheses by observation and experiment, it becomes the basis for a physics which is scientific rather than naïve.’ (Meadows, 2006: p.109). Darwin’s work teaches us that it is not only the observation of a phenomena, but the cultural capacity to assimilate its meaning, which is important. Scientific matters are not the discrete concern of the scientific community itself, but spill over into the political sphere and eventually concern us all. This is especially true when ethical issues become involved, as they increasingly tend to do in the biological and life-sciences, affecting everything from the air we breathe, the food we eat, the health treatment we can expect, and even the degree of control we might have in determining the health, gender, and character of our children. The important point here is that attitudes vary, from a profound mistrust, to an almost myopic faith in science. As the House of Lords observed, neither position is entirely valid, a situation it attributes sqaurely to schools. ‘In common parlance, “scientific” is almost synonymous with “certain”. This perception, which is probably picked up at school, is virtually true of much old and well-established scientific knowledge. In many of the areas of current concern, from climate change to cancer, it is however very wide of the mark.’ (House of Lords, 2000, para. 4.1) It is not the fallibility of science which is useful from a citizenship point of view, but rather the necessity of maintaining an open mind and capacity for objective debate. It is also important to remember that we all share a collective responsibility for the way that society is conducted, and the manner in which scientific affair are run on our behalf. Again, this is not a remote or academic debate, and at its most intense, can demonstrate the relevance of scientific method in our everyday lives. As the Royal Society points out, contemporary crises such as that created by BSE illustrates this. ‘… BSE highlighted profound concerns about the science advice process and the role of scientists and government officials, the effectiveness policy making and action within departments such as the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the ability of Ministers to both gauge and communicate risk effectively, and fundamentally the relationship between science and politics.’ (Royal Society, 2004, p.17) If we take the Key Stage Three Citizenship curriculum as an example, the continued relevance of Darwin’s ideas becomes apparent. In the sphere of political, legal and human rights, we must take account of the DFES guidance that every child is ‘…A unique child….every child is a competent learner from birth who can be resilient, capable, confident and self assured.’ (DFES, 2007: p.5). The essence of Darwin’s thought is that all people are descended from the same ultimate source, and therefore equality before the law, and of political rights, is a prerequisite of an equitable society and civil polity. This in turn leads into the principles of democracy and the idea everyone should have a voice in determining the legislative conduct of government. The importance of maintaining freedom of speech and allowing a diversity of views are also essential to the principles of citizenship as enshrined in the curriculum. It is important to remember that, without these facilities, Darwin’s scientific ideas might never have received public attention. In Section 2, Key Processes, the KS3 Citizenship curriculum requires that learners ‘…engage with and reflect on different ideas, opinions, beliefs and values when exploring topical and controversial issues and problems.’ (QCA 2007: p.30). Darwin knew that publishing his ideas about evolution in Victorian society would draw fierce opposition from many quarters, because of its dissonance with biblical teachings about the Creation. This opposition was likely to be immovable and resistant to logic: As Hull points out, those ‘…who rejected evolutionary theory primarily for theological reasons…would not have been able to accept it even if all the evidence had been overwhelmingly in its favour – which it was not.’ (Hull 1974: p.450). Similarly, his right to debate his theories with opponents and critics formed an important part of the way in which he fundamentally changed attitudes, way beyond the purely scientific sphere. As Darwin himself wrote of one of his counter-theorists, ‘He will be dead against me, as you prophesied…but he is generously civil to me personally. On his standard of proof, natural science would never progress, for without the making of theories I am convinced there would be no observation.’ (Hull 1974: p.229). As can be seen from this, it should be possible, in a tolerant and progressive society, to express and discuss opposed views in a reasonable way: the freedom to do this, and determination to protect such freedoms, are important tenets of contemporary citizenship. As the Key Stage Three citizenship curriculum puts it, responsible citizens should be able to ‘…communicate an argument, taking account of different viewpoints and drawing on what they have learnt through research, action and debate…justify their argument, giving reasons to try to persuade others to think again, change or support them.’ (QCA 2007: p.30). In contemporary UK society, responsible citizenship also requires us to understand diversity of cultures and identities, and that movement of people, either temporarily or permanently, is an intrinsic feature of our society and economy. This is fully reflected in the citizenship curriculum, which states that learners should recognise …the hanging nature of UK society, including the diversity of ideas, beliefs, cultures, identities, traditions, perspectives and values that are shared.’ (QCA 2007: p.33) Darwin’s theory of natural selection is supportive of such perspectives in a variety of ways. By teaching us that we all have common origins, his thinking undermines any ideas of intrinsic racial difference, or any barriers erected around such ideas. Since we all developed from the same biological source, there can be no justification for valuing any individual differently: in other words, concepts of ‘biological determinism’ are invalidated. Moreover, any attempt to do so can, by Darwin’s teaching, at once be revealed as arbitrary, subjective and unscientific. There are obvious cross-curricular links to be made here, both historically and in terms of contemporary societies, where such conditions still endure. Children are natural observers of the phenomenon around them, and Darwin’s ideas are profoundly supportive of this. Meadows points out that children ‘…appear to draw inferences about the causes of events they see, to discriminate between self-caused and other-caused movement, to categorize living things that are agents as different from inanimate objects.’ (Meadows, 2006: p.109). Being citizens also accrues us the responsibility to change things for the better: correspondingly, although we have rights in society, we have a duty to ensure that such rights are exercised responsibly, without impinging on the rights of others. Darwin’s theory also taught us that we are, as social actors, entirely interdependent upon each other. Bibliography Amigon, D., and Wallace, J., (1995), Charles Darwin’s the Origin of Species: new Interdisciplinary essays. : Manchester University Press, Manchester. Anderson, R.D., (1992), Universities and Elites in Britain since 1800, MacMillan, Basingstoke. Bishop, A., and Simpson, R., (1995), Strategies for Structured Play in Science in the Nursery’, Primary Teaching Studies, Autumn, Vol.9, No.3, pp.5-8. Burgess, R.G., (1989), The Ethics of Educational Research, Falmer Press, Lewes. The Children’s Plan: Building Brighter Futures, (2007), Department for Children, Schools and Families. HMSO, London. DeFalco, J., ‘Trade-Offs, Risks and Regulations in Science and Technology: Implications for STS Education.’, in Kamur, D.D., and Chubin, D.E., (eds), (2000), Science, Technologyand Society: A Sourcebook on Research and Practice, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. 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