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The role language plays in teaching and learning

The role that language plays in the teaching and learning of mathematics is one of some of the important debates in the current literature in mathematics education. In this chapter, I review literatures related to this study, giving particular attention to the manner in which teachers engage students in the exploration of mathematical concepts and procedures, in order to explore different and existing kinds of patterns of interaction observed in multilingual mathematics classroom in South Africa. Aspects reviewed include the following sub-headings: Linguistic situation in South Africa; Teaching and learning mathematics in multilingual classrooms in South Africa; Does language impact teaching and learning of mathematics? And the role of the teacher and Learner participation in classroom discourse. LITERATURE REVIEW Linguistic situation in South Africa Post-apartheid South Africa’s new constitution of 1993/1996 embraced language as a human right and multilingualism as a national resource, raising major African languages to national official status alongside, English and Afrikaans (Hornberger
Earth Sciences homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on Opportunistic infections for neurological patients PICO topic. The paper also provides additional information to use in the assignment paper in detail.,Opportunistic infections for neurological patients PICO topic,JHNEBP Question Development Tool Assignment Step 1: PICO Topic In the acute care setting, neurological post-operation patients increasingly get opportunistic infections. The rate of catheter-urinary tract infections has increased significantly (Liang et al., 2019). The nursing unit implemented the use of an appropriate closed drainage system to limit the rate of the infections. My goal is to assess the interventions that are effective in limiting urinary tract infections in the acute care setting for neurological post-operation patients.,The patient population for this study consists of older adults aged 65 and above who have undergone ,neurological operations, and are recovering in the acute care ward. PICO Question What are the effective interventions for reducing the risk of urinary tract infections in the acute care ward compared to the adoption of an appropriate closed drainage system? Using the JHN EBP textbook (see Library Resources) as a guide, develop your professor-approved practice topic into a PICO question using the Appendix B Question Development Tool.,Use the PICO QUESTION ABOVE. I will attach the form Step 2: Complete Appendix B using your own clinical practice example. NOTE: You do NOT need to complete #10 Outcome Measurement (optional). Upload here no later than Thursday at midnight, Week two. Obtain Instructor Approval to Proceed with your Evidence-Based Practice Topic Answer all questions in the Conduct a preliminary search of the library databases using your key terms If any sections are not considered applicable to your topic clearly state [N/A] and also explain why?,Opportunistic infections for neurological patients PICO topic,Step 3: Submit your complete form for grading JHN EBP Tools Rubric. The Practice Issue is Define Check all the statements that apply 20pts Was how the practice issue identified included? Includes Problem Based Triggers and also Knowledge Based Triggers 10pts. Defines the Scope of the Problem Indicate why the project was undertaken. What led the team to seek evidence? Ensure that the problem statement defines the actual problem and does not include a solution.,Whenever possible, quantify the extent of the problem.20pts Includes ALL components of the PICO Question P. (patient, population, problem) e.g., age, sex, setting, ethnicity, condition, disease, type of patient, or population I. (intervention) e.g., treatment, medication, education, diagnostic test, or best practice(s) C (comparison with other interventions or current practice for foreground questions; is not applicable for background questions, which identify best practice) 20pts.,Includes what evidence is to answer this PICO question Using PICO components and the initial EBP question, list search terms. Document the search terms, search strategy, and also databases queried in sufficient detail for replication. 10pts Search question is summarize in clear and understandable terms Briefly states the search question according to instructions provide 20pts,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Earth Sciences homework help
current market economics of USA.

Topics: (Country, Population, Jobs via Unemployment or Employment, Housing, GDP Consumption, Exports, Imports etc.).The article must be current, (published within the past 2 months). The following is a specific breakdown of how your paper will be evaluated.Divide your paper into sections to match the evaluation scheme and use the same section headings as the ones provided below.The total text of your paper should be approximately 3-typed pages in length, double-spaced only between Sections.(I will deduct points if I observe blatant length-stretching techniques such as two-inch margins, starting half way down the first page, triple spacing, 15 point letter font, etc.)
current market economics of USA

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Brass in Ammonia. Six samples of brass were taken, stamped to induce residual stress, were then exposed ammonia and ammoniacal copper sulphate solutions of different concentrations and composition for a period of 4 days to study the corrosion characteristics of brass in ammonia. Five samples were immersed in the solution and one of the samples was suspended above solution. On visual examination of the samples revealed some corrosion products with stress corrosion cracking on the surface of brass. Microscopy analysis showed that the non-suspended sample which was exposed to ammonia vapour in presence of moisture and oxygen produced high susceptibility to SCC than immersion samples in aqueous ammonia. The cupric ion present in the solution appears as an oxidant that provides a cathodic reaction and induces stress corrosion cracking of brass in ammonia and ammoniacal solutions. INTRODUCTION: There are three factors under which stress corrosion cracking is possible a) corrosive medium/environment b) material and c) tensile stress. The corrosive medium to induce stress corrosion cracking depends on the potential, pH and temperature. The stress can be applied stress or residual stress. Stress corrosion cracking can occur in lower stress also hence it is the environment which plays a major role. Many studies carried out revealed that failures of brass occur mainly in moist conditions where ammonia, water and oxygen are present. Time of cracking depends on the pH of the solution. Dezincification of copper alloy is possible when the zinc content present is sufficient enough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the corrosion behaviour of brass in ammonia. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: Six brass samples and five test solutions were used in the experiment to study the stress-corrosion cracking of brass. The brass samples were labelled A, B, C, D, E, and F following the residual stress given to them by stamping these letters into their surfaces using drill bits. The stamp was done at one end of the samples while the unstressed part served as the control for the experiment. The solutions serving as the test environments were also labelled using the letters 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D, 4E, 4F and their compositions are shown below. Compositions and colours of test solution observed before immersion Solution Label Composition Colour observed before sample immersion A Ammonium Sulphate with copper (II): 0.5M (NH4)SO4 0.05M CuSO4 Pale blue B Ammonia solution with copper (II): 2.5M NH4OH 0.05M CuSO4 Dark blue C Mattson’s solution at pH of 7.2 Medium blue D Modified Mattson’s solution containing 5% by volume of 0.1M NaCl Medium blue E 1M Ammonia solution Colourless The labelled samples were placed in the glass jar provided and five of the test samples were filled with enough test solution (10mm) to ensure complete immersion of the sample. Excessive alteration of the concentration of the NH3 solution was avoided by covering the top of the containers. The sixth sample was suspended above solution E (1M NH3 solution) in a glass jar (4F) by means of a surgical nylon string. After sufficient exposure of the samples to the solutions for a period of four days, the samples were removed. The samples were visually examined first upon removal from the test solutions. The colours of the test solutions and corrosion products were recorded before the test samples were cleaned. The test samples were cleaned and rinsed in the pickling solution of 1M sulphuric acid solution in order to remove corrosion products formed on the surface of brass followed by rinsing with deionised water. Finally the samples were dried with tissues before being examined under an optical microscope for stress-corrosion cracking. RESULT AND DISCUSSION: Sample observation after exposure of 4 days to test solutions: Test Label Test Observation from visual examination and optical microscopy Reason 1 Brass sample immersed in solution A Solution remained pale blue. No cracks were seen.corrrosion products found. Localized Corrosion damage at the stressed area observed back of the sample Stress-corrosion cracking may occur with further exposure to the solution. 2 Brass sample immersed in solution B for 4 days Solution was darker compared to the original solution. Brass sample in tarnish condition (dark brown colouration). Crack at the stressed end. Stress-corrosion cracking of the sample. 3 Brass sample immersed in solution C No significant change in solution colour. No cracks were seen.corrrosion products found. Sample shows low possibilities to SCC 4 Brass sample immersed in solution D Dark brown corrosion products. Localized corrosion damage at the stressed end. No cracks seen. Stress-corrosion cracking may occur with further exposure to the solution. 5 Brass sample immersed in solution E Solution changed from colourless to light pale blue. Cracks seen. Colour change is likely due to formation of cupric ion, Cu2 . Stress-corrosion cracking at the stressed end. 6 Brass sample suspended above solution E Solution remained colourless. Tarnish film covering almost the entire surface. Cracks seen at stressed region Stress-corrosion cracking of the sample at the stressed end. Tarnish film likely to be cuprous oxide, Cu2O. Sample A:- A-1 A-2 Fig 1: Sample ‘A’ immersed for 4 days in solution Ammonium Sulphate with copper (II): 0.5M (NH4)SO4 0.05M CuSO4 OBSERVATION: No stress corrosion cracking observed at the stressed end of the sample Fig A-1.some corrosion product was noticed on the back side of the sample Fig A-2. Sample B:- B-1 B-2 Fig 2: Sample ‘B’ immersed for 4 days in solution Ammonia solution with copper (II): 2.5M NH4OH 0.05M CuSO4 OBSERVATION: Stress corrosion cracking observed at the stress end and near the unstressed region just near to the stressed end Fig B-1.Dark corrosion product observed on the backside of the sample Fig B-2. Nature of cracks: Intergranular Sample C:- C-1 C-2 Fig 3: Sample ‘C’ immersed for 4 days in Mattson’s solution at pH of 7.2 OBSERVATION: No cracking or any other significant changes observed in this sample after even 4 days of exposure. Only dark corrosion products were observed on the sample. Sample D:- D-1 Fig 4: Sample ‘D’ immersed for 4 days in Modified Mattson’s solution containing 5% by volume of 0.1M NaCl OBSERVATION: No cracking or any other significant changes observed in this sample after even 4 days of exposure. Only dark corrosion products were observed on the sample. Sample E:- Fig: E-1 Fig: E-2 Fig 5: Sample ‘D’ immersed for 4 days in 1M ammonia solution. OBSERVATION: Stress corrosion cracking observed at the stress end extending to the edges and Dark corrosion product observed on the backside of the sample Fig E-1 and E-2. Nature of cracks: Intergranular Sample F:- Fig: F-1 Fig: F-2 Fig 5: Sample ‘D’ suspended above in 1M ammonia solution for 4 days. OBSERVATION: Stress corrosion cracking observed at the stress end extending to the edges and Dark corrosion product observed on the backside of the sample Fig F-1 and F-2. Nature of cracks: Intergranular. From Optical microscopy analysis it is evident that sample B (Fig 2 – B1Stress Corrosion Cracking of Brass in Ammonia

An Article Review

An Article Review. I need help with a History question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Should be in strict Chicago style. The articles to be worked on are attached below.
You will write a 500-700 word analysis of ONE of the following scholarly articles.
*brief introduction to the article.Imagine a person who has not read the article and, in a couple of sentences, tell us what period/country/people/events the article discusses.
*summary of the thesis (argument, point) put forward by the author
*why is the author writing this article?How does it contribute to the larger conversation among historians about this topic?
*summary of the structure of the author’s argument.What are the parts of the article and how do they work together to build up the author’s thesis.
*an analysis of the sources of the article.What kinds of primary sources does the author use (legal documents, memoirs, newspaper articles, letters, petitions, police reports etc).How does the type of source shape the content of the article? [hint – the author may discuss his/her sources, but check the footnotes too]
*how well do you think the author argues his/her thesis?What are the strengths and weaknesses of the article?
Evaluation
I will be assessing how well you address the questions listed above, and the clarity of the organization of your ideas and of your writing.Do not use quotations to speak for you – use your own words.Be specific – use direct examples (and sometimes quotations, if helpful) from the article to illustrate and back up your points.Cite the article as the source for these examples, using the Chicago style.DO NOT use other sources.
An Article Review

Meaning Of Employee Voice Commerce Essay

online assignment help Collective voice achieves what a lone voice could never do. Collective representation is also the foundation of a partnership relationship between employers, employees and unions that bring positive benefits for the business (Prosser, 2001). Throughout the twentieth century collective bargaining was the most significant means of regularity relationships in UK between employers and employees via trade union. In continental Europe there is more emphasis on employee voice having some role in the practice of companies. As defined by Boxall and Purcell (2003):” Employee voice is the term increasingly used to cover a whole variety of process and structures which enable, and sometimes empower employees, directly and indirectly, to contribute to decision making in the firm”. This essay will be focusing on the key areas such as Meaning and Purpose of employee voice, the frame work of employee voice, mechanisms and the impact of employee voice on unionised and non-unionised organisations. Meaning of Employee Voice Voice is a term that has been more widely used in the practitioner and academic literature on Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations in recent years (Breadwell 1998, Sako1998, Benson2000: Roche, 2000). According to Hirschman’s classic study (1970) of African railways, he said that voice is an option for customers in a context of how organisations respond to decline, since then the term as been used in different applications. But Freeman and Medoff (1984) argued that it would be better for both the employer and employee to have a voice mechanism. Employee voice is said to be a two way communication process between the employer and the employee, in which the employers communicate to their employees as well as receiving or listening from the employee. Employee voice is one of the most important characteristics of employee participation. Employee voice mainly focuses on how employees can be part of decision making in the firm, which can be done through trade unions or by any other means of support. Employee Voice can be reached out by different forms of medium, but the main forms of means stated by (Millword et al.(2000)) are via trade union membership, recognition and representation, via indirect or representative participation mechanisms such as joint consultation and via direct employee involvement in the management .Freeman and Medoff( 1984) believed that trade unions were one the best means of approach for the employees to put there point across to the management as they remained independent . Purpose of Employee Voice Four main purpose of Employee voice according to Michael Armstrong (2006) First voice talks about Individual Dissatisfaction, in this type the main aim is to solve a problem or an issue with the management, like finding expression in a grievance procedure or speak up programme. The second voice talks about expression of collective organisation where voice provides a countervailing source of power to management, which is either done with the help of unionisation and collective bargaining. This can be related to Freeman and Medoff theory. The third voice is about contribution in management decision making, the main purpose is concerned with decision making which is generally regarding work organisation, quality and productivity. This view is evident in high involvement. Fourth voice is all about mutual understanding between the employees and the employer. Basically it is a form of mutuality, with partnership seen as delivering viability for the organisation and its employees. Types of Employee voice There are various forms of Employee voice. Lewin and Mitchell (1992) distinguished voice between mandated voice (e.g. co-determination and legislation) and voluntary voice (e.g. collective bargaining and grievance procedures). The framework for employee voice has been modelled by Marchinglon et al (2000) Voices can be divided into two different parts: Individual- which is purely based on employees. Collective- which is based on unions or any forms of groups. Shared and Contested Agenda- which covers four ideal types which are upward problem solving, grievance process, partnerships and collective bargaining. Organizations can see one of these dimensions, whereas organization can have more than two dimensions at the same time. This frame work of voice is more on the broader perspective and systematic. Mechanisms of Employee Voice Employee voice mechanisms can be divided into three categories: Upward Problem Solving- refers to an technique in which managers use to tap into employees ideas and opinions, either through two way communication or through any specific systems set up for the employees to express their voice, it is structured such that it can be operated directly between managers and employees rather than any employee representatives. Techniques included in upward problem solving are: -Electronic media: sharing and seeking of ideas via electronic means such as email. -Two-way communication: sharing and seeking ideas face to face between managers and staff to whom they report, e.g. By having one on one interaction or by regular meetings. -suggestion schemes: where each of the employees put their ideas and suggestion to the management, who then make sure the relevant ideas are implemented. -Attitude Survey: is basically sending out questionnaires or conducting survey to check on the level of satisfaction with a particular aspect of work or organization. -Project Teams: group of employees brought together to discuss quality of work in the organization or any issues regarding the organization. b) Representative Participation- refers to a scheme in which the employee representatives meet up with the managers on a regular basis. The main characteristic of that there is no direct involvement of the employees and their managers. Techniques used in Representative Participation are Partnership schemes, European work council, Joint consultation, and Collective Representation and Employee forum. All of these mechanisms are formal, but informal mechanisms can be very effective form of voice at small organizations. Example for informal voice is grey point, strikes and many more. c) Engagement – is a feeling on the part of the employees that are able to express their view point to the management and in return the management would will provide support to allow this to happen, so that the employees are satisfied. Union and Non-union forms of employee voice and it impact on organisational performance as a whole Lot of research and study has been conducted and different theories have been collected regarding union and non-union representation of employees. Freeman and Medoff (1984) said that unions are the key mechanisms for improving workers’ productivity, reducing economic inequality and stabilizing the work force. Whereas according to the Human Resource Management (HRM) there has been an increase attention on collective decision making, information sharing and employee participation (Benson, 2000). Unionised Employee Voice According to Boxall and Purcell (2003) in industrial relations, the main reasons for employee voice representation are collective bargaining and consultation. Freeman (1976) defined unions as the institutions of collective voice in the labour market, Freeman further stated that collective forums for employee voice is more effective as its strengthens up the worker communities and provides a direct contact between the employees and management; but Addison and Belfield’s ( 2004) argued that this union structure would create an communication gap between the workers and management because they have to deal with issues through an third party. Freeman and Medoff (1984) also stated that unions play an important role in minimising the turnover rate as they provide their employees with voice mechanisms through which they rectify work related problems and also negotiate for higher compensation package. Freeman and Medoff (1984) arguments was supported by Batt, Colvin and Keefe(2002) who also believed that employees have to be given an higher compensation than what they would earn in an non-union set up and also unions strengthens employees, by providing them voice which would help them in reducing the grievance and pay inequality. Unions not only help in strengthening the employees, but they also help employers in minimizing turnover ratio, reducing hiring and training for new employees. Pettinger (1999) states that many organisations prefer to have a unionised set-up rather than unstructured approach for employee voice recognition, as it consumes less time and energy. Freeman and Medoff further added that unions can stop the organisation from engaging themselves into an opportunistic behaviour, which could cause damage for the workers. Basically unions help the organization to take proper care of their workers concerns so they would be motivated and committed in fulfilling their job responsibilities. Unfortunately unions have a negative impact on the organisations as well. Many researchers and employers state that, one thing which hurts the business and employers badly is stoppage of work by conducting strikes for fulfilments of their demands. A recent incident can be considered as an example, which is about Royal Mail (UK).Where Communication Workers Union (CWU) went on series of strikes from July to october,2007 which was regarding increase in pay, which not only caused damage to Royal Mail but also other business. This Example gives rise to the argument that unions tend to be selfish and not consider the needs or repercussions which are going to be caused, which could affect the long-term future of the organization. Most of researchers believe that unions help in increasing workers efficiency and productivity, but Addison and Hirsch (1989)denies this statement because there is average effect of unions on employee’s productivity and efficiency is quite less, as they are located in industries with low growth rate, they further believed that unionised set-ups experience lower profit margin; there are some exceptions, where most of the Asian organisation such as Sony, Tata Motor (India) and others, have a very well established union structure and still making huge amount of profit, probability a lot more than other organizations, so the efficiency and effectiveness of unions also depends on environment of business. Non-Unionised Employee Voice Pettinger, (1999) describes non-unionised employee voice to be forms of joint consultation which includes joint consultative committees and work councils. Joint consultative committees act like a bridge in providing formal information sharing mechanisms among management and the employees. In a non-unionised employee representation joint consultation not only allows management to determine the issues in which they want employee participation to seek their opinions for better solutions, but also they retain the right to decide the final outcomes or results. Management view is taken into consideration rather than the employees as employers are the one investing money in the business and they would want the best performance, so they would be deciding rather than the employees or unions. Work council are constituted by the organisations and representatives are chosen from different departments so that employee’s views concerns can be answered. Work council provided benefits both employees and employers by providing them with improved work flow system, increasing trust and cooperation and by spreading the use of the best practice. Work councils are representatives for the entire workforce of organisation regardless of the membership. Croucher and Brewster (1998) stated that work council are more effective when compared to trade unions in dealing with issues related to work practice, this argument was further supported by Pettinger (1999) that work council acts as a forum to exchange ideas, which will encourage the employees to participate in the growth of the organisation and also give rise to flexibility in working environment, which reduced isolation between different departments in the organisation. The work council also has an negative impact on the organisation unlike the trade unions, they are created in-house and are not dependent bodies representing employees issues, due to this an additional cost has to be bared by the organisation which will be an problem for the employers( Pettinger,1999). There is a common believe that employees might not understand the strategic perspectives of the organisations as it is an in-house creation of committees, they might bog down to management pressure where they have to make difficult . Critics of work council argued that they are the employers initiated structure, based on their own terms so they cannot be effective in voicing employees concern and issues, and are likely to serve management position on certain issues (Gollan,2001). He further stated that this structure is believed to have more management supporters, so they are not fully independent of bias factors. Benefits for Employers According to the CIPD view, high performance workplace knowledge and skills are developed and better used, leading to high valve enterprise and an increasingly knowledge economy, with a greater voice for employees. The employers are benefited by employee’s skills and knowledge can be better used leading to higher productivity. Employees feel more valued, so they are more likely to stay and contribute more to the organisation. The gains a positive reputation, making it easier to recruit good employees. Conflict is reduced and co-operation between employer and employee is based on interdependence. Benefits for Employees Having more influence over the work. Higher job satisfaction. More opportunities to develop skills. More job security if their employer is more successful as a result of voice imitative. Impacts of Employee Voice Conclusion From an organization point of view it would be in the company’s best interest to involve management programmes that includes several voice mechanisms, by encouraging employees voice at the workplace through various methods , an organisation can fulfil an ethical and political need while also fortifying their bottom line by awarding high exit ration and resignation rate, It can be precisely conclude that choice of employee voice mechanisms entirely depends on the circumstances and the environment in which employees are conducting their business activities.

Email assignment.

Email assignment.. I’m studying for my Communications class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Hello,
Basically, my professor asked me for an email assignment. This assignment worth 100 point from my grade. So, it’s important anyway, she asking for a poorly written email like an email that unprofessional at all full of grammar mistake and stuff like that.
And the correct version of it. it can be an email for a college professor complaining about grades or exam.
one page the first half is the poorly written email. The second half is the write version of the email.
pleas be professional in what i’m asking for.
full page. no copy from the internet.

thanks
Email assignment.

MG 320 ASU Presentation for Budget Meeting Scenario Management Approach Discussion

MG 320 ASU Presentation for Budget Meeting Scenario Management Approach Discussion.

Please write a 100 – 150 word response to the exercise below. Answer all questions using complete sentences and remember to cite your sources in APA format.You and your teammate are working on a presentation that will be given at a budget meeting on Monday. On Thursday night, you think the project is far from complete. You’d like the presentation to be as polished as possible so you suggest to your teammate that you get together over the weekend to finish it. He says that he wants to finish the presentation by Friday because he wants to relax over the weekend. You begin to argue. You know you won’t be able to complete the presentation in one day. Identify the management approach that you would recommend and explain your selection.
MG 320 ASU Presentation for Budget Meeting Scenario Management Approach Discussion

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