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The relevance of various management theory schools of thought

This essay will identify the predominant and diverse schools of thought encapsulated within management theory and their relevance or lack thereof, or appropriateness of application within today’s organisations. Four separate methodologies shall be addressed, the classical school, the school of human relations, and both systems and contingency theory. The Classical theory of management was born of the ‘scientific age’ (Wren, 1995, p5). Taking account of this theory in the present age, a classical approach can offer structured management with purpose, drive and clear, understandable hierarchy (Cole, 2004, p4). Scientific management, with exponents such as Owen, Babbage and later Taylor and Gantt (Pindur et al, 1995, pp61-62) were concerned with observation and experience to seek greater efficiency for expanding industry; viewing workers as cogs in a machine and as another resource to be organised (Morgan, 1997, p38). General administrative management’s focus was on the running of the whole organisation (Pindur et al, 1995, p62). Fayol looked in more detail at the role of manager and purported five functions: planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling (Fells, 2000, p346). Bureaucracy, with the main advocate Weber, took a theoretical view seeking to understand power and authority (Mullins, 1996, p46; Pugh and Hickson, 2007, p5). Weber sought clear hierarchy advocating recruitment and promotion due to merit. [With] standardization across the organisation; no matter who was in post (Höpfl, 2006, pp10-11). Although still relevant today as a ‘tool’ to offer clear direction, (Lamond, 2005, p1279) classical theory has been heavily criticized for being too prescriptive, limiting individual thought, creativity and flexibility of the organisation (Morgan, 1997, pp30-33; Mullins, 1996, pp41-46). It was thought not to look beyond the individual organisation to its’ wider context. (Mullins, 1996, p52). Contrastingly, the human relations (HR) theory of management sometimes referred to as ‘human behaviour’ school, ‘leadership or ‘behavioural sciences’ approach, considers and prioritises ‘people’ as part of the management role. The exponents of this school lean heavily towards psychology and social studies believing “people should understand people” (Koontz, 1961, p178). In the 1920’s an awareness of the impact of social factors within the workplace grew and behaviour and performance of employees became a focus for study (Mullins, 1996). Mary Parker Follett wrote about individual and group behaviour within organisations (Wolfgang et al, 1995). She contentiously believed that authority was rooted in ‘a position’ and not with ‘a person’, causing much dispute and debate (Clegg et al, 2005; Mandeville, 1960). Arguably HR theory originated with the Hawthorne Studies conducted from 1920’s and 1930’s (Grey, 2005). Ironically the origins of the studies can be linked to the scientific approach however they became inextricably linked with Elton Mayo and showed productivity increased often when not expected. Mayo identified ,when people felt valued production could rise (Clegg et al, 2005). Whilst methods used and accuracy of data is disputed the results opened minds and encouraged debate on topics such as leadership, motivation and informal groups within organisations and so the neo-human relations approach developed with Maslow and his understanding of peoples’ needs entering the arena of theories (Mullins, 1996). The HR approach can help provide solutions to problems such as absenteeism, staff turnover and production quality brought about by strict scientific approaches. However some may view the approach as an unwelcome intrusion; leaving no demarcation between private and work life (Grey, 2005). People are the key ingredient to the HR theory but we should not set aside that, structure and rules are undoubtedly required in the mix. Accepting that Systems theory attempts to reconcile the classical and human relations approaches, this may then potentially provide the ‘ideal’ management theory. But does such an ‘ideal’ really exist? Exploring further, Systems theory focuses on the elements of organization, in terms of their interaction with external environment. Attention is focused on the total work organisation and the interrelationships of structure and behaviour, and the range of variables within the organisation (Mullins, 2000). The belief is that all employees work harmoniously through sharing common goals. The Systems approach to management began in 19th century, and Ludwig von Bertalanffy made great contributions in developing it. There are two basic types of systems; closed and open; and one of the key concepts of von Bertalanffy’s theory mentioned that open systems responded to their environments through exchanged information, energy or material (Kast and Rosenweig, 1972). The open systems model contains human relations as well as organisation development (Pindur et al, 1995). Closed systems [on the other hand] are self-contained and do not interact with their environment (Cole, 2004). Some classical theories, like Taylor’s scientific management, Weber’s bureaucratic theory and Gulick’s administrative management can be classified to the closed system model (Pindur et al, 1995). Limitations within the Systems theory did exist though, and whilst the approach fostered both technical and social variables viewing organisations as ‘a whole’; alterations to one aspect directly affected the other part. The changing nature of the work environment, the increasing demands for flexibility and concerns with the contextual factors influencing structure have drawn attention to the contingency approach to organisational design (Mullins, 2000, p564). Diversity is no longer just the right thing to do; it has become a business imperative and perhaps the single most important factor of the twenty-first century for organization performance (Wheeler, 2005, s1-s7; Daft, 2008, p420). Observed as a development of the Systems approach, the contingency theory goes a stage further in relating the environment, and other variables, to specific structures of organisation. [It] takes the view that there is no one best, universal structure (Mullins, 2000, p564), [or] universal principles that can be used for every situation, but instead [it] seeks to explain how one attribute or characteristic depends upon another (Vecchio, 2000,p338). The contingency approach can be seen as a form of ‘if-then’ matrix relationship (Luthans, 1985); [it] draws attention to the situational factors; emphasis[ing] the need for flexibility (Mullins, 2000, p564). There is a multitude of possibilities and the best or preferred choice will be contingent on the situation being analysed (Hunt, 1992, p170). Criticisms or doubts about the contingency approach and its practical value to management have been voiced. According to Robey (1982, p59), modern contingency theory provides an increasing amount of empirical research; defin[ing] variables ignored in earlier work. However, the contingency approach runs the risk of concluding that ‘it all depends on everything’. Indeed, Vecchio (2000, pp.11-12) simply summarises the contingency approach in two words. “It depends”. Whatever the criticisms and limitations of contingency models, the application of modern contingency theory can help contribute to more effective performance(Mullins, 2002, p578) – so can we deduce that whilst possibly overly flexible in its ‘make-up’, the contingency approach is however within practice, a suitably acceptable management theory? Conclusion In conclusion it would appear that it is not only management theory that is disparate; the multiplicity of variables affecting the everyday running of organisations, also provides immense organisational diversity. Management theory and practice in implementation are inextricably linked which ensures that no holistic theory of management can be developed. Many paradigms have been created within an historical context where necessity for change has been encountered. Theoretical management and its functions are therefore viewed as evolutionary. Classical theory, whilst used today appears limited in application. Human Relations theory is still useful when applied in terms of an organisation’s social dimension. A unitarist Systems theory whilst initially popular was overtaken by a more necessary flexible approach to management, gleaned from Contingency theory. This perspective took a pluralist view of organisations. Organisations vary in terms of groups of individuals, industry type, structure, culture and objectives, making management differ within each entity. The trajectory of management theory, as time has progressed has added to the management debate and provided structure in which there is near agreement within groupings of schools who disagree vehemently as to the thinking of their adversaries. Because of management’s diversity we are of the thinking that there is no one solution that will remedy or enhance all situations. (Word Count: 1319 words)
FNU State Regulation of Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Discussion.

what are the roles and responsibilities of the advanced nurse practitioners in prescribing?Submission Instructions:Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources. Your initial post is worth 8 points.You should respond to at least two of your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts. Your reply posts are worth 2 points (1 point per response.) All replies must be constructive and use literature where possible.Please post your initial response by 11:59 PM ET Thursday, and comment on the posts of two classmates by 11:59 PM ET Sunday.You can expect feedback from the instructor within 48 to 72 hours from the Sunday due date. Grading Rubric Your assignment will be graded according to the grading rubric.Discussion RubricCriteriaRatingsPointsIdentification of Main Issues, Problems, and Concepts5 pointsDistinguishedIdentify and demonstrate a sophisticated understanding of the issues, problems, and concepts.4 pointsExcellentIdentifies and demonstrate an accomplished understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts.2 pointsFairIdentifies and demonstrate an acceptable understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts.1 pointsPoorIdentifies and demonstrate an unacceptable understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts.5 pointsUse of Citations, Writing Mechanics and APA Formatting Guidelines3 pointsDistinguishedEffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Exceptional use of citations and extended referencing. High level of APA precision and free of grammar and spelling errors.2 pointsExcellentEffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Moderate use of citations and extended referencing. Moderate level of APA precision and free of grammar and spelling errors.1 pointFairIneffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Moderate use of citations and extended referencing. APA style and writing mechanics need more precision and attention to detail.0 pointPoorIneffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. An unacceptable use of citations and extended referencing. APA style and writing mechanics need serious attention.3 pointsResponse to Posts of Peers2 pointsDistinguishedStudent constructively responded to two other posts and either extended, expanded or provided a rebuttal to each.1 pointsFairStudent constructively responded to one other post and either extended, expanded or provided a rebuttal.0 pointPoorStudent provided no response to a peer’s post. 2 pointsTotal Points: 10
FNU State Regulation of Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Discussion

stocks. Paper details Please address the following in a substantive post: What are the current stock prices of Microsoft (MSFT) and Walmart (WMT)? Based on fundamental and technical analysis of these stocks, which option is appropriate? Be sure you provide your rationale. Why can an option be considered an insurance contract?stocks
Barstow Community College Daily Recommended Intake Dietary Analysis Paper.

Go over your Diet Analysis (attached in pdf), —————————-Answer the following based on the data in pdf 1. list two vitamins you are deficient in and what specific foods you could incorporate into your diet to better meet the RDA.( Please be detailed in your answer, 100 words or more.) 2. Did you meet the DRI/RDA for each major mineral (calcium, phosphorous, magnesium)?3. How did your diet differ from the recommendations? Include your DRI and your actual Intake #’s4. Are you at risk for any conditions due to your deficiencies or excesses?5. What specific foods could you incorporate into or delete from your diet to better meet the recommendations for each major mineral?6. Did you meet the DRI/RDA for each trace element (iron, zinc, selenium)?7. How did your diet differ from the recommendations8. Are you at risk for any conditions due to your deficiencies or excesses?9. What specific foods could you incorporate into or delete from your diet to better meet the recommendations for each trace mineral?
Barstow Community College Daily Recommended Intake Dietary Analysis Paper

Haringey Children’s Services Child Abuse Case Analysis

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Child Abuse in London Borough of Haringey: An opinion of students from college in Central London. Research Question The study will focus on child abuse cases in Haringey Children’s services by exploring the strategies the child protection agency deploys to protect children at risk or harm in the borough. Introduction The purpose of this research project is to investigate the child abuse cases at Haringey Children’s services by evaluating the approaches employed by the agency for safeguarding children against harm or risk. It will also highlight the strategies used by Haringey council to identify students at risk. There are have been different cases of child abuse in the borough and that is the reason why the researcher is interested in conducting a critical analysis of the strategies use employed by the council to identify children that are immediate risk or harm from their parents or carer. The Haringey local safeguarding children board encourage anyone that have a concern about a child that may be at risk of significant harm or has already been harmed or abused to immediately contact Haringey council by telephone or email (Haringey LSCB, 2017). The council provide encourage to make contact through the single point of access where professionals or any concerns about a child can contact the council. Haringey local safeguarding children board pride itself in identifying welfare and safeguarding concerns as well as taking prompt action to deal with any concerns about children (Haringey LSCB, 2017). They encourage all professionals working with children and young people and their families, including teachers and nursery staff, children’s centres, doctors and health workers, housing support officers, police and probation officers, family support services, social workers and voluntary and community run organisations to get in touch with them if they have any concern about any child or children. However, the council has been riddled with different cases of child abuse over the couple of years. The aim of this research is to evaluate child abuse cases in the borough and to identify the strategies used to identify children at risk. Recommendations will be made based the evaluation and findings of the study through analysis of different child abuse cases in the borough and strategies used to identify children at risk. Literature reviews, academic journals, articles, text books and magazines will be critical analysed to identify how the children protection agencies can prevent child abuse and improve safeguarding measures for children. Background Child abuse in the United Kingdom has been reported in the country for decades and the latest high profile cases of celebrities and trusted official abusing children has brought the matter into prominence. The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children(NSPCC) describe child abuse as any action any individual, either a child or adult that causes significant harm to a child. It can be physical, sexual or emotional, but can just as often be about a lack of love, care and attention. What form of abuse against children can have a damaging effect on a child (NSPCC, 2017). Research has shown that 1 in 20 children in the UK have been sexually abused and 1 in 3 children sexually abused by an adult did not tell anyone (Radford, 2011). Similarly, the child protection register and plan statistics for all UK nations for 2014 show that 3,000 children were identified as needing protection from sexual abuse and up to 90% of children who have been abused will develop mental health issues by the time they are 18 years old (NSPCC, 2017). In addition, disabled children are over 3 times more likely to be abused than non-disabled children (Radford, 2011). These are very disturbing findings that required the partnership of government agencies to identify and prevent child abuse in the country. The cases of child abuse have increase significant over last couple of years because of the opportunities provided by the internet with children watching pornography thinking that it is normal and adult exploiting children on the net. To compound the problem, the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC), found that about 85% of sexually abused young people are not receiving help and treatment, while urgent actions are needed to identify and prevent child abuse as one in eight victims in England comes to the attention of authorities (CCE, 2017). Aim To investigate the methods and approaches implemented by Haringey children services to identity children at risk. To evaluate the preventive measures taken by the council to mitigate against child abuse. Objectives To identify measures that can be taken by government agencies to identify child abuse in the community To make recommendations on preventative approach agencies can employ to mitigate against the risk of harm or abuse to children Literature review Child abuse and neglect are serious global problems and can be in the form of physical, sexual, emotional or just neglect in providing for the child’s needs (Kemoli and Mavindu, 2014). These factors can leave the child with serious, long-lasting psychological damage. In this study, the researcher intends to explore and analyse the current literature review, academic journals, textbooks, government publications on child abuse identification and prevention strategies, articles, newspapers related to child abuse or exploitation on how to identify children at risk and the preventative measure that can implemented to mitigate against the epidemic of child abuse. Methodology Qualitative and quantitative approach will be used for this researcher. Questionnaire will be used to collect data randomly from parent living in Haringey council on how they protect their children form child abuse and information given to them by the council. Interview will be conducted with Haringey Children’s service on how they identify children at risk and the preventive measures in place to mitigate against any risk or harm on children. Design or Method A questionnaire will be developed containing 20 questions ranging from their age range, occupation, numbers of children they have and their understanding of child abuse etc., to survey parents of children living in Haringey council. Unstructured interview will be conducted with the management of Haringey Children’s Service to evaluate how the agency identify children at risk and the preventative measure in place to deal with the threat. Data Collection Method Questionnaires and interview will be used to collect data from parents and management of Haringey Council. Sampling technique A sampling technique is the name or other identification of the specific process by which the entities of the sample have been selected (Cassady and Nachlas, 2009). Stratified sampling is commonly used probability method that is superior to random sampling because it reduces sampling error. A stratum is a subset of the population that share at least one common characteristic. Examples of stratums might be males and females, or managers and non-managers. The researcher first identifies the relevant stratums and their actual representation in the population Probability A probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection (Greenwood, Mills and Vrana, 2007). This approach will be used by the researcher for this study by conducting unstructured interview with the management of Haringey council. Data Presentation and Analysis Interview transcripts, field notes and observations provide a descriptive account of the study, but they do not provide explanations. It is the researcher who has to make sense of the data that have been collected by exploring and interpreting them. Microsoft Word and Excel will be deployed for data analysis and presentation in this study. Limitations Foreseeable limitations will be getting contents to interview Haringey children’s service and funding and the time frame maybe an obstacle to the research. Overcoming limitations: By starting early and getting the consent of the management of Haringey and the consent of the parents Research Specification or Plan or Timeline: Specification Actual Time Frame Expected Survey questionnaire with parents 3-months 3 months Interview with Haringey Children service management 2-months 3 months Data collection 2 month 2 months Data analysis 1 month I month Ethical Considerations Haringey children’s service and parent of children that live within Haringey council will be informed of their right to withdraw from the study at any time without ant recourse. Sensitive information collected from the council management and parents will not share by third parties. Identity of the parents and personnel of the council that participated in the study will be kept confidential. References Cassady, C. and Nachlas, J. (2009). Probability models in operations research. 1st ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press. CCE, (2017). Child sexual abuse. [online] Children’s Commissioner for England. Available at: http://www.childrenscommissioner.gov.uk/learn-more/child-sexual-abuse [Accessed 13 Mar. 2017]. Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. Greenwood, R., Mills, G. and Vrana, B. (2007). Passive sampling techniques in environmental monitoring. 1st ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Haringey LSCB, (2017). Haringey LSCB. [online] Haringeylscb.org. Available at: http://www.haringeylscb.org/ [Accessed 13 Mar. 2017]. Kemoli, A. and Mavindu, M. (2014). Child abuse: A classic case report with literature review. Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, 5(2), p.256. NSPCC. (2017). Child protection in the UK. [online] Available at: https://www.nspcc.org.uk/preventing-abuse/child-protection-system/ [Accessed 13 Mar. 2017]. Radford, L. (2011). Child abuse and neglect in the UK today. 1st ed. London: NSPCC. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

WU Week 7 Roles of A Social Worker to Improve Medication Adherence Discussion

order essay cheap WU Week 7 Roles of A Social Worker to Improve Medication Adherence Discussion.

Respond to at least two of your colleagues’ postings by addressing the following: Explain how the stigma and discrimination may influence non-adherence of ART. Explain the roles of a social worker to improve medication adherence. Explain any ethical dilemmas your colleague might face while addressing adherence. Recommend culturally sensitive interventions your colleague might implement to help patients maintain or improve adherence for the ethnic and racial group they identified. Be sure to use reference DB 1 Valencia— Post an explanation of factors causing stigma and discrimination in patients with HIV/AIDS. Then, describe the impact of stigma and discrimination on the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and patients’ psychosocial profiles. Explain the propensity of excessive stigma and discrimination in certain ethnic and racial groups. Provide examples to illustrate your response. Focus on the NASW Code of Ethics, and explain ways you might address stigma and discrimination while providing HIV/AIDS education and preventive services. Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the resources and the current literature using appropriate APA format and style. Some of the main factors that cause stigma around HIV/AIDS is people only associating it with sexual orientation, drug use, and sex work.There are also myths surrounding it that cause people to treat those diagnosed with this disease negatively. Some of these myths are that HIV/AIDS is a death sentence and that all people who have it are irresponsible. Due to this stigma people are more private about their status. Some seek care as privately as they can while others do not seek care at all. They don’t want anyone to know and treat them differently and they feel so strongly about this that they risk their health in the process. Stigma also plays a negative role in prevention. Stigma is a powerful deterrent of individual freedom and self-determination (Tomaszewski, 2012). Stigma leads people to be in denial and feel they are not at risk since they do not fall into certain categories or communities. The incidence of HIV infection has steadily increased in communities of color, resource poor populations, and among men who have sex with men, all who are already subject to prejudice and discrimination. Excessive stigma and discrimination in certain ethnic and racial groups can lead to loss of harassment/abuse, poor care within the health sector, loss of hope and feelings of worthlessness and loss of reputation (Avert, 2017). When social workers are addressing stigma and discrimination while providing HIV/AIDS education and preventive services they should focus on the ethical principle of service. The National Association of Social Workers (2017) states social workers’ primary goal is to help people in need and to address social problems. Social workers elevate service to others above self-interest. Social workers draw on their knowledge, values, and skills to help people in need and to address social problems. Social workers are encouraged to volunteer some portion of their professional skills with no expectation of significant financial return. Avert. (2017). HIV Stigma and Discrimination. https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-social-iss… National Association of Social Workers. (2017). Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English DB 2 Satori— Post an explanation of factors causing stigma and discrimination in patients with HIV/AIDS. Individuals who suffer from HIV/AIDS often deal with negative associations, stigma, judgement, discrimination, etc. Some of the factors causing stigma and discrimination in patients with HIV/AIDS include culturally and historically taboo issues such as sexual orientation, drug use, and commercial sex work (Tomaszewski, 2012). A lack of knowledge on the disease and the factors associated with it also cause stigma and discrimination against patients with HIV/AIDS. Then, describe the impact of stigma and discrimination on the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and patients’ psychosocial profiles. While local and global resources are available for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, individuals suffering from this social issue choose not to receive treatment, often times due to discrimination and stigma associated with being HIV positive (Tomaszewski, 2012). Households often wont register affected children in support programs, further limiting access to information, prevention, care and treatment (Tomaszewski, 2012). Some patients will not even get tested due to the associated stigma. Explain the propensity of excessive stigma and discrimination in certain ethnic and racial groups. Provide examples to illustrate your response. There is a tendency to discriminate or associate negative stigma excessively in certain ethnic and racial groups. “Research continues to indicate that persons of color living with HIV are more likely to report feeling stigmatized due to their serostatus than are their white counterparts” (Land & Linsk, 2013). Focus on the NASW Code of Ethics, and explain ways you might address stigma and discrimination while providing HIV/AIDS education and preventive services. The National Association of Social Workers (n.d) implemented a health training and education project for social workers. “The goal is to provide the necessary HIV and mental health practice skills for providers working in social work, mental health, and substance abuse fields to enhance and promote culturally competent practice with individuals, families, and communities affected by HIV/AIDS.”While providing these services, I might address stigma and discrimination by working to dispel myths and stereotypes, working to affect change on local, national, and international levels, increasing awareness, staying informed, and sharing information with clients, families, and friends, and working toward culturally competent practice with all clients (NASW, n.d.). References: Land, H., & Linsk, N. (2013). HIV stigma and discrimination: Enduring issues. Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services, 12(1), 3–8. National Association of Social Workers. (n.d.). NASW HIV/AIDS spectrum: Mental health training and education of social workers project. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?filet… Tomaszewski, E. P. (2012). Understanding HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?filet…
WU Week 7 Roles of A Social Worker to Improve Medication Adherence Discussion

Grossmont College American Revolutionary War History & Civil War Questions

Grossmont College American Revolutionary War History & Civil War Questions.

Instructions: you need to use the text Perspectives on Early America to answer at TWO of these questions. Each answer should be 2-3 fairly long paragraphs and you need to use examples from the essays in your answer. 1. Newman-Slave Revolts. Describe the slave revolts and attempted slave revolts during the 1600s and 1700s. Show the various revolts and leaders from the British period through the Southern plantations. 2.Gudelunas- American Politics. Describe the evolution of the two party political system in our early history and use examples from this essay in your answer for the various political parties towards the Civil War period.3. Adams- Ensuring National Security. Describe the evolution of American foreign policy in our early history and use examples from this essay in your answer.4 Hunt-American Revolutionary war. Write a narrative that shows the evolution of the military action in the American Revolution including military leaders and battles in the Revolution.5.Ennis-Coming of the Civil War. How does Ennis describe the major causes of the Civil War? Use examples from the essay in your answer to show the various events and laws leading to the Civil War.
Grossmont College American Revolutionary War History & Civil War Questions

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you will need the book Fabes, R. & Martin, C. (2009). Discovering Child Development 2nd edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. – ISBN: 0547003617 or 978-0547003610. I do not have the book bid only if you have access to the book. Review Chapter FourPick one topic from Chapter Four that you found especially interesting. Do a web search on this topic.Identify TWO websites related to this topic that you found interesting.Tell us (please number your answers):1. Why did you pick this topic.2. The web addresses for each web site you found.3. What you found especially interesting about EACH of the two websites.4. Relate the information you have found from EACH website to information in the text (with citations). You should have two citations in your initial post.
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