A sociological explanation of suicidal behaviour
The social facts surround us everywhere and affect our lives. To begin with, the social fact is a single, socially significant event or a set of homogeneous events that are typical for some areas of social life, or specific to certain social processes. The main attributes of the social facts are their independence, objective existence, and their coercive nature, i.e. an ability to exert the external pressure on the individual. It is a collective representation of the facts or a collective consciousness. The social facts are a course of actions, ways of thinking and feeling that exist outside the individual (i.e. objectively). These factors possess the normative coercive power in relation to him/her. Into the acknowledgement of the above stated information about social facts it is necessary to add that according to Faraganis (2000), “by a social fact, Durkheim (as a person who defined the social fact in sociology) is referring to facts, concepts, expectations that come not from individual responses and preferences, but that come from the social community which socializes each of its members. Although we might embrace the normative community behavior and share its values, we are constrained by its very existence.” The main purpose of this work is to reveal a sociological explanation about a social fact. Among different social facts, it is possible to emphasize the pathological social fact associated with the social problems, which is called suicide. The term suicide is related to the social fact because it is a single public event, typically for one or another sphere of real life. The suicide rate is one of the most important sociological exponents of the society’s well-being. Global science has been already established that the act of suicide accumulated a number of the factors: social, economic, political, philosophical, psychological, and religious. The rate of suicide in Canada is historically similar to or slightly higher than in the USA. Around 3800 suicides occur in Canada each year. Suicide is a deliberate act of removal from life under the influence of acute traumatic situations in which life itself loses its meaning for humans. Suicidal can be called any external or internal activity, sent by a desire to take his/her own life. People who commit suicide usually suffer from a severe mental pain or are under stress and a sense of inability to cope with their problems. They often suffer from mental illness, especially major depression, and look ahead without any hope. Suicidal behavior is the suicidal activity’s manifestation that includes the suicide attacks, attempts and manifestations. Thus, a situation when death is caused by people who may not be aware of their actions or control them, and as a result of a person’s negligence are not related to suicide, but to the accidents. There are three main types of suicidal behavior: true suicide, demonstrative suicide and hidden suicide. The true suicide is never spontaneous, though sometimes it looks quite unexpected. Such a suicide is always preceded by depressed mood, depression, or just thinking about leaving this life. Sometimes, even the closest people do not notice this person’s condition (especially if you frankly do not want it). It is obvious that in many cases true suicide is a result of prolonged depression. And any depression is characterized by a focus on past, not the future. The man on the verge of true suicide somehow appeals to the past, clinging to it, but cannot find the picture of own future. Therefore, the “risk group” for suicides includes teenagers and old people. The main part of the suicides is nothing but an attempt to engage in dialogue: only, of course, that’s so unique and totally unsuitable for this method. Most suicides usually do not want to die, but they kill themselves only in order to reach out to someone, pay attention to their problems, to call for help. The psychiatrists often call this phenomenon “demonstrative suicide.” Researchers stated that propensity to demonstrative suicide sometimes seen as a specific way of manipulation. The hidden suicide is the destiny of those who understand that suicide is not the most dignified way to solve the problem, but nevertheless other way again cannot be found. These people do not choose an open withdrawal from life on their own, but they choose so-called “due to suicidal behavior.” For example, this is risky driving behaviors, exercises in extreme sports or dangerous business, and volunteer trips to hot spots, and even drug addiction. Among the major problems of modern Suicidology, the most relevant problems are the features of suicidal behavior associated with alcohol and drugs, the role of family and loneliness factors in the genesis of suicidal behavior and the problem of mental disease and suicide. In any suicide situation, there are usually two operating entities: the person who is thinking about suicide and his/her surroundings, or a specific person with whom he or she somehow tries to establish a dialogue. The increased suicide risk factors can be divided into extra-and intrapersonal. Extra personal suicide risk factors include: psychosis and borderline mental disorders; suicidal statements, repeated suicidal acts; post suicide; adolescence; extreme, especially so-called marginal living conditions; loss of prestige; conflict traumatic situation; drunkenness, drug use. Intrapersonal suicide risk factors can be identified: idiosyncrasies; reduced tolerance to emotional stress and frustrating factors; inadequacy of communication systems; inadequate (overstated, understated or unstable) self-esteem; lack or loss of targets or values underlying the basis of life, etc. There are the features of suicide, which include: the desire to be alone is natural and normal for every person. But beware, when closed, the isolation become deep and long, when a person withdraws into himself, eschews the former friends and allies. Each of us is naughty from time to time. This condition can be caused by weather, well-being, fatigue, office or family problems, etc. But when a person’s mood almost every day varies between the excitation and decay, there is cause for alarm. There are strong evidences that these emotional fluctuations are the harbingers of death. Depression is a deep emotional decline, which is showed in everyone differently. Some people become isolated, but at the same time, they disguise their feelings so well that it is impossible to notice the changes in their behavior. The only way in such cases is a direct and open conversation with a man. This is a proven fact that a lot of acts of suicide are caused by anger, rage, and cruelty to others. An absence or, conversely, abnormally increased appetite are closely linked to self-destruction thoughts and should always be considered to be a criterion for the potential hazards. In addition to the above-mentioned information, it is necessary to add that “â€¦ alcohol and drug use disorders have been found to be strongly related to suicide risk” (Ilgen, et. al, 2011). People, who plan their suicide, hand out their own things to family, friends, or relatives. As experience shows, this sinister campaign is a direct forerunner of a coming disaster. In each case, it is recommended to have a serious and frank conversation with that person in order to clarify the intentions of potential suicides. The reasons for suicide are complex and numerous. The reasons can be sought in biological, genetic, psychological and social spheres of a person. Despite the fact that people usually commit suicide in extreme situations, such as divorce, loss of work or study, most experts suggest that it is rather a reason to commit suicide than its cause. Most people who kill themselves suffer from depression, which often goes undiagnosed and untreated. Since depression often underlies suicide, the study of the causes of depression can help scientists to understand the causes of suicide. “About 90% of suicides occur in persons with a clinically diagnosable psychiatric disorder” (Tondo, et. al., 2011). Despite the fact that some studies suggest that suicides of famous people can play an exemplary role model, especially among teenagers, this point of view is not fully proven. However, there is some evidence that the famous people’s suicides can be a powerful incentive to others’ suicides, especially among those in the range of 13 to 19 years. In addition, the causes of teen suicides are poverty, family relationships and with their peers, alcohol and drugs, unrequited love, experienced in childhood abuse, social isolation, mental disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, and so on. The number of suicides among young people has increased over the last decade. It is not superfluous to mention that early marriages do not save young people (aged 15-19) from the risk of suicide. This is primarily due to the fact that “young” marriages are more likely an attempt, not always successful, to solve some other, unrelated to marriage problems, for example, get rid of the unbearable situation in family. Taking everything into account, it is possible to conclude that suicide is the result of the personality’s social – psychological disadaptation in modern society. Psychological crises arise as a result of the intimate, family and personal, social and creative conflicts. In order to avoid the manifestation of suicidal behavior, it is necessary to provide people, especially teenagers with social support by including family, school, friends, etc. It is useful to carry out socio-psychological training issues, provide individual and group lessons to raise self-esteem, development of an adequate relationship to self, empathy, to increase self-control, replacement of “significant others”, to develop the motivation in order to achieve success. It can be based on the behavioral skills’ trainings.
Ceramic Vessel’ Analysis – Philosophy Essay
online assignment help A ceramic vessel with a handle was found on a beach. It is rather small but it is convenient to hold. It can hold around 250 ml of liquid. It is white and well-crafted. The surface of the object is very smooth. Notably, a face of a human is carved. There are traits of an Asian person though it is difficult to identify the race. The mouth of the person is open and there is a hole with capacity of 50ml. The object is well rafted and it is unlikely to be hand-made. Its production required specific machinery. Working with ceramics can be time and effort-consuming and such precision requires a technological approach. The paint is quite easy to produce and is of high quality. Thus, it is possible to infer that people at that time had quite developed industry and infrastructure as transportation of such object had to be carried out on special vehicles. This fact can prove that industries as well as the economy of that society were well-developed. It is possible to think of a number of possible ways to use this object. First of all, the object looks like vessels we use for drinking. It is acknowledged that vessels for drinking have been the same for centuries and even millennia. However, there are no other holes in our vessels. There is theory that a candle (or a heater and so on) could be put into the hole to keep the liquid warm all the time. This may mean that people preferred only hot drinking or there was a drink which had to be warm or hot all the time. It is also possible to infer that it was extremely cold at that period and people tried to warm themselves up. It is also necessary to note that people could value portability very much so they might have been nomads. It is possible to assume that heat could change the composition of the substance inside the vessel. Of course, it could be easier to study this issue if there were at least some particle of a substance but the object is absolutely clean. There was a theory that it is a vessel for drinking and eating at the same time. Of course, it is unlikely to be true though it has the right to exist. Again, it reveals people’s attention to portability as they could hold a drink and food and bring it with them in a comfortable way. Though, food should be quite small. This could be a set of pills or nutritious substances. This suggests that people had quite developed food industry at that time. Apart from a vessel, this object could have a sacred meaning. It could be an object of worship. It could contain some substance which could be constantly heated to enhance some effects (for example, evaporation of substances, emission of a gas and so on). This could also be a chandelier. It is likely that it was filled or covered with something. It is possible to note that the face depicted on the object shows human-centric nature of people’s worship. Hence, the face can represent a god. The color can be a symbol of the white race or purity. Notably, this could be a god of fertility (as it can hold some objects like food) or a god of wisdom as there could be a light placed inside. Actually, this could be a divine force associated with many essential spheres. There is a theory that the object was a holder of a divine light (some sort of fire). Of course, it could also be an artwork or a decoration. It could be a penholder or even a hat or a part of something else. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The perfect condition of the vessel suggests that it was rather an object of worship as a household object is often ‘worn-out’. The vessel in question was polished without any cracks or flaws. It could be a vessel which had never been used as it was new. For example, it could be lost during transportation. It is a big question how it preserved in such a good way. Clearly, there may be a number of theories and they can all turn out to be right. However, further research is necessary. It is important to look for mentioning of the object in documents, art or literature. Finding of one more similar object can shed light on the use of the object in question.
Proposal for Power Generation Using Urine
Final Project Proposal POWER GENERATION USING URINE Contents 1. Introduction: 2. Background and Literature Review: 3. Requirements and Criteria: 4. Proposed design: 4.1 Design layout and module description: 4.2 Urine powered battery: 4.3 Step Down DC/DC convertor LTC3388-3: 4.4 LDR Sensor and Potential Divider Circuit: 4.5 Comparator LM324: 4,6 Transistor Switch (BC547) and Load (LED): 4.7 Full Circuit Design: 4.8 Details of Instruments used in Proposed Design: 4.9 Merits: 5. Cost Analysis: 6. Timeline: 7. Conclusion: 8. Recommendations: REFERENCES: LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Block diagram of proposed system Figure 2: Single chamber UPC Figure 3: diagram of LTC3388 Figure 4: Potential divider circuit Figure 5: Pin diagram of LM 324 Figure 6: Circuit arrangement of proposed system Figure 7: Cost of project in CAD LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Possible output voltage levels from LTC3388-3 Table 2: Details of components used in proposed design Table 3: Cost associated with the project implementation in details Table 4: Timeline of project Executive Summary: In this fast-developing world, electricity is the basic need for almost everyone. The demand for the energy has increased in recent years and is expected to increase continuously in future. The major conventional sources of power generation are petroleum, natural gas and coal. Being non-renewable these sources are depleting gradually. Also, most of the conventional sources of energy use fossil fuels for generation of energy. The burning of fossil fuels causes many environmental and health issues. So there is great need to find out an alternate way of energy generation, which is environment-friendly. The main objective of this project is to devise an alternate source that uses renewable and organic matter and is an environmentally friendly way of energy generation. Energy harvesting is one of the major areas of research these days. It focuses on reducing the dependence on non-renewable sources and generating energy from external sources. There are various methods for power generation that come that come under the energy harvesting. Using microbial fuel cell for energy generation is one of the key elements of energy harvesting. Microbial cells are the systems that use bacteria as catalysts to generate the electricity. Electrochemically active bacteria can transfer electrons to the anode that results in the development of the potential difference in the circuit and produce the electricity. After considering several methods of energy generation and comparing them on the factors like cost, practicality, novelty, applicability and environmental factors, a decision has been made to use urine as the source of energy generation in this project. Being alkaline in nature, the urine will act as a good electrolyte to produce the electricity. After following various researches and literature it has been found that not only human urine but cow urine can also be used as the input matter for urine power battery. The power generation from urine and making it a urine powered battery (UPB) will be a great move for the betterment of society. This device will revolutionize the world of low powered sensors. UPB can be used for both industrial and domestic purposes. Almost every smart gadget work on low power. UPB possess a wide range of applications for smart gadgets working on low voltage. It can be used to run microcontrollers, integrated chips and sensors used in military field, space, medical field, control engineering and domestic purposes. Most importantly, being dependent on urine, which is an organic matter and pollution free; this is an environmentally friendly product with zero emission. One of the important features of this project is that the proposed setup is economically viable for almost everyone. The total production cost of the setup is quite low and is just 62 CAD only, making it an affordable product. Moreover, the circuit of the UPB is very simple and the components can be assembled at the home also. The timeline has been developed in a way that the project can be fully implemented and all the phases can be optimized. The timeline is spread over 87 days in total. The major time is consumed in preliminary approval of the project. The proposed timeline can lead to a very constructive and effective project. There are also some foreseeable problems associated with this project. This setup can only produce low voltage which can drive only low powered gadgets effectively. It can not be used for heavy voltage devices and household electricity lines. 1. Introduction: The demand for energy is significantly higher in recent years. The rise in demand will continue to increase, by at least 50% by 2030 . The sources available naturally are solar, tidal, wind, biogas and biomass. There are countries which are in massive need for electricity, hence it is very important to cope up with electricity . The naturally occurred sources available to human beings undergo through many considerations before they are used like availability, extraction costs, feasibility, efficiency, sustainability, conversion costs and economic implications. Hence to make progress in energy generation many types of research are undergone in search of an alternative source of energy. One such promising alternate source is urine, it is eco-friendly, cost-effective and renewable. An estimated 6.4 trillion litres of urine are produced every year which makes it an abundant source of alternate energy . The energy conservation can be made by MFCs(Microbial fuel cells) and the alkalinity of urine makes it a great electrolyte to produce electricity . Usage of urine as an alternative source of energy will revolutionize the world market. The pressure on the usage of fossil fuels and the associated greenhouse gas emissions will be minimized with the rise of new alternative sources of energy. Urine-powered batteries are not only used to generate electricity but also used in wastewater treatment units and kills dangerous bacteria . 2. Background and Literature Review: Survey based on urine powered battery for low power sensors: The energy shortage and pollution of the environment have caused a global crisis and have had a serious impact on survival and development . The bacteria could generate current and this was first found by an English botanist Potter in 1911. Until 1980 his finding was not well appreciated, but it was well appreciated after the addition of electron mediators and they improved the output power of MFCs . Oji Akuma, a lecturer at the University of Port Harcourt worked on the microbial fuel cells by comparing its performance by a change in the diameter of the proton exchange membrane, the semi-permeable membrane which acts as an insulator and reactant barrier. The fuel cells are capable of producing a voltage and current of 0.57 V and 0.11 mA, respectively . Hadagali Ashoka used different electrode materials to enhance the performance of fuel cells using different materials. After his experiments, he found that the Cu-Zn electrode combination obtained a maximum voltage of around 3.5 MV . Urine Powered Batteries have been designed to drive low power sensors. The overall system is made of five modules that are Urine Powered Battery, step down DC/DC converter – LTC3388-3, LDR sensor and potential divider circuit, a comparator (LM324) and Transistor (BC547) and load (LED) . The main advantage of this project is that the containers used for urine power cells (UPC) are made from High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) plastic bottles. The used plastic bottles are considered garbage but instead are used for this project to generate electricity. This helps in effective utilization of waste plastic bottles . Also, 2.73 litres of urine is required to fill 78 cells in the proposed urine powered battery (UPB) design. This shows that the source is very feasible and cost-effective . The limitations are poor load regulation and low output current. In the case of UPB, the output current is low and load regulation is poor. When a load is connected across UPB, the supply voltage of 19.5 V from UPB drops to 2 V. The solutions of these limitations will be discussed further in a detailed manner . 3. Requirements and Criteria: Economy: The cost of the components used to design the urine power battery setup is very little. Most importantly, the input material for the power generation is the natural and organic waste, having almost no cost. Also, the lifespan of components used in the setup is huge, which leads to almost negligible maintenance cost. All these economic factors make the setup an economically efficient and cheaper to run. Practicality: This basic way of energy generation is a very practical method. While most of the conventional sources of energy generation use mechanical motion to generate electricity, this setup uses the organic matter as raw material and electrolytic reactions to produce electricity making it a very practical and user-friendly method of power generation. It can be a practical way to generate electricity in the places where normal electric power has been cut off due to natural disasters.  Novelty: In the field of energy harvesting, this biomass-derived setup of energy generation is very new . It is a new kind of renewable way of energy generation which is also very cheaper as compared to other methods of energy harvesting. Applications: We are going to device a urine powered battery setup that has a wide range of applications. Being compact, portable and lightweight source; it can act as good utility for soldiers and astronauts .With advancement in technology, most of the electronic devices run on low voltage. The proposed setup can be used to run various low powered devices like sensors, microcontrollers and integrated chips which are used in the medical field, military and control engineering. Just by changing the appropriate Integrated Chips, it can be used for running a huge range of low powered devices. For example: digital thermometer, humidity sensor, accelerometer, light sensor, blood glucose meter, cameras and many more. Environment: We are going to design a setup that uses urine for generating the power. Being natural and renewable source of energy generation, this alternative solution will help to reduce the use of natural gas and oil which contributes to reducing carbon footprints. 4. Proposed design: Our group is present a design which can generate power from the urine for the solution of the energy problem. This design will have a urine powered battery for the low power sensors. This will be a clean source of energy as it generates power from organic waste and it will not have any hazardous by-product. 4.1 Design layout and module description: Fig. 1 Block diagram of proposed system 4.2 Urine powered battery: The initial and premier apparatus of our proposed design is Urine powered battery. In the cells of this battery, urine is filled. It is made out of a blended mix of a number of little single chamber Urine Powered Cells. The single chamber Urine Controlled Cell involves anode and cathode terminals plunged in a solitary chamber containing pee. The Plastic straw (Polypropylene) has been utilized to disengage the terminals of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which has a tendency to diminish the general expense of framework and make it substantially more sparing. The chemical formula for propylene monomer is C3H6. It has been utilized to diminish the expense of the framework. There are various characterises which has an influence on the result of the UPC. In which, the main parameters are material, size and area of electrodes and volume of urine per cell. Normally, the containers are made of High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) plastic bottles. So, this also helps in reducing the waste of plastic bottles. A sample of single chamber UPC is represented in the following figure. Fig 2: Single chamber UPC For the best result for voltage and to reduce the cost of the system, electrode combination (cathode-anode) are of Cu-Zn and Cu-Al, respectively. Because they are cheap and easily available in the market. To gain required current and voltage to run the instruments, a number of UPC’s are connected parallel in series by alligator clips. By this , they are capable to generate 19.5 V. 4.3 Step Down DC/DC convertor LTC3388-3: In the output of UPB, the current is very low and load regulation is very poor. When the load is connected, the voltage is reduced to 2V from 19.5V. to prevent this and obtain sufficient current and power, a DC/DC converter LTC3388-3 has been used. In the design, the pins D0 and D1 are fastened to high logic, which can give the constant output of 5V Fig. 3: Diagram of LTC3388 The possible voltage can be gained from this device can be founded below: D0 D1 Output 0 0 2.8V 0 1 3.0V 1 0 3.3V 1 1 5.0V Table 1. Possible output voltage levels from LTC3388-3 4.4 LDR Sensor and Potential Divider Circuit: The output voltage of LTC3388-3 is used to run the LDR sensor and potential divider circuit. This LDR has been made of Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) material. The potential divider circuit can be shown in the figure. It has two arms. One of them has a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) with a variable resistor R1 and different has a variable resistor, R2 and fixed resistor R3. The working principle of this LDR sensor is based on the principle of photoconductivity. The reduction in voltage at R1 and R2 is measured by a comparator. Fig.4: Potential divider circuit 4.5 Comparator LM324: The reduction in voltage across the changeable resistor is measured using comparator LM324. LM324 is 14 pins integrated chip which is IC. The diagram of LM324 can be shown in the figure. It contains four nondependent elevated gain frequency reimbursed operational amplifiers. The working Vcc is of three number of V-32 V. The operational current required for this LM324 is 1.4mA. The input supply can be moved to one of the four operational amplifiers. The positive or negative output is based on the magnitude of interaction between inverting and non-inverting terminals. Fig. 5: Pin diagram of LM 324 4.6 Transistor Switch (BC547) and Load (LED): To operate the load (LED), the transistor BC547 is used as a switch. The output voltage of LM324 is coupled to a base terminal of BC547. The functioning of the transistor solely depends on the output of the comparator. Load (LED) is placed between emitter and collector junction. The working Vcc supply is passed to the collector terminal. 4.7 Full Circuit Design and working: Fig. 6: Circuit arrangement of proposed system The pee fueled battery comprises of a mixture association of UPC’s. The output voltage got from single UPC, having Cu-Zn cathode mix, is 0.7 V to 0.75 V There is 26 number of cells associated in the arrangement, consequently the watched yield voltage was equal to the voltage of single cell times the number of cells associated in the arrangement. In this manner, the required voltage has been accomplished by connecting cells in series. As clarified in the calculation, with the expansion of numbers of lines in parallel connection, the resistance will reduce and effective supply current will increase. With the end goal to accomplish the coveted current, the two reproductions of the first series of cells are associated in parallel connection. The production of UPB is connected to step down DC/DC converter LTC3388-3. The step-down DC/DC converter LTC3388-3 can give the consistently managed output voltage of 5V and current of 50 mA. The IC has 11 pins. The following Figure represents that when the output voltage of UPB, having 3 x 26 a framework is connected to LTC3388-3, the voltage at a contribution of LTC3389-3 is 16.94V and the directed voltage at an output of LTC3388-3 is 5V (around). voltage at input and output of LTC3388-3 The basically watched yield voltage and current have been 5 V and 3 mA. The output voltage and current are adequate to drive the low power gadgets. The output of LTC3388-3 has been connected to the LDR sensor and a potential divider circuit. the voltage dropping over the non-constant resistors, for consideration in which terminal of the comparator they are associated, the transistor switch will be driven. The voltage drop over the variable resistor, R1 and R2 are associated with altering terminal and the non-altering terminal of comparator LM324, individually. At the point when LDR isn’t presented to light, at that point the voltage drop over the variable resistor, R2 will be more noteworthy than the voltage drop over the variable resistor, R1. Along these lines, the voltage connected to the non-transforming terminal will be more noteworthy, the output of the comparator will go positive. Here we have to give a reference for this paragraph. The LDR has been utilized as a low power photoconductive sensor. It is a low power sensor since when it presented to light radiations, it builds up a voltage drop of 0.93 V (maximum)and with a current of 131 μA. Which is represented in following figure. Voltage drop across LDR when exposed to light radiation current through LDR when exposed to light radiation Consequently, LDR can be named as a low power sensor since it works at an intensity of microwatt. Following figure demonstrates the voltage drop across over LDR when it isn’t presented to light radiations. It has been seen that when the LDR isn’t presented to light radiations, the voltage drop across over LDR is 1.79 V. Voltage drop across LDR when not exposed to light radiations In CE configuration, the comparator’s output is associated with BC547. The LED is connected with the collector terminal with a voltage supply of 9V. in this scenario when LDR is not represented to light, the output is given by the comparator will be non-positive. Due to this, the transistor will not be able to work and thus, LED will be turned off. On the flip side, when LDR is not represented to light, the output given by the comparator will have the positive value and the transistor will function as a fully-closed circuit. So, the LED will work. So, this proposed system can be used to function the lighting system. 4.8 Details of Instruments used in Proposed Design: Component Value LTC3388-3 Operating Voltage range = 2.7 V to 20 V Capacitor, C1 C1 = 1 µF Capacitor, C2 C2 = 47 µF Capacitor, C3 C3 = 4.7 µF Capacitor, C4 C4 = 2.2 µF Variable Resistor, R1 R1 = 20 kΩ Variable Resistor, R2 R2 = 20 kΩ Fixed Resistor, R3 R3 = 20 kΩ LDR When Exposed, Vexposed = 0.93 V When not exposed, Vunexposed = 1.79 V Inductor, L Resistance, R Core type Number of Plates Number of turns of copper wire Number of Layers L =104 µH R =170 mΩ Air Core 0 80 5 Transistor (BC547) NPN LED Red Colour Cu-Zn Electrodes Length = 7 cm to 8 cm Width = 1.3 cm to 1.6 cm Thickness : Copper = 0.2 mm Zinc = 0.4 mm Table 2. Details of components used in proposed design 4.9 Merits: For the power generation, the basic raw material which is urine is available in huge quantities and the power used for electrolysis of urine is low with compare to electrolysis of water. The hydrogen obtained by this process is in its pure form. so, no further process is required. Hence, the urine can be used for power generation, the cost of sewage treatment can be de decreased. 7. Cost Analysis: A team meeting was held at London community and the team made an estimation of how much it will cost to source a laboratory and buy equipment, raw materials, transportation and labour cost for our project. To implement this solution, firstly the team has to assess the lab facility and determine the ease of the lab to perform our project. The estimated cost of purchase and implementation of the proposed project is described in detail below: Component Value Price LTC3388-3 Operating voltage range=2.7V to 20V $9 Capacitor, C1 C1=1μF $2 Capacitor, C2 C2=47 μF $2 Capacitor, C3 C3=4.7 μF $2 Capacitor, C4 C4= μF $2 Variable Resistor, R1 R1=20KΩ $2 Variable Resistor, R2 R2=20KΩ $2 Fixed Resistor, R3 R3=20KΩ $2 LDR V exposed =0.93V V unexposed=1.79V $4 Transistor( BC547) NPN $2 LED Red colour $2 Inductor, L Resistance, R Core type Number of plates Number of copper wire Number of layers L=104 μH R=170 mΩ Air core 0 80 5 $3 Connectors Type: Alligator Connectors Total number of connectors=174 Contact Resistance=110mΩ $12 Fabrication of PCB To mount LTC3388-3 $9 Cu-Zn Electrodes Length= 7cm to 8cm Width= 1.3cm to 1.6cm Thickness copper= 0.2mm Zinc= 0.4mm $7 Total Cost(CAD) $62 Table 3: Cost associated for one device Fig. 7: cost of project in CAD Therefore, the total cost to implement the proposed solution is around 67 CAD, which is negligible when compared to the benefits it provides for students and the public of Windsor. 8. Timeline: After the approval of the project, the team has followed the particular timeline to implement the proposed solution. According to the team, it will take around 20 days for preliminary approval of the project. The team will assemble the experimental setup which will take around 5 days and the team will purchase and install the required equipment during the final stage which will take around a month. Task Start date Number of Days Survey for selection of project 2nd August, 2018 15 Project preliminary approval 16th August, 2018 20 Problem identification and oriented survey 6th September, 2018 15 Cost estimation 16th September, 2018 10 Final solution 10th October, 2018 25 Implementation 4th November, 2018 24 Table 4: Timeline of project Overall, it will take around 4 to 5 months to complete the project. 9. Conclusion: The work required in-depth knowledge of fabrication, modelling, testing and classification of in-expensive proposed energy harvesting system. The main priority has been given to the increasing the time-span of delivering harvested energy to load. This proposed system has been verified earlier. In addition this, it has been budget-friendly too. 10. Recommendations: As indicated by our group’s examination and the outcomes accomplished by our group spurs us to suggest the establishment of pee-power. The Smart System is an exceptionally astute move to venture into brilliant vitality sparing procedure. The power generated from UPB can be used for an industrial and non-industrial institute for working of low power instruments such as infrared sensors for alarms. This technology can be also used in the field of medical field such as blood glucose meter, digital thermometer and more. More into that, the atmospheric sensors such as humidity and temperature sensors which are commonly used in industry, can effectively work from the output power from the UPB. REFERENCES:  Sid Perkins, “The water in urine can be a source of hydrogen for electrical generators”, Science news for students, May 16, 2013. [Online]. Available:https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/pee-power [Accessed November 4, 2018]  Jon Chouler, George A. Padgett, Petra J. Cameron, Kathrin Preuss, Maria-Magdalena Titirici, Ioannis Ieropoulos, Mirella Di Lorenzo, “Towards effective small scale microbial fuel cells for energy generation from urine,” Electrochimica Acta, 2016; 192: 89 DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.01.112[Accessed November 4, 2018]  David Mcnally, “Army scientists discover power in urine”, Phys.org, September, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://phys.org/news/2017-09-army-scientists-power-urine.html [Accessed November 5, 2018]. A. Singh, A. Kumar, T. K. Gill, and E. Sidhu, “Urine Powered Battery (UPB) for low power sensors”,2015 International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (ICSEEA), Oct. 2015. [Online]. Available:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301660577_Urine_Powered_Battery_UPB_for_low_power_sensors [Accessed November 4, 2018]  Wahidul Hasan, Hafiz Ahmed, and Khosru M. Salim, “Generation of Electricity Using Cow Urine” ,International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 1465-1471,Dec. 2014[Online]. Available:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282317605_Generation_of_Electricity_Using_Cow_Urine [Accessed November 5, 2018]  Royal Society of Chemistry, “Urine could be the answer to cheaper electricity“, Phys.org, November 1, 2011. [Online] Available: https://phys.org/news/2011-11-urine-cheaper-electricity.html [Accessed November 11, 2018]
Global Business Cultural Analysis: Japan Case Study
Abstract Limited study has been conducted on Japanese culture and its impacts on businesses. Some of the cultural dimensions that influence business activities in Japan include communication, religion, ethics, and social structure, values, attitudes among others. Nuance and subtlety considerably characterize communication in Japan. The manner in which an individual communicate, dress and portray oneself greatly affect business negotiations. Normally, the Japanese embrace unity and works hard to avoid competition with their colleagues. Hence, most of the businesses are operated in groups where every member of the group emphasizes on the needs of the other members when executing business duties. The mores of collectivism contributes to the success of the Japanese business entities. American companies wishing to invest in Japan may adopt this culture to boost their performance. In addition, Japanese have the sense of nationalism. It is the sense of nationalism that leads to consumers being loyal to Japanese products. Japanese are popular for their honesty and loyalty to business organizations. Whenever a business manages to establish a strong relationship with consumers, it is hard for the business to lose these consumers. To survive in the Japanese market, American investors may capitalize on establishing strong relationship with consumers. Introduction Every business organization is a joint creation that comprises of an assortment of people, their attitudes, behavior, and interaction with one another. To achieve any objective, a business demands joint efforts of most of its members. The results, nevertheless, depend on both personal contribution and how well the business is capable of integrating the efforts of its employees. Hence, the success of any business dwells largely on employees’ attitude, values, habits, and behavior trends (Brockner, 2003). Popularity of the idea of business culture is associated with the need to enhance business efficiency and success, especially regarding the process of change. Business culture may lead to possible resistance or support during changes. The ability to address changes lies on business members’ wish to embrace the goals of the business and the level of the sense of togetherness. Limited study has been conducted on Japanese culture and its effects on businesses. Japan is one of the countries with a very rich culture and almost every activity in the country is influenced by culture. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the cultural dimensions that influence business activities in Japan include communication, religion, ethics, and social structure, values, attitudes among others (Brockner, 2003). Nuance and subtlety significantly characterize communication in Japan (Brockner, 2003). The manner in which an individual communicate, dress and portray oneself greatly affect business negotiations. Normally, Japanese embrace homogeneity and tries under all means to avoid competition with their colleagues. Hence, most of the businesses are operated in groups where every member of the group emphasizes on the needs of the other members when executing business duties (Brockner, 2003). Japanese culture is highly contextualized. Hence, in business content, the Japanese not only rely on what is said but also on how the communicator uses other nonverbal cues. This greatly differs with how the Americans communicate in a business environment. This paper aims at looking at some of the Japanese cultural dimensions and their integration in businesses. Besides, the paper will compare these cultural dimensions with the American cultural dimensions and evaluate their implications on American business operators wishing to invest in Japan. The major elements and dimensions of culture in Japan Communication (Peltokorpi, 2007) Of all the features of relating with the Japanese, communication is the one that causes the biggest dilemma. Japanese communication is characterized by nuance and subtlety, where individual’s appearance, sentiments, and thoughts are significantly isolated. There is often a huge difference between sentiments and thoughts (Peltokorpi, 2007). At times, the two contradict each other. Relationship development in Japan depends mostly on the ability of the individuals to read the fundamental truth that may support the spoken expression. For people with limited knowledge in the Japanese culture, it is normally hard to steer through these very baffling inconsistencies. In short, such individuals keep on questioning every sentiment in order to have a clear understanding. One of the reasons why communication is a big challenge in Japanese business environment is that most of the foreigners in the country do not speak Japanese (Peltokorpi, 2007). On the other hand, most of the Japanese have poor command of the English language. In events of stress or tension in a meeting, the Japanese are fond of maintaining silence. This helps in relieving tension and allows people to divert their attention to other issues thus conserving harmony, which is very crucial in communication as per their culture. When communicating, the Japanese hardly use body language. They are normally very still when communicating and tries as much as possible not to express their emotions. We will write a custom Case Study on Global Business Cultural Analysis: Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social structure (Lin, 2001) Japan is in most cases portrayed as a society that strive to circumvent conflict by insisting on homogeneity and considering differentness as secondary. The Japanese do not have the view of person as an individual; instead, they feel most contented with others who have compassion (Lin, 2001). According to them, people have to collaborate in the same situation. This eliminates the chances of Japanese viewing one another as different individuals. This extreme homogeneous social structure in Japan leads to Japanese disregarding individualism as an affirmative norm (Lin, 2001). In fact, the Japanese value group life as the Americans value individualism. Homogeneity is the principle value of society, which significantly leak into all spheres of life and defines other values. However, with time, this social structure is disintegrating as more foreigners settle in Japan. The younger generation is continuously abandoning the culture and becoming more independent. Perhaps, they are now realizing that Japan is not as harmonized as the cultural beliefs posit (Lin, 2001). Hence, the country is gradually identifying itself based on nationality and not ethnicity. Some of the traditional mores are gradually becoming obsolete as the country internationalize. For instance, most of the Japanese feels that they need to do away with the prevalent communication subtleties that foreigners do not understand. Despite the move towards individualism, Japanese society still exhibits a group-oriented social structure. Japanese teach their children to be group conscious at a tender age. They consider family as the basic group of the society, and this is where children start learning the culture of collectiveness (Lin, 2001). As one grows, the membership in groups expands. With time, the group comprises of neighborhood, person’s class in school, and when one becomes an adult it comprises of workplace. In one’s growth course, a person is encouraged to commit his or her energy in the group as well as to forfeit personal gain for the sake of the group (Lin, 2001). Besides, an individual is taught to uphold group harmony. Many of the groups have hierarchies and every member has a designated rank and duties in the group. Most of the Japanese avoid “direct confrontation and competition with others” (Lin, 2001, p.87). Teaming up with other people demands willpower; nevertheless, teamwork brings about emotional surety, identity and joy of participating in a group, hence adding value. Wa, the belief of harmony in a group, demands an attitude of mutual aid and acknowledgement of social obligations (Lin, 2001). The Japanese believe that success is achieved only when every member of the group puts forth his or her best personal effort. Decisions are frequently realized after consulting every member of the group and consensus does not mean that all members are contented. Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Business Cultural Analysis: Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Values Order and status (Brockner, 2003) It is hard to figure out a Japanese image of the social order without putting into consideration the effect of Confucianism since before the beginning of Chinese influence; Japan did not have structured culture. Confucianism stresses on concord among nature, heaven and human race that is attained through everyone acknowledging his or her duty and sharing in the social order by appropriate manners (Brockner, 2003). For the Japanese, hierarchy is inevitable. Relative status disparity characterizes almost all social relations. “Place of employment, education, seniority and gender are some of the conventional differences that guide relations. Japanese may opt not to relate with a stranger, to evade possible error in etiquette. Calling cards or business cards so often exchanged in Japan are essential instruments of social relation since they offer adequate information about another being to assist in normal social interaction” (Brockner, 2003, p.351). Japanese express status differences through language. Verb endings normally portray relations of dominance and lowliness (Brockner, 2003). They have a wealthy vocabulary of honorific that shows an individual’s status or it may be altered to show what the speaker wish the interaction to be. Some words are associated with manly speech and others with womanly. Attitude Desire for perfection (Schepers, 2006) The Japanese have an exceptional attitude towards work. They apparently dedicate all their life to work and readily give up their personal life for the sake of work. Unlike in United sates where workers stage strikes because of unfavorable working conditions, Japanese are tolerant to such conditions at workplaces. At times, they go to work even when they are sick and turn down any offer to relieve them from work. According to Schepers (2006) the Japanese feel that taking seek leave may affect their productivity thus affecting organizational performance. To ensure they uphold the culture of teamwork at workplaces, Japanese spend more time socializing with group members after work. This strengthens their ties thus fostering cooperation at workplaces. Japanese have the attitude of settling on the best in everything they do. They believe that “only the best is good enough”. They take all their assignments seriously and execute them diligently. Employees at all sectors are required to perfect their art and most of them strive at achieving it. The Japanese portray their desire for perfection through numerous ways (Schepers, 2006). Some of these ways include the manner in which they arrange food in their plates, the way they arrange flowers and how they organize their gardens. The Japanese poplar tea celebration is one of the best examples that show how they value perfections. The apparatus used during the ceremony and the movement made are accurately spelled and have to be observed by all participants. It is this desire for perfection that contributes to the veneration accorded to education in the country. Attitude towards women (Schepers, 2006) In Japan, the role of women is mostly inclined towards domestic chores. Women are supposed to give birth to children and bring them up, virtually single handedly. In most cases, “they spoil their boys and make all the decisions regarding their education with limited consultations with their husbands” (Schepers, 2006, p.27). The term okusa, which means “Her Indoors”, is used when referring to women. Other responsibilities of women include conducting shopping for the family. Most of the Japanese desire to eat fresh food purchased on daily basis. Besides, their apartments are small leaving no space for stocking huge amount of foodstuffs (Schepers, 2006). Consequently, the Japanese woman has to go on shopping on daily basis. With time, women have started opposing this attitude and are seeking to share responsibilities with men. A few young women are participating in business and politics. Nevertheless, for a woman to succeed in business or politics, she has to be more enlightened than men are. Hard work is normal (Brockner, 2003) Japanese have the attitude that everyone ought to work hard. No one is supposed to be pushed to work harder. All the Japanese commit themselves to working hard. Normally, they do not value leisure time, and in most cases, they sacrifice their free time to either work in their places of work or do some domestic chores. Unlike in the western countries, the Japanese do not take alcohol during the day (Brockner, 2003). They believe that consuming alcohol during the day might affect one’s performance at workplaces. A study conducted in 2003 indicated that the Japanese worked for longer hours compared to workers from other developed countries. Nevertheless, this attitude is changing with time. Currently, some Japanese are taking leisure time seriously and opting to take a break from working and spend time with friends. Appearance (Hong, et al., 2000) There is a clear disparity between reality and appearance in Japan. This aspect “is expected in a community that highly values presentation, appearance, style and politeness, while at the same time trying to observe numerous feudal outlooks in a democratic and contemporary world” (Hong, et al., 2000, p.718). These old-fashioned outlooks entail strong stances of social status, and involve involuntary submission and allegiance to those above. These deep-seated attitudes tend to contradict with more Western and current perspectives of equality and conventional ones of group unity and in any case some input in decision-making. To avert potential contradictions and avoid embarrassment, “everybody accept that one ought to maintain a surface appearance even if a different reality is going on underneath” (Hong, et al. 2000, p.719). This makes it hard for individuals to delve through to the underneath reality, especially if they do not understand how the Japanese express themselves during conversations. Religion (Beasley, 2003) Japanese religion is exceptional in that most of the Japanese practice more than one religion at the same time. In a way, this religious practice has contributed to the ability by the Japanese to cope with varied complexities that arise in their business world (Beasley, 2003). Their indigenous religion is Shintoism and it concentrate on the pious forces of life and of specific trees, mountains, streams, water bodies and other geographical features associated with religious meaning. During the middle ages, missionaries originating from Asian mainland introduced Mahayana Buddhism in Japan(Beasley, 2003). This religion spread during the epoch of Japanese segregation into markedly Japanese groups, like Zen. The Zen brought in the belief in impulsive enlightenment, while Shingon Buddhism brought in the belief that enlightenment is a process that entails the transformation of both body and spirit (Beasley, 2003). It is this belief that influences the manner in which businesses are conducted in Japan. For instance, the Japanese uphold instinctive decision-making as an authentic criterion for response. The elements and dimensions integrated by locals conducting business in Japan Collectivism (Faramarz, 1998) (Gambrel,
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