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The purpose and function of educational institutions

Although sociologists have debated the purpose and function of educational institutions, most agree that access to educational opportunities has a profound effect on individual life chances and attainment. We’ll consider how specific education policies and practices -like school choice, curriculum differentiation, school finance, and school assignment – shape the range of educational opportunities afforded students. Because issues of equity have moved to the forefront of education policies during the past fifty years, we’ll discuss the consequences of these policies and practices for students from different social backgrounds – primary among these differences are differences by social class, race/ethnicity, and gender. During the next three weeks we’ll consider different explanations for the existence of schools and mass education in modern societies. A central question is whether or not schools function to promote social mobility and economic well-being or whether or not schools function to reproduce social inequalities and secure valued resources for individuals from privileged social backgrounds. An alternative, though not necessarily conflicting proposition, is that educational institutions promote social mobility, achievement, and economic growth in modern societies. The relationship between education and status attainment (e.g., earnings or occupational prestige) has often been provided as evidence that a country has an open and fluid society, one which provides individual opportunities for social advancement through the acquisition of technical skills and knowledge. This week we’ll examine the status attainment paradigm and some research that seeks to test it many sociologists point to the fact that educational attainment is also related to an individual’s family background (i.e., one’s socioeconomic status). These sociologists see educational institutions not as promoting social equality but as promoting social inequalities. Conflict theory sees the purpose of education as maintaining social inequality and preserving the power of those who dominate society. Conflict theorists examine the same functions of education as functionalists. Functionalists see education as a beneficial contribution to an ordered society; however, conflict theorists see the educational system as perpetuating the status quo by dulling the lower classes into being obedient workers. Both functionalists and conflict theorists agree that the educational system practices sorting, but they disagree about how it enacts that sorting. Functionalists claim that schools sort based upon merit; conflict theorists argue that schools sort along distinct class and ethnic lines. According to conflict theorists, schools train those in the working classes to accept their position as a lower-class member of society. Conflict theorists call this role of education the “hidden curriculum.” Marx The political system, the legal system, the family, the press, the education system were all rooted, in the final analysis, to the class nature of society, which in turn was a reflection of the economic base. Marx maintained that the economic base or infrastructure generated or had built upon it a superstructure that kept it functioning. The education system, as part of the superstructure, therefore, was a reflection of the economic base and served to reproduce it. This did not mean that education and teaching was a sinister plot by the ruling class to ensure that it kept its privileges and its domination over the rest of the population. There were no conspirators hatching devious schemes. It simply meant that the institutions of society, like education, were reflections of the world created by human activity and that ideas arose from and reflected the material conditions and circumstances in which they were generated. Durkheim Durkheim on Education: Believed that education served many functions: 1) To reinforce social solidarity Pledging allegiance: makes individuals feel part of a group and therefore less likely to break rules. 2) To maintain social roles School is a society in miniature: it has a similar hierarchy, rules, expectations to the “outside world,” and trains people to fulfill roles. 3) To maintain division of labor School sorts students into skill groups, encouraging students to take up employment in fields best suited to their abilities. Durkheim said that one of the ways to maintain the division of labor, schools should sort students into skill groups, encouraging students to take up employment in fields best suited to their abilities. Emile Durkheim provided one of the initial explanations for the emergence of mass education in modern societies – nation building and social control. Durkheim believed that the role of educational institutions in modern societies was to replace, or at least supplement, the role that religious institutions and families played in traditional societies – namely, socializing young people into a common culture and the moral foundations of collective life. Subsequent sociologists expanded these ideas to examine the role of educational institutions in the development of nation-states and the transmission of cultural values and social roles. dynamics of education revolve and are implicated in the unequal distribution of resources in society, Marxian and Weberian theories) Weber Consequences of class position Different consumption of social goods is the most visible consequence of class. In modern societies, it manifests as income inequality, though in subsistence societies it manifested as malnutrition and periodic starvation. Although class status is not a causal factor for income, there is consistent data that show those in higher classes have higher incomes than those in lower classes. This inequality still persists when controlling for occupation. The conditions at work vary greatly depending on class. Those in the upper-middle class and middle class enjoy greater freedoms in their occupations. They generally are more respected, enjoy more diversity, and are able to exhibit some authority. Those in lower classes tend to feel more alienated and have lower work satisfaction overall. The physical conditions of the workplace differ greatly between classes. While middle-class workers may “suffer alienating conditions” or “lack of job satisfaction”, blue-collar workers suffer alienating, often routine, work with obvious physical health hazards, injury, and even death. In the more social sphere, class has direct consequences on lifestyle. Lifestyle includes tastes, preferences, and a general style of living. These lifestyles could quite possibly affect educational attainment, and therefore status attainment. Class lifestyle also affects how children are raised. For example, a working-class person is more likely to raise their child to be working class and middle-class children are more likely to be raised to be middle-class. This perpetuates the idea of class for future generations. Max Weber agrees with the fundamental ideas of Marx about the economy causing class conflict, but claims that class conflict can also stem from prestige and power [6]. Weber argues that classes come from the different property locations. Different locations can largely affect one’s class by their education and the people they associate with [6]. He also states that prestige results in different status groupings. This prestige is based upon the social status of one’s parents. Prestige is an attributed value and many times cannot be changed. Weber states that power differences led to the formation of political parties [6]. Weber disagrees with Marx about the formation of classes. While Marx believes that groups are similar due to their economic status, Weber argues that classes are largely formed by social status [6]. Weber does not believe that communities are formed by economic standing, but by similar social prestige [6]. Weber does recognize that there is a relationship between social status, social prestige and classes [6]. The functionalist perspective suggests that everyone benefits from the functions carried out by the education system. Conflict theories such as the Marxist approach argue that this is not the case, rather education, is seen as the apparatus that legitimizes and reproduces society’s inequalities and divisions. The Marxist approach is relevant because it is interpreted as helping to legitimize class divisions because they promote the idea that the middle class receive education while the lower-classes/working receive training. Emile Durkheim is known as functionalist, states that everything serves a function in society and his main concern to discover what that function was. On the other hand Karl Marx, a conflict theorist stresses that society is a complex system characterized by inequality and conflict that generate social change. Both Durkheim and Marx were concerned with the characteristics of groups and structures rather than with individuals. The functionalist perspective in society is a view of society that focuses on the way various parts of society have functions, or possible effects that maintain the stability of the whole. Durkheim developed the idea of society as an integrated system of interrelated parts. He wanted to establish how the various parts of society contribute to the maintenance of the whole. He also focused on how various elements of social structure function to maintain social order and equilibrium. Durkheim stressed that culture is the product of a community and not of single individuals. He argued that the ultimate reality of human life is sociological and not psychological. The sociological reality, which Durkheim called the collective conscience, exists beyond the… Conflict theories draw attention to power differentials, such as class conflict, and generally contrast historically dominant ideologies. According to Conflict Theory, society is: A struggle for dominance among competing social groups (classes, genders, races, religions, etc.). When conflict theorists look at society, they see the social domination of subordinate groups through the power, authority, and coercion of dominant groups. In the conflict view, the most powerful members of dominant groups create the rules for success and opportunity in society, often denying subordinate groups such success and opportunities; this ensures that the powerful continue to monopolize power, privilege, and authority. You should note that most conflict theorists oppose this sort of coercion and favor a more equal social order. Some support a complete socioeconomic revolution to socialism (Marx), while others are more reformist, or perhaps do not see all social inequalities stemming from the capitalist system (they believe we could solve racial, gender, and class inequality without turning to socialism). However, many conflict theorists focus on capitalism as the source of social inequalities. The primary cause of social problems, according to the conflict perspective, is the exploitation and oppression of subordinate groups by dominants. Conflict theorists generally view oppression and inequality as wrong, whereas Structural-Functionalists may see it as necessary for the smooth running and integration of society. Structural-Functionalism and Conflict Theory therefore have different VALUE-ORIENTATIONS but can lead to similar insights about inequality (e.g., they both believe that stereotypes and discrimination benefit dominant groups, but conflict theorists say this should end and most structural-functionalists believe it makes perfect sense that subordinates should be discriminated against, since it serves positive social ends). Conflict theory sees social change as rapid, continuous, and inevitable as groups seek to replace each other in the social hierarchy. – In contrast to Structural-Functionalists, who argue that the most talented individuals occupy the highest positions, conflict theorists argue that dominant groups monopolize positions of power, maintaining power from generation to generation and keeping subordinate groups out. Also in contrast to Structural-Functionalists, who argue that the most important positions in society are the best rewarded, conflict theorists argue that dominant groups get inordinate power to define which positions are socially rewarded. Highly-paid positions are not necessarily most important for society, they argue, but keep power in the hands of the privileged and powerful. Education McLeod’s “Ain’t No Makin’ It” is a good example of conflict theory as applied to education. He argues that teachers treat lower-class kids like less competent students, placing them in lower “tracks” because they have generally had fewer opportunities to develop language, critical thinking, and social skills prior to entering school than middle and upper class kids. When placed in lower tracks, lower-class kids are trained for blue-collar jobs by an emphasis on obedience and following rules rather than autonomy, higher-order thinking, and self-expression. They point out that while private schools are expensive and generally reserved for the upper classes, public schools, especially those that serve the poor, are underfunded, understaffed, and growing worse. Schools are also powerful agents of socialization that can be used as tools for one group to exert power over others – for example, by demanding that all students learn English, schools are ensuring that English-speakers dominate students from non-English speaking backgrounds. Many conflict theorists argue, however, that schools can do little to reduce inequality without broader changes in society (e.g. creating a broader base of high-paying jobs or equalizing disparities in the tax base of communities). Every society has specialized individuals who fulfill certain positions that require extended education. Functionalists take the view that society must be divided into separate groups, each of which performs a task that is necessary to the survival of society as a whole – the organic whole. Societies function well when people accept internally, either consciously or unconsciously, the need to contribute to the organic functioning of the whole of society. People agree voluntarily to submerge part of their individual identity in favour of the survival of all. They do this because they recognise that there is no simple alternative to society. They would accuse Marxists of “utopianism” – that is, dreaming up a “perfect”, but wholly unrealistic and unrealisable society based on a dream world. When people accept their role in society they develop a form of social conscience, which Durkheim labels the “conscience collective”. Functionalists tend to look to the sociologist Emile Durkheim as the founder of their point of view. This is not entirely true. Modern functionalists, like Talcott Parsons, seek to defend capitalism, but Durkheim’s vision of the organic society of the future was one in which there would be no inheritance of capital, so people would be assigned their functional role on the basis of merit alone. Modern capitalist societies are not meritocracies in this sense. Different individuals find different roles in society, but the opportunities of individuals are considerably affected by their class situation. Although Durkheim is not exactly a defender of capitalism, his functionalism, which tells us that every social grouping is a functional part of the whole of society, tends to favour a defence of capitalism. Capitalists see the educational system as fair, and as preparing individuals for their roles in adult society according to their abilities. Talcott Parsons sees the school classroom as a microcosm of society. It is a bridge between the family and wider society. In wider society status is achieved. Education socialises young people for adult roles. According to Talcott Parson’s Functionalism individuals interact with each other through the medium of social structures. They accept common standards of evaluation, which are moral standards or ‘norms’. Sociological processes maintain these structures, and ensure stability through adherence to the norms. This is called a ‘structuralist-functionalist’ approach to social systems analysis. Parsons analyses the functions of society into: 1. Adaptation – the provision of physical necessities – the economic system; 2. Goal attainment – the establishment of the goals of society as a whole – the political system; 3. Pattern maintenance and tension management – serves to motivate individuals and resolve conflicts – kinship, family
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Does the exposure and length of time spend on media/smart technology cause obesity in teenagers? Topic Justification Paragraph: My topic is about the relationship between media usages, such as phones and computer that can access social media, and obesity. I chose this topic because when I was growing up, the technological advancements proliferated fast. I was exposed to having a family laptop and using all day due to my interest in online interactions such as chatting with friends or browsing online website just to waste time. In the past, a computer was the size of an entire room; however, the capabilities of that computer can now be mild compared to the ability of a smartphone. While I was growing up in my teenage years, I put on more weight. I didn’t do as much exercise, and I was unsure if it was the environmental change, I had moved to another country or my usage of technology. Furthermore, obesity and overweight rates have increased. This may be due to the increase in popularity of social media and online competitive video games. I have a great interest in online video games; however, I can balance my time with education, health, and leisure. Along with the rise of video games, more people voice/video chat online rather than in person, leading to less effort spent outside, and more time spent in the space of their homes. This topic is important because game developers are creating new games that can be easily played worldwide. For example, the free game “Fortnite” is the most popular game right now. The main population is from children and teenagers playing this video game. The advancements of technology have increased so much that individuals in society are becoming dependent upon it. Smartphones, laptops, televisions, and many more devices have consumed hours upon hours of an individual’s time spent in a single day. In addition, processed foods that have been mass produced, with the aid of technology, have been identified to be the lead cause of obesity. This sparks an interest in whether the consumption of processed foods is the main factor or exposure and imbalanced usage of technology. Obesity rates have been increasing, and so has the technology. Thus, a correlation can be identified, however, may not interest many people. This topic is important because health in society is viewed as an essential aspect to have in society. Being healthy is not just not being sick, however, living happily, while keeping an individual’s body stable and long-lasting. Many individuals do not know that obesity has one of the highest rates of death, and when an individual is asked on what has killed more people, sharks or obesity, individuals often choose sharks. Continuing, the topic on whether over-usage of media and technology may cause obesity is in a conflicting manner because there is limited experimental research done on such topic. There are many conflicting perspectives on this issue because the advancements of technology and obesity have both increased significantly in the past decades. On one side, people say that the easy access to food and laziness of individuals has led to the increase of obesity rates; however, other view the rise in obesity rates to be caused from excessive use of social media and video games on phones and computers. For the first perspective, the general understanding that causes obesity is laziness, the inactivity. Social media applications or video games have taken up a large sum of time in a teenager’s day. The activities that teenagers do are completely unbalanced in the sense that their time on their phones or computers is the most significant time spent during their leisure time. To put it into perspective, teenagers use their phones practically anywhere they find the chance to. This can be often seen in restaurants, sidewalks, waiting in a line, and more. This behavior changes how the human body behaves too. The body will adapt to the environment of a lacking in exercise or dedication to exercise and produce excess body fat because the body is receiving more food than needed. Generally speaking, teenagers spend around 3-5 hours each day on their phones and computers in their leisure time. The top priority of spending 3-5 hours a day on their phone, computer, or television has led to a US Department of Health to be involved with the interactions of society. They set a regulation that reduced the limit of television watching hours. In addition, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has suggested a maximum of 2 hours of video games or television per day.1 Furthermore, the influence of social media has a significant effect on the perspectives of teenagers. Teenagers are easily influenced and often look for a role model to look up to. This mostly may come from characters from movies or videos games. Advertisements also play a significant role, and there is constant exposure to advertisements in social media applications and in online browsing. Video games and movies portray an unrealistic character too, however, from the perspective of teenagers, they want to become that said individual. These platforms often receive sponsorships from different companies that may or may not involve unhealthy foods. For example, a movie character may be eating a bag of chips or going to McDonald’s because they are in a rush. Research suggests that these platforms promote high caloric foods and beverages that lead to diabetes type II, this increase in obesity and diabetes rates in the past decades.2 A specific example would be every annual Superbowl commercial. Nationwide, families gather together and watch the Superbowl while celebrating, however, the influence of advertisements on teenagers is easily influenced. For example, they could relate the emotions of joy and family gatherings to Wendy’s fresh fast food burgers subconsciously. Moreover, the regular teenager activities in the past, when technology was not as advanced, were sports, spending time in parks, and physical interactions with other individuals. Teenagers view happiness as the critical factor in deciding what they should do during their leisure time. Before it was spending time with friends playing a sport, but now it may be spending time with friends playing a video game or spending time using social media. This can often lead to the so-called “binge” aspect of social media. Platforms such as YouTube and Netflix are video content based, where one video may lead to the next interesting video for YouTube, and for Netflix the next episode to the series. The act of “binging” leads to less sleep because they are spending more of their leisure time and expanding it into their rest time. A smaller window for rest and sleep may lead to a rushed morning causing individuals to rely on ready-made foods to replace a proper healthy breakfast from fruits and vegetables. This can lead to obesity because there is an increase in consumption of high caloric foods because healthier options are replaced with quick and easy accessed foods.3 On the other hand, there is the perspective where over-usage of media has no effect on obesity. For example, the conceptualization of a video gamer is mainly on the extreme sides. Video gamers are either seen as the obese gamer or super skinny gamer. No image of an individual in between the described extremes come to thought. It can be viewed that there is a misconception on whether the time spent on video games and media is the actual cause of obesity because some video gamers have different eating habits and different lifestyles compared to other gamers. Research indicates that there is a weak relationship between obesity rates and media usage or video games.4 Although it may show a positive correlation of the general trends over time of the two variables, it doesn’t mean that there is a causation, but rather bidirectional ambiguity, where no one variable can cause the other. There is limited empirical evidence to support the claim that media usage and video games cause obesity. Furthermore, there is a criticism of the accuracy and understanding of data analysis. There are many ways to analyze data in relation to obesity. Researchers often take a reductionists approach and solely focus on whether the individuals have long media time usages or gaming hours and relate that to their body mass index (BMI). Other factors such as socioeconomic status, diet, habits, and exercise are all ignored. There may be a similar behavior for individuals who spend 3-5 hours or more on social media and video games. They may all have similar diets or habits that result in them to be overweight or obese. These can all be confounding variables which are not taken into account in research. In addition, new statistical modeling techniques have been implemented. AMOS and MINITAB are software’s that use the Taguchi method to improve data analysis. This allows for multiple different factors to be taken into account and target an optimized variable. This type of data analysis would take socioeconomic status, diets, and habits into account, thus having stronger data, results, and conclusions.5 Moreover, to counteract the supporting evidence in the opposite perspective, where social media and platforms support unhealthy and high caloric foods lead to obesity, social media can also help deviate away from obesity. There is the idea of social norms and the desired male and female body. This is often represented in movies and social media platforms. Individuals who can identify the importance of maintaining a healthy body can follow diets and lifestyle habits of those who are fit and healthy. The role models can set an example for a healthy fit lifestyle so that people using social media for an extended period can observe and change the mentality. Research indicates that topics on physical appearance are prevalent.5 There is often stigmatism because it is straightforward to judge another individual with the ease that no one else can target you back, however, for those follow and subscribe to healthy and fit social media platforms can implement healthier habits into their daily lives, thus improving their physical wellbeing and avoid obesity. Moving on, the supporting evidence for both sides of the argument is reasonable. The quality of the supporting evidence of the “yes” side of the argument shows that the research identifies how and why obesity occurs due to the unbalanced leisure usage. Both sides have a reductionists approach, however, the “no” side has an argument that past research that doesn’t use the Taguchi method does not identify an optimized factor. In addition, the “no” side evidence counteracts support research of the “yes” side. For example, social media and role models in sponsored movies or advertisements set bad examples; however, teenagers want to become their role models, thus physically and mentally. There are also misconceptions in the “yes” side evidence. The “binging” act led to a replacement for a healthy breakfast into a high caloric food. This would mean that the over-usage of media is an intermediate step that leads to the intake of high caloric food that causes obesity. In conclusion, the “yes” side has more empirical research, however, “the “no” side has far better counterarguments. The most convincing perspective is that exposure and over-usage of media and video games do not cause obesity. References Vandewater, E. A.
Academy of Art University A Dialogue at the Library Short Original Dialogue.

Consider what you’ve read and the short story “Hills like White Elephants” and write a short original dialogue that communicates a relationship between two characters.You do NOT need to introduce the characters – you can start with the conversation right away.You should add meaningful actions or activities to the conversation that communicate who/where these characters are and how they feel about each other.You should NOT use any telling language (he felt scared, she was excited, they were shy, etc.).Your dialogue must be at least 8 turns (eight different statements in conversation).This dialogue should NOT be part of your narrative essay. It should be completely new.
Academy of Art University A Dialogue at the Library Short Original Dialogue

econ 3t03 questions

econ 3t03 questions.

Suppose there are only 2 goods produced in world: Traded (T) and Non Traded (NT) in 2ountries A and B. The following table shows the information on the production and price of T and NT in A and B.COUNTRYT produced per capitaNT produced per capitaPrice of T in local currencyPrice of NT in local currencyA2008002040B60024001060a. Calculate the PPP exchange rate between the two currencies where you are expressing the exchange rate as one unit of currency A in terms of currency B. (2 marks)b. What is the ratio of GDP per capita in A and B using the PPP exchange rate? (2 marks)c. Now suppose the Non Traded item also gets traded between the countries. The trade pattern is such that 1 unit of T is sold by Country A to obtain 2 units of NT from country B. Calculate the Nominal exchange rate expressing 1 unit of Currency A in terms of currency B. (HINT: find the price of 1T in terms of Country A’s currency and price of 2 NT in terms of Country B’s currency. Given the suggestedtrade pattern find the nominal exchange rate). (2 marks).d. Given your answer in part c, calculate the ratio of GDP per capita between country A and B. (2 marks)e. Comparing your answers obtained for parts b. and d. explain in 4-5 sentences what role does the existence of non traded sector play in comparing the GDP ratios. (2 marks).
econ 3t03 questions

Capella University Education Relevancy Paper

help me with my homework Capella University Education Relevancy Paper.

1.  Discuss the concepts of plagiarism, academic honesty, and academic integrity, specifically as

they relate to integrity at the personal, courseroom, and university levels;  
2.  Discuss the principles and protocols of citing one’s sources;
3.  Clarify the differences between quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing;

4.  State the specific changes you will make to insure that you do not plagiarize again;  
5.  Include at least 15 scholarly references that are no more than three years old.  
Be of sufficient length to cover the material, and comprise no fewer than 10 pages (not counting cover

 
You will be allowed one set of revisions if the paper is not approved. Please note that 30 calendar  
days are required for review of the paper once submitted, and it is recommended that you make your  
paper completion and registration plans accordingly.   
Additional sanctions may be applied in the following circumstances: (a) the writing assignment is not  
completed to the satisfaction of the Faculty Review Panel or the Panel Designee, or (b) the writing  
assignment contains plagiarized material, as defined by the APA publication manual which is the  
official approved writing style for Capella University.3.  Clarify the differences between quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing;  
4.  State the specific changes you will make to insure that you do not plagiarize again;  
5.  Include at least 15 scholarly references that are no more than three years old.  
6.  Submit this paper to SafeAssign to make sure you have cited any source material you have  
used; 
Capella University Education Relevancy Paper

Importance of Strategic Human Resource Management

Strategic Human Resource Management is a vital element in the establishment and existence of an organisation, as it concerns one of the very important aspects of resources that pertain to the existence of organisations. It is the platform, upon which, well implemented and managed, an organisation would be able to apportion and utilise other resources such as, Raw materials, physical and financial resources that are also of major implication to the existence of the organisation. Many scholars in the field of management studies have since come up with different definitions and ideas of strategic human resource management. And in the ideas itself, gives definitive reasons and basis on the importance of strategic human resource management. An example is two of the following scholars; 1. According to Schuler (1992) “Strategic Human Resource Management is largely about integration and adaptation. It concerns ensuring Human Resources (HR) management is fully integrated with the strategy and strategic needs of the organisation; Human Resource policies cohere both across policy areas and across hierarchies; Human Resource practices are adjusted, accepted and used by the line managers and employees as part of their every day work.” 2. Michael Armstrong (2008) states Strategic Human Resources Management as being ” A mindset underpinned by certain concepts rather than a set of techniques, that provide the foundation of strategic reviews in which the analysis of the organisational context and existing Human Resource practices leads to choices on strategic plans for the development of overall or specific Human Resource strategies. It also concerns implementing and monitoring of these strategies, so as to ensure that the organisation’s objectives are achieved and its values are put into practice.” Strategic Human Resource Management Human Strategies – overall/specific Strategic management – strategic role of Human Resources Strategic Choice Strategic Analysis Figure 1.1 – Strategic Human Resource Management Model Source: Michael Armstrong (2008) Michael Armstrong further states that the rationale of strategic Human Resource Management is based on three of the following propositions Human resources or human capital of an organisation play a strategic role in its success and are a major source of competitive advantage Human Resource strategies should be integrated with business plans (vertical integration) Individual Human Resource strategies should cohere by being linked to each other to provide mutual support (horizontal integration) To be able to run and operate an organisation effectively, management must have the best skilled people or specialist in place that will are able to formulate strategies and implement them accordingly so as to attain the overall organisations’ objectives, by aligning strategies in relation to set targets. The very aspect of people management is of a vital and sensitive element as, it enables for the everyday operations of the organisation to function both effectively and efficiently, for as long as the right and best practices are in place. Without which, operation of the organisation may cease due to lack of commitment and work will suffer tremendously, as the resources are not well managed, in the end, affecting other resources such as physical and financial. 1.2 THE PURPOSE OF STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES IN AN ORGANISATION – A CASE OF MORRISON [P2] Morrison was founded in 1899, by Mr William Morrison, as an egg and butter merchant in bradford. His son ken Morrioson took over the running of the company in 1952 and in 1958, it opened it’s a small shop in the town centre. Ken Morrison has since since retired and the current Chief Executive Officer – Mr Dalton Phillips. As of 1967, it became a pulic limited company under the London Stock exchange. Morrison grew even bigger when it acquired safeway – another british supermarket at the time. Currently Morrison is the fourth biggest supermarket in the United Kingdom with over 400 stores spread across. . The supermarket’s Human Resources systems of the embrace a vast variety of strategic management approaches that have been formulated and implemented to enable the supermarket attain market growth and compete effectively with its competitors. The Supermarket’s Strategic Human Resource Management encompasses a wide range of activities that the management have to undertake, in order to integrate the organisation’s human resources with its objectives. These include; Staffing This involves among other things, Selection and Recruitment – this is the sourcing of skilled and qualified manpower labour to fill in vacancies for the specified job, and matching the available human resources with the right jobs. The sourcing of human resource may be done either internal or external of the organisation. Performance Management and Reward Systems This involves appraisal of staff input and overall performances on their jobs. Jobs were analysed and defined accordingly and the employee’s performance gauged in accordance with their tasks and responsibilities as per the job specifications. The reward system at the company were mishandled and mismanaged and those employees that did perform effectively did feel they needed to be rewarded not only on short term achievements, but also long term. Employee Development Development of employees is a vital tool that has to be in place in all given circumstances. The ever changing business environment, due to new and advanced technology and work approaches, requires for employees to be trained accordingly so as to have and maintain a standardisation in work practices. Having a performance appraisal can help in mapping out the desired needs for training for employees. Newly employed staff may be put under some training during their induction, whereas, old time staff is from time to time sent to do refresher courses, as well as professional trainings and this enhances employee’s career development. Employee Retention With proper motivation incentives in place, employees tend to be of high morale and there is normally an increased commitment in their work, thus a high performance and quality output is the resultant of this dedication. There tends to be little or no unnecessary absenteeism and on the other hand, a high turnover in target margins. Employee relations This entails having a proper and formalised communication system for both within the organisation and its external environment. All work procedures have to be made known to both parties, that is, the management and employees at large. Employees have the right to be involved or participate in schemes such as Unions in their work places. This helps in times of disputes with management, as negotiations may be held in order to resolving whatever disputes, which may include; discriminations, harassment, etc. Employee Maintenance This is the administration and monitoring of workplace in terms of; healthy and safety Welfare policies that will help to retain the overall workforce Statutory policies and regulations in regards to the employment contracts. Morrison strategic Human resource strategies have implemented some incentives that are in recognition of its employees by the following (Morrison.com): Staff Discount – employees are entitled to a staff discount card on commencement of their contract- an additional is given for the staff’s nominated person, saving a 10% every time you shop. Profit sharing – given as a bonus at year end Holidays – Entitlement of up to 29 days a year -includes bank holidays Service awards – for long serving employees, given after 5 years of working with Morrison’s Pension Scheme – On offer is an independent run contributory scheme. Share save Scheme – staff are offered opportunities to join a three – five year share save scheme providing the chance to save monthly, with the option of buying shares at a discounted rate at the end of the scheme Morrison is embarking on a new set of vision and values, principles that have a dynamic effect on their teams and placing Human Resource at the heart of their business agenda. They have introduced initiatives like ‘can-do’, ‘great shop-keeping’ and ‘one team’ that is meant to motivate its employees in their efforts and reward them for their performances accordingly. 1.3 EVALUATION OF CONTRIBUTION OF STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TO THE ACHIEVEMENT OF AN ORGANISATION [P3] By having a strategic human resources management system in place, Morrison Supermarket will be able to operate its businesses effectively, for as long as the strategies are in alignment with the overall company objective. The contributions that may be impacted on the organisation, includes; Market growth. The company may be able to improve and expand its potential by adopting strategies that will assist in employee motivations, performance appraisals and developments. Hence there would be less labour turnover, and employees would commit in their jobs and endeavour to reach set time frames and targets with a lot of enthusiasm. Increase of Revenue – the high morale and dedication of employees will no doubt see a rise in revenue, as employees are enthusiastic on their jobs and aim to have a high quality of productivity in their output. Shareholders and stakeholder alike will be pleased and satisfied with the overall performance and this may well be the route into winning of more customers, as the company may just well be rebranding itself in terms of its reputation. Expansion – the company may then seize the opportunity of expanding into other provinces of the country, as it is currently only based in the capital city. It may well invest in other telecommunication line of business, such as mobile networking. Organisational development (OD)- this is defined as the “The system wide application and transfer of behavioural science knowledge to the planned development, improvement and refinement of the strategies, structures and processes that leads to organisational effectiveness” (Cummins and Worley [2005]) OD aims to help employees work more effectively together to improve the processes in the organisation, such as formulation and implementation of strategy and facilitate the transformation of the organisation and the management of change. Team work – it encourages individuals to recognise the importance of working as a team. Many jobs in organisation are a continuous process where the possibility that an employee may only being doing an area in which they have the expertise and someone else, may be doing the other part, before it is actually a completed task. Therefore, having the most effective strategic human resource management systems will enhance this process. Strategic Human Resource Management overall purpose is to ensure that the organisation is able to achieve success through people. Therefore the different elements and activities that make up for its procedure to be effective, contributes largely to the achievement of organisation’s objectives in that it critically addresses issues relating to the management of people (employees). The various activities enable for the formulation and implementation of strategic plans and decisions that have a long term impact on the welfare of both the employees and the organisation alike. Other factors that stimulate the importance of strategic human resource are government regulations, globalisation, changing laws for labour unions

Columbia Southern University Divorce in the US Military Research Revision

Columbia Southern University Divorce in the US Military Research Revision.

Follow the directions below for the completion of the body paragraphs revision assignment for Unit VII. If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance.Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to revise the body of your academic argumentative research paper, which you created a draft of in Unit VI.Description: In this assignment, you will revise the three to four body paragraphs you wrote in Unit VI. The following requirements must be included in the assignment:Body Paragraphs: You will revise the body section of your paper based on feedback received from your professor in Unit VI. Please review here the guidelines for the body section of your research paper: This section will include three to four paragraphs comprised of five to seven sentences each. Each paragraph should be between 150-200 words. At a minimum, this portion of the paper should be 450-600 words (for three to four paragraphs); a body section of this length will meet the minimum requirements of the assignment. Revisions must be substantive and should be made in accordance with the direction given by the professor’s feedback. The following components must be included in each body paragraph (in the following order).Sentence 1: Point/reason sentence: This topic sentence will contain one of your reasons.Sentence 2: Explanation: In this sentence, you will provide information that further develops or explains Sentence 1.Sentence 3: Illustration: This sentence introduces evidence that supports the reason that is presented in Sentence 1.Sentence 4: Explanation of the illustration: Because the evidence does not necessarily stand on its own, you need to provide explanation so that the reader will understand how you interpreted the evidence to come to your reason.Sentences 5-6: Second illustration and explanation (optional): You may choose to include a second piece of evidence that is then followed by an explanation.Last Sentence: Transition: In this sentence, you will signal to the reader that you will be moving on to another point in the next paragraph. You do this to ease the movement from one point to another.Be sure to include the introduction and literature review you have already created and revised.Use APA conventions to cite and reference all sources used to support your argument
Columbia Southern University Divorce in the US Military Research Revision