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The Power Of Margaret Thatcher

The coming to power of Margaret Thatcher in March 1979 was in a context marked by the 1970s in England by crisis in economic, social, political and cultural. The crisis was economical with the 1973 oil crisis, the deindustrialisation, the negative growth in 1974-1975, the rise of unemployment, and the high level of inflation. The crisis is with the social movements of strikes that paralyzed the country, and mass unemployment. The crisis is political with the growing power of unions fighting for wage claims. Unions refuse limitation to 5% of the increase in base salaries that wants to impose the Callaghan government. Winter 1979, called “Winter of Discontent”, saw successive strikes increasingly unpopular which paralyzed the country. ‘In this winter of Discontent’, two out of three manufacturing companies were affected by strikes and stoppages’. (Norman Gash, Madsen Pirie, 1989, p2). And finally, the cultural crisis is, in retrospect the success of the welfare state which does neither lead to growth nor full employment. We can not therefore underestimate the seriousness of the situation in Great Britain in the late 1970s. England was the “British disease” (Green, 2006, p55), through this study we will analyse how Margaret Thatcher and her administration drive the country with economic policy with the objective to break down the inflation and to enable Britain economy to recover balance growth. We will first explore whether it was a “Thatcher Revolution”? And in a second part we will see if this “revolution” was a success a “miracle”. Finally we analyze the statement. Margaret Thatcher won the elections in May 1979 and will be the first woman to rule England. Middle-class daughter of a grocer, she grew in an environment conducive to the ‘Victorian’ values such as work, the emphasis on family, the sense of nationhood, and free enterprise. With these ‘convictions’, she adopted a policy and anti-interventionist philosophy (Green, 2006, p56) to rescue the British economy’s decline. It is in this context that the elections occur. Margaret Thatcher campaigned on the theme of British decline, socialism was for her as “unmitigated evil, a perversion of human nature and a blight upon the land” (Jenkis, 1989, p322) imposed by all-powerful unions, who have instilled in the population a culture of dependency. She undertakes to give priority to ‘enterprise culture” (Pugh, 1994, p20), free market, curb inflation and to “curtail the role of the state” (Pugh, 1994, p20). Thatcher decided to follow “drastic measures” (John Redwood, Madsen Pirie, 1989, P6). She easily wins the elections of May 1979: a vote clearly based on the discontent of the consensus state-employers-unions, became inoperative. She said in Perth during her campaign ‘Today it is socialism which is in retreat and Conservativism which is advancing..'(Jenkins, 1989, p323) Margaret Thatcher created the political revolution has profoundly changed the political life, breaking with the values advocated by the Keynesian model: her primary objective was to fight against inflation before unemployment, she wanted the free market, she seeks to reduce trade union power, and reduce taxes to encourage growth. ‘The Right Approach to the Economy” is directly inspired by the party’s program of 1970, and monetarist theories of Milton Friedman as the liberalism of Friedrich Hayek. For monetarist, “price rises could be restrained by restricting the supply of money to the economy” (Pugh, 1989, p303). She wanted to “roll back the frontiers of the state” (Jenkins, p369) and refocus on its natural function: to guarantee the currency, maintaining public order and National defense. The liberalization of the economy has performed under four themes: the affirmation of the primacy of the market, privatization of some public sector, reform of labour relations and tax reform. The assertion of the primacy of the market was made in 1979 by removing a certain number of controls over income, prices, dividends and wages. “Inflation led to price controls, wage controls in order to combat rising public spending” (Madsen Pirie, 1989, p12). The government has effectively abolished the incomes policy and price from Callaghan government. The decision made by Thatcher “to curb inflation by monetary means was an excellent decision”, the value of the British currency has risen and has helped to make the British economy more attractive to investors. (Madsen Pirie, 1989, p12). In mid 1980s, Lord Young was responsible for the deregulation unit and made good progress and results; however, the government was faced with the necessity to regulate the financial services industry, to regulate privatized telephone and gas companies to comply with the creation of an integrated European market (John Redwood, Madsen Pirie, 1989, P12). Deregulation enabled “substantial improvement in customer service with lower prices and better services in airline and bus industry. (John Redwood, Madsen Pirie, 1989, P13) Then there was the liberalization of capital movements began in July 1979 that accelerated the internationalization of the British economy and stimulated the activities of the City of London. Mergers, investment of foreign multinationals have thus been encouraged and Great Britain was the European country most open to Japanese investment since 10 years. After a trip to Japan in 1982, Mrs Thatcher did not hesitate to encourage Nissan to set up factories in Britain; it was realized the following year. The export of the British capital has enabled the UK to continue to invest heavily abroad (Leruez, 1991, p146), and assets of the UK exceed 100 billion pounds by the end of 1988. This liberalization of the economy was completed in October 1986 by the deregulation of activities in the City in London. Despite the competition of other capital markets, this revolution has allowed London to maintain its role as a leader and pioneer in the “financial industry” (Leruez, 1991, p146). Although the privatizations program “the most unique success” (Madsen Pirie, 1989, p10) is now considered as en essential reform of the Thatcher government, it should be noted that it was not given an importance in the election manifesto of 1979. This show the inherently adaptable character of the action of Mrs Thatcher (Leruez, 1991, p147), and ‘became the centre piece of the Thatcher Revolution’ (Jenkins, 1989, p370). The economic justifications of denationalization are the following: decrease the influence of state and the political decision making on the economy, increased efficiency and innovation of companies, decentralizing economical decision and negotiations of wages and working conditions. Major privatizations (‘Britoil’, ‘British Telecom’, ‘British Gas’) and most symbolic (‘Rolls Royce’, ‘privatization of water’) (Leruez, 1991, p147) started between 1979-1983. The privatization process enabled success of major industries, “British Airways” became “highly profitable and successful airline”. (Madsen Pirie, 1989, p10). Even the “British steel” became in Europe the “most productive and profitable”. The Privatization of Jaguar was considered as a “signal for a major change of attitudes in that company”, with “improvement of quality of product, with emphasis on training, cooperation from de workforce as shareholders” (Madsen Pirie, 1989, p11). Between 1983 and 1987 under the second term of Mrs. Thatcher’s privatization program will bring more than 10 billion pounds, or 5 times more than the previous. Privatization enabled companies to decide by themselves concerning investments, strategies, and became ‘synonymous with popular ownership’ (Jenkins, 1989, p370). In 1978-1979, “thirteen out of the eighteen have been privatized’ (Madsen Pirie, 1989, P11). ‘Harold McMillan denounced privatisation as “selling the family silver”.(should I give a comment for this, please help me) (Pugh, 1994, p317). In 1988, the public sector accounted for only 4% of employment and 7% of GDP. Its about the quarter of the public sector companies transferred to the private sector and ‘600,000 employees transferred from the public to private sector’ (Jenkins, 1989, p369). Thatcher encourages the liberalization of initiative; indeed, we observed the growth of entrepreneurship, more of “one million opted to set up their own companies between 1979 and 1987”. (Madsen Pirie, 1989, p15). As new opportunities have been allowed for people working in the deregulated sectors (public transport, air transport, catering) which adhere to the advantage of markets and competition. Private companies have realized the importance of “quality, training and research and development”. (Madsen Pirie, 1989, p15) In the mid 1980s, England experienced a significant rise in “industrial and commercial activity” with an increased number of investments. Indeed, the “North Sea industrial and commercial companies” have achieved a rate of 8% return during the 1970s, which reached 4% in 1981, and increased beyond 10% in 1987. (Madsen Pirie, 1989, p15) Politically, Thatcher government has achieved one of its objectives: the expansion of public shareholding. Shareholders were now outnumbering unionized in the adult population: 20% against 3% in 1979. In addition, three quarters of these new shareholders will own shares in newly privatized companies. (Leruez, 1991, p150). There was a revolution by the expansion of shareholding, ‘one in five of the population become shareholders’ (Jenkins, 1989, p369). ‘From 1979 to 1987, there was an increased from 7 to 20 per cent of the owning shares of the population’ (Jenkins, 1989, p370) On the other hand, the government decided to implement strategies such as “the housing programme” to “encourage home ownership at the expense of council housing” (Madsen Pirie, 1989, p8). The ‘extension of ownership’ was a revolution, ‘a million council tenants purchased their own homes’ (Jenkins, 1989, p369) Others reforms were on trade unions in order to regulate their actions. The 1980 law on labour relations merely limit the company ‘closed shop’, to prohibit sympathy strikes. The 1982 Act is much more restrictive, yet it limits the “closed shop” by requiring that it be approved by 80% of staff concerned and for 5 years only. But it has other limitations: while giving a strict definition of a “conflict of legal work”, it increases the penalties for illegal actions, authorized or even just tolerated by the union involved, with potential fines. The 1984 Act contains mains provisions: It stipulates that a referendum, ‘secret ballots’ (Jenkins, 1989, p370) of members must be held before the strike, without a prior vote conflict becomes illegal. The law requires the ‘election of union executive’ (Jenkins, 1989, p370) every 5 years. With the 1984 Act, we passed from the definition of the legal framework of trade union action to the control of the internal democracy of trade unions. In 1979, the British trade unionism was 13 700 000 members or 54.6% of the workforce (Leruez, 1991, p153). In 1988, union members were only just over 10 000 000, the unionization rate fell to 35%. The primary cause of the decline in unionization is the fall in industrial employment (coal, steel) between 1979 and 1986. The culture that encourages individualism and the poor public image of unions led to the decline of unions. ‘In 1987 only one per cent of voters would consider trade union power to be the chief issue facing the country, when in May 1979, 73 per cent of people had believed to be so’. (Jenkins, 1989, p369). The marginalised membership in Trade unions shows the revolution in the British beliefs, mentalities and is the ‘most singular of her [Thatcher] achievements’ (Jenkins, 1989, p370) The Strikes launched against Thatcher or during Thatcher Administration have been failures (The steel strike in 1980, The strike of public service in 1981). The defeat of the miners in 1984 after a conflict during a year from March 1984 to March 1985 marked a turning point. It was a revolution, the government has managed to resist and endure for a year of strikes in the coalfields and put an end to Arthur Scargill’ actions. (Jenkins, 1989, p369) The other structural reform in the economy was the “taxation”. This reform is directly linked with the general objective of liberation of the individual initiative and to decrease the weight of government on individuals and on businesses. The VAT rate is replaced by a single rate of 15%. The corporate tax decreased from 50% to 35%, but employer contributions to the functioning of social security had greatly increased (under Labour was down). However, individual contributions to Social Security grew faster than the cost of living. The general effect of this global redistribution of taxes was an increase of the poorer part of the population poverty with the existence of inequalities in income and living conditions across regions. (Leruez, 1991, p157) Through these reforms, the government had a budget surplus of 3, 6 billon pounds in fiscal year 1987-1988 and 14 billion from 1988-1989 (including 6 billion pounds from privatizations) The Thatcher measures helped the British economy to perform: between 1979-1983, productivity was 2, 1%, above EEC and OECD performances. Between 1982 and 1988, Britain will record better results than the major OECD partners (Layard
A. Question: Do private safety standards enhance or inhibit access to global value chains? Present your analysis in 200-250 words. Substantiate your analysis with examples and appropriate citation(s). Try and base your analysis around your product or product category for relevance. B. Question: You are the Vice President of Quality and Safety for Brandable, an American e-commerce company that manufactures and sells an assortment of consumable products under its own Brandable label. Founded in July 2017 with a selection of 115 items, many of them health and environmentally-conscious, it has now grown to offer some 5,000 packaged food items. You are asked to identify a third party food safety certification schedule that reflects Brandable’s health and environmental consciousness philosophies. In 200-250 words, identify the food safety auditing scheme you would choose and reasons for your choice. Use bullet points and headings to clearly identify the top three reasons for selecting the scheme you chose. Remember you are in a business now and you need to provide business-specific reasons for your choice to your CEO. I encourage you to look at various trade associations and trade publications to help you with this substantiation. As always, provide citations to substantiate your top three points.
Arkansas Northeastern San Vitale and Justinian Mosaic versus Berberini Ivory Essay.

I’m working on a art writing question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

write a compare and contrast short essay about The Emperor Triumphant and The Justinian Mosaic. The comparison essay should answer the question, “How are objects similar?” and “How are objects different?” The key to a good compare and contrast essay is to organize the sentences by theme where both works of art are discussed all the way through. What are the themes? You can choose any of the formal qualities – such as style, material, size, use of line, etc. that you already read about in Assignment #6 (Week 1 Module). You also should include a discussion of the objects’ functions and meanings. So what was the object used for? who used it? where was it originally located? who was supposed to see or not see the works?The essay should be at least two pages in length, double-spaced, Times New Roman, 12 point font, 1 inch margins. **Remember, the most important thing is to discuss the works together. So for example, if you make a point that the subject matter is similar – you need to explain why that is important and talk about both works together. Or if the subject matter is different – why is it different? what is being portrayed in each work? Here are the links that will help you compare and contrast the two:
Arkansas Northeastern San Vitale and Justinian Mosaic versus Berberini Ivory Essay

Herzing University Importance of Strategic Planning Essay.

Strategic planning often occurs at high managerial levels in an organization (to which you may not have experience with at this time). To gain perspective on the importance of strategic planning, recall a professional experience from the employee perspective on the planning and implementation of a change in the workplace.InstructionsRecall a professional experience wherein a change was occurring and planning was required prior to implementing the change.Examples could include implementation of an electronic medical record software, new processes between departments, new ownership of the clinic/hospital, change in the strategic plan due to failures, etc.).This professional experience will be utilized in the completion of assessments in Units 1-7.Summarize the planning phase of the experience from the employee perspective.Include personal experience as well as descriptions of other employees involved in the experience.Summarize aspects of the planning process that went well as well as challenges experienced.Describe how a strategic plan could have helped mitigate the challenges that arose from the planning phase of the change.
Herzing University Importance of Strategic Planning Essay

Microbial Mats: A Bioreactor of Lithification

Microbial mats: a bioreactor of lithification and an indicator of Earth’s evolution Introduction Microbial mat is a general term that is used to describe a variety of microbial communities that are found at interfaces between different types of material, mostly on submerged or moist surfaces such as estuarine environment and salt marshes (Krumbein et al., 1977; Nicholson et al., 1987). Bacteria and archaea are two main microbes forming the layers. Microbial mats contain a variety of different but essential trophic groups including primary producers, consumers, and decomposers. This is why even though microbial mats are, to an extreme extent, geographically small, they are ecosystems from an ecological perspective. Microbial mats are dynamic ecosystems in which a wide range of metabolic processes take place. Inside this tiny ecosystem, different physical and chemical environments are distinguished by a variety of gradients, include but not limited to light, oxygen and sulfide (Visscher and van den Ende, 1994). The gradients may not be always constant. For example, oxygen concentration may have varied from diurnally to seasonally. In some aquatic systems, it will drop from supersaturated to undetectable within a few centimeters. The light penetration depth is fluctuated because of change of seasons or just with cloud covering. All these temporal environmental oscillations mentioned above, will result in coupled reactions, that are critical to the biogeochemical cycle, like reduction and oxidation of elements such as carbon and sulfur. Therefore, heterogeneity of microbe habitat is a common character that exhibits among all microbial mats. Microbial mat ecosystems can be viewed as a semiclosed system which require little more than sunlight to function, as such it is efficient in all kinds of reactions and element cycling. The relatively simple but functional structures make it, to a certain extent, easy to reach equilibrium and mass balances. Generally, microbial mats tend to have high rates of oxygenic photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, sulfate reduction, and sulfide oxidation (Canfield and Des Marais, 1993; Revsbech et al., 1986), when compared to other benthic ecosystems. A classical view of a microbial mat (Figure 1)(Visscher et al., 2000) is that a fixed sequence of microbial groups exists: starting with oxygenic cyanobacteria as a surface community, underlain by oxygenic phototropic bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria as subsequent layer (Krumbein, 1983). This view, however, was later questioned and revised. Structure and the layers are not a result of different metabolic reaction types, on the contrary, they might be found in association with the cyanobacterial layer. Some research showed that the sulfur reducing bacteria was also found in the surface layer (Fründ and Cohen, 1992; Visscher et al., 1992). Microbial mats and mineral interaction In microbial ecosystems, when the precipitation rate of minerals is faster than that of dissolution, lithification will occur. Precipitations mediated by microbial mats is not limited to carbonates but also constituted by other minerals, such as gypsum and anhydrite (Ehrlich, 1998). Among all these precipitation types, carbonate precipitation is perhaps the most important process as it is directly related to the global carbon cycling. Therefore, in this section, a main focus will be put on sedimentary biofilms in hypersaline environments to help with the interpretation of the rock record. 2.1 Stromatolites and carbonate precipitation Stromatolites are lithifying organic sedimentary structures formed by microorganisms (Figure 2). Carbonate precipitation activities of microbial mats are trapped and recorded in stromatolites layered structures. As such, microbial mats can be viewed as bioreactors (Dupraz et al., 2004a). The stromatolites structure is characterized as an alternating soft and hard layers whose heights ranges from a few centimeters to two meters. The evolutionary processes of stromatolites remain largely uncharacterized (Zavarzin, 2002). There are two major hypotheses. Des Marais (1997) speculated that microbial lithification is a result of by-product of microbial metabolism. On the other hand, McConnaughey and Whelen (1997) suggested that this could be directly related to the consequence of microbes harvesting energy from protons released during calcium carbonate precipitation. However, regardless of origin, stromatolites have thrived for a long history that could be seen as a major evolutionary advance for us to study the Earth’s early history and global biogeochemical cycles. Cyanobacteria have played a crucial role in carbonate precipitation as shown in Figure 3. Two microbially as well as physicochemically controlled factors determine carbonate precipitation: the saturation index (SI) and exopolymeric substances (Lozano-García et al.). SI = log(IAP/Ksp), where IAP denotes the ion activity product (i.e. [Ca2 ]*[CO2-]) and Ksp, the solubility product of the corresponding mineral (10-6.37 for calcite at 25°C, 1bar atmospheric pressure and 35 PSU salinity (Zeebe and Wolf-Gladrow, 2001)). If IAP > Ksp, the solution is supersaturated, and when SI > 0.8, calcite carbonate tends to precipitates (Kempe and Kazmierczak, 1994). Or else, calcite carbonate will dissolve. The [CO32-] depends on the carbonate equilibrium, which comprises three species as followed: H2CO3, HCO3– and CO32-. In another word, pH is influencing the precipitation. Therefore, before investigating how microbial metabolism affect the CaCO3 precipitation, understanding production and consumption of inorganic carbon and the environmental pH change is a prerequisite. EPS act as a chelator for cations and the template for crystal nucleation (Costerton et al., 1995; Decho, 2000). It is constantly modified by including but not limited to UV radiation, pH and microbial degradation (e.g. through hydrolysis, decarboxylation). 2.2 Microbial mats and lithification Contemporary microbial mats, vertically laminated ecosystems, resemble the layered sedimentary structures of stromatolites. As such, they have been attracting extensively research interests for being analogues for stromatolites. Shown in Figure 3, there are 6 different functional groups of microbes exist in microbial mats. From top of the figure to the bottom are: Cyanobacteria act as primary producers, which are believed to affect the trapping and biding of sediments; Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, which gain energy from oxygen respiration and organic carbon; Anoxygenic phototrophs, mainly purple and green bacteria, which using HS- for photosynthesis; Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), which respiring organic carbon with SO2- while producing HS–; Sulfide oxidizing bacteria (SOB), chemolithoautotrophs that oxidize HS– with oxygen or nitrate while fixing CO2; fermenters, using organic carbon or sulfur compounds as electron donor and acceptor. However, this view of the mat composition is facing challenge because nucleic acid sequences will undoubtedly reveal more diverse and complex community structures than the simple classified ones. Cyanobacteria is more like an important mediator of biogeochemical cycle of the mats ecosystem. It produces oxygen for the whole system to be functional (Fenchel, 1998). As mentioned before, the mat ecosystem is very efficient and productive. The relatively high photosynthetic rates, which shows a diurnal fluctuation, will reach its peak in the afternoon. Aerobic heterotrophs respire during the daytime when there is abundant oxygen, thereby creating an anoxia environment at twilight. Fermenters degrade complex organic molecules into smaller ones and benefit the SRB. SOB and anoxyphototrophs have contributed less to carbon fixation comparing with cyanobacteria and the role of fermentation remains ambiguous. All these activities above have resulted in steep vertical geochemical gradients with extreme diel fluctuations (Figure 3). To understand the role of microbial mats in precipitation and dissolution, it is important to determine both the abundance and metabolic activity of these key functional groups. Because the quality and quantity of EPS are largely determined by the metabolic activity of the community. In the previous researches, several microbial mat systems have been found to produce carbonate phases: travertine in hot springs in Yellowstone (Fouke et al., 2000), dolomite in Lagoa Vermelha, Brazil (Vasconcelos and McKenzie, 1997) and Salt Pan, Bahamas (Dupraz et al., 2004a). However, there are still mats that will no lithify or fossilize. So here comes the question, what determines the lithification potential? A previous study, using a combination of geological and microbial techniques, of lithifying microbial mat systems in hypersaline lake system was carried on in Salt Pan in Eleuthera, Bahamas (Dupraz et al., 2004a). The lake is not deep with an average depth less than 60cm. From the shoreline towards the center of the lake, a gradient from lithifying mats to jellylike soft mats exists (Figure 4). The shallow water column was found to contain cyanobacterial pigments that efficiently quench the sunlight. Not surprisingly, the photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, sulfate reduction are generally higher and geochemical gradients are steeper in the shallower lithifying mats. Moreover, EPS is easily destructed by strong UV radiation in shallower mats. This process helps with removing inhibition of precipitation by releasing more Ca2 into the environment. The combination of these processes benefits carbonate precipitation. 2.3 Microstructure of precipitation and EPS UV radiation will cause browning reactions, dehydration and alkalinity. However, EPS production in stromatolite mat can prevent damages such as desiccation of the mat, retains essential nutrients, and provides water channels for transporting metabolites and signaling compounds (Costerton et al., 1995; Decho, 2000). Decho, A.W. et al. (Decho et al., 2005) had shown that EPS production in a stromatolite mat accounted only for 8% of 14HCO3–uptake during the light, and a rapid turnover followed during the dark. They concluded that despite the fast rate of production, the net EPS production was low. The production and consumption are in equilibrium. Once being hydrolyzed, EPS components were readily consumed by the mat community, particularly anaerobes instead of aerobes. This is somehow surprising that when Schizothrix EPS, xanthan, or sugar and amino acid monomers and polymers that comprise EPS were supplied in mats, stimulation of anaerobic heterotrophic activity stimulation was greater than aerobic heterotrophs activity (Decho et al., 2005; Visscher et al., 2000). The combined action of fermentative organisms and SRB could be responsible for this high consumption rate. Oxygen levels are influenced by the rapid and extensive diurnal fluctuations as well as cloud cover and O2-consuming cell clusters in the EPS can produce anoxic microenvironments, therefore, the anaerobic pathway plays an important role in microbial EPS degradation. EPS can not only release Ca2 and HCO3– during microbial alteration, but also influence chemical gradients, which will in turn affect the mineral phases. The EPS matrix preferably slows down the mobility of hydrated Mg2 , therefore, temporarily increase relative abundance of Ca2 (Figure 5). The delay of Mg diffusion would lead to a decrease of the Mg2 :Ca2 ratio of mineral products forming inside the EPS (Verrecchia et al., 1995). As mentioned above, changes in the amount or type of EPS could influence the rate of precipitation or types of crystals formed. 2.4 Microbial metabolism and saturation index Simple redox reactions form the basis of microbial metabolism. These metabolic reactions often involve C and either O, S or N (Figure 3;(Fenchel, 1998)). Daytime and nighttime metabolism of the six key functional groups is typically different, especially when it is influenced by oxygen and sunlight. Chemical alterations of the microenvironment that result from different metabolic reactions might change the alkalinity and thus facilitate carbonate precipitation or dissolution (Visscher and Stolz, 2005). Microbial mats have a high metabolic activities, thus it is not surprising that the rapid SI changes, despite the internal buffering capacity of the carbonate system, would result in a chemical alteration of the microenvironment. High rates of cyanobacterial photosynthesis cause a rapid depletion of CO2, which challenge the resilience or reestablishment of the carbonate equilibrium, and the increasing alkalinity will results in carbonateprecipitation through removal of the H–that is produced in the latter reaction. It should be noted that in these reactions, organic carbon is assumed to be CH2O and different outcomes are expected with different organic compounds. For example, CO2produced bythe decomposition of carboxylic acids, will potentially increase the carbonate alkalinity by CO2degassing(Visscher et al., 1992). As such, this could probably explain why heterotrophic aerobes have been shown to precipitate carbonate. Microbial mats as an indicator of sulfur evolution The sulfur cycle has evolved over the long history of the Earth, with the concentration and the isotopic fractional abundance much different between Precambrian and contemporaneous environment (Cameron, 1982). The surface environment of the early Earth was basically reducing. Little atmospheric oxygen existed. Even though it is still under debate how the oxygen was produced at first, a majority of researchers believe that the history of atmospheric oxygen and seawater sulphate are closely linked (Habicht and Canfield, 1996; Ohmoto et al., 1993; Walker and Brimblecombe, 1985). Sulphate in Archaean and early Proterozoic sediment was found to be consistent in 34S depletion, which is similar to meteorites and mantle-derived igneous rocks (Cameron, 1982; Monster et al., 1979). Moreover, sulphate level was found to positively influence the rate of 34S depletion as lower levels sulphate (<1mM) was observed with less 34S depletion (Harrison and Thode, 1958). These mean that sulphides may be result from either one of them: bacterial sulphate reduction in low concentrations of seawater sulphate or a mantle origin. On the contrary, in pure cultures experiment, sulphate bacteria slowly, rather than in a high rate, produced most 34S-depleted sulphides when abundant of sulphate was provided, a phenomenon showing that 34S depletion will increase as the sulphate reduction rate decrease because of high levels of sulphate(Chambers et al., 1975; Kaplan and Rittenberg, 1964). In 1996, a study of microbial mats of Solar Lake, Sinai had proved that the latter view was not true. Habicht and Canfield reported large 34S depletion observed during rapid sulphate reduction by sulphate-reducing bacteria in modern photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats (Habicht and Canfield, 1996). Their result supported the view that sedimentary sulphides formed in Archaean and early Proterozoic are likely to be originated from biological or mantle sources. Hence they concluded that high sulphate concentrations give rise to highly 34S-depleted sulphides and thus that the concentrations of seawater sulphate did not accumulate until the initial accumulation of oxygen into the atmosphere, which is between 2.2-2.3 Gyr when large early Proterozoic burial pulse of organic matter started. Conclusions * This part will be written after the peer review. Mainly because I need some advices to see if I should write something more about the Sulphur or not. The problem is that mats and the carbonate lithification is not enough to write a 10 page paper. But if I need to write a Sulphur part, than I would need to do more work and write more about it. It is interesting but I am not sure if I have enough time to do that. * REFERENCES: Cameron, E. (1982) Sulphate and sulphate reduction in early Precambrian oceans. Nature 296, 145-148. Canfield, D.E. and Des Marais, D.J. (1993) Biogeochemical cycles of carbon, sulfur, and free oxygen in a microbial mat. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57, 3971-3984. Chambers, L.A., Trudinger, P.A., Smith, J.W. and Burns, M.S. (1975) Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by continuous cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 21, 1602-1607. Costerton, J., Lewandowski, Z., Caldwell, D., Korber, D. and Lappin-Scott, H. (1995) Microbial biofilms-Annu. Rev. Microbio 49, 711-745. Decho, A.W. (2000) Microbial biofilms in intertidal systems: an overview. Continental shelf research 20, 1257-1273. Decho, A.W., Visscher, P.T. and Reid, R.P. (2005) Production and cycling of natural microbial exopolymers (EPS) within a marine stromatolite. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 219, 71-86. Des Marais, D.J. (1997) Long-term evolution of the biogeochemical carbon cycle. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 35, 429-448. Dupraz, C. and Visscher, P.T. (2005) Microbial lithification in marine stromatolites and hypersaline mats. Trends in microbiology 13, 429-438. Dupraz, C., Visscher, P.T., Baumgartner, L. and Reid, R. (2004a) Microbe-mineral interactions: early carbonate precipitation in a hypersaline lake (Eleuthera Island, Bahamas). Sedimentology 51, 745-765. Dupraz, C., Visscher, P.T., Baumgartner, L.K. and Reid, R.P. (2004b) Microbe-mineral interactions: early carbonate precipitation in a hypersaline lake (Eleuthera Island, Bahamas). Sedimentology 51, 745-765. Ehrlich, H.L. (1998) Geomicrobiology: its significance for geology. Earth-Science Reviews 45, 45-60. Fenchel, T. (1998) Artificial cyanobacterial mats: cycling of C, O, and S. Aquatic microbial ecology 14, 253-259. Fouke, B.W., Farmer, J.D., Des Marais, D.J., Pratt, L., Sturchio, N.C., Burns, P.C. and Discipulo, M.K. (2000) Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA). Journal of Sedimentary Research 70, 565-585. Fründ, C. and Cohen, Y. (1992) Diurnal cycles of sulfate reduction under oxic conditions in cyanobacterial mats. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58, 70-77. Habicht, K.S. and Canfield, D.E. (1996) Sulphur isotope fractionation in modern microbial mats and the evolution of the sulphur cycle. Nature 382, 342. Harrison, A.G. and Thode, H.G. (1958) Mechanism of the bacterial reduction of sulphate from isotope fractionation studies. Transactions of the Faraday Society 54, 84-92. Kaplan, I. and Rittenberg, S. (1964) Microbiological fractionation of sulphur isotopes. Microbiology 34, 195-212. Kempe, S. and Kazmierczak, J. (1994) The role of alkalinity in the evolution of ocean chemistry, organization of living systems, and biocalcification processes. 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(1995) Spherulites in calcrete laminar crusts: biogenic CaCO3 precipitation as a major contributor to crust formation. Journal of Sedimentary research 65. Visscher, P.T., Prins, R.A. and van Gemerden, H. (1992) Rates of sulfate reduction and thiosulfate consumption in a marine microbial mat. FEMS Microbiology Letters 86, 283-293. Visscher, P.T., Reid, R.P. and Bebout, B.M. (2000) Microscale observations of sulfate reduction: correlation of microbial activity with lithified micritic laminae in modern marine stromatolites. Geology 28, 919-922. Visscher, P.T. and Stolz, J.F. (2005) Microbial mats as bioreactors: populations, processes, and products. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 219, 87-100. Visscher, P.T. and van den Ende, F.P. (1994) Diel and spatial fluctuations of sulfur transformations, in: Stal, L.J., Caumette, P. (Eds.), Microbial Mats: Structure, Development and Environmental Significance. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 353-359. 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the issue of race loom so large, and why was it so divisive in the American experience from 1492 to 1865?

online assignment help the issue of race loom so large, and why was it so divisive in the American experience from 1492 to 1865?. 5 -6 paragraph essay (500-700 words) responding to the question below, using McEvoy’s Rule of Five and all of the writing tips you have practiced all semester, and employing the criteria listed below. The Question: In your informed opinion why did the issue of race loom so large, and why was it so divisive in the American experience from 1492 to 1865? The Criteria: Use sources from Gorn and Hollitz as supporting and refuting evidence. Employ evidence from the entire course starting in 1492 and moving through 1865.the issue of race loom so large, and why was it so divisive in the American experience from 1492 to 1865?

Developing Personal Goals for Career Development

Abstract Planning goals is one step towards the development of a career. To achieve a goal, one must plan on how to make this happen. You just don’t wake up one day and decide that this is what I want to achieve without first of all considering the ways and means of achieving that and the possible hindrances on the way. It is important to break down your goals because it is through this that that you are setting reasonable goals as well as creating a long term plan. It is also important to make a plan to achieve the goals that you have set. A goal that has been set but does not have a plan remains just that. A goal. That is why people have visions, dreams, ideas and intentions but these never happen because they have not been planned. Goal planning helps when you want to advance your career and a good goal should not necessarily be time bound. One needs to select an area of specialization as a target to your goals. In this case I have chosen Nurse Consultant as my area of specialization. This is the role which I will focus during my master’s degree in a nursing program. I have expounded on the areas that I am competent in, and the potential areas that are of interest to me. I have chosen to specialize in nurse consultancy because this is a new field that is not heavily crowded. Hence there is a greater chance of getting employment and if not, I can still employ myself by opening a nurse consultancy. Introduction There is a need for people to set their own goals in life. The first step is usually setting goals that are not too high but which all in all present a challenge. This means that goals must be reasonable, attainable and achievable. One must then develop a plan on how to achieve the set goals because goals with no plans are simply fantasies. Also the goals that one sets must have a challenge. This is because what you have already achieved does not pose a challenge at all. SMAART planning methods are a necessary guide to achieving goals. SMAART goals are Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Action Oriented, Results oriented and Time-phased. This means that you should say what you want to achieve clearly and concisely, you should have a unit of measure for your goals hence they should be objective rather than subjective, should be realistic, should be written in an active rather than a passive voice, one should focus on end results and at least one should set a deadline to achieve the stated goals. My main goal in life is to be a fully qualified and successful nurse and work with the best institution in the country so as to help all the people regardless of their backgrounds. I plan to achieve this by completing my BSN and then after attaining a MSN. Career goal. My goal in life is to be a senior nurse in the best institutions in this country. I want to be a highly qualified nurse with an MSN.This I want to achieve by obtaining a masters degree from a nursing institution. I am aiming to attain this after completing my BSN which I will this year on June. After this I want to get a good highly paying job at the best institution in this country and it is after this that I will consider myself successful. I am a registered nurse with the National Health Service (NHS). I am currently working two jobs one as a Children’s nurse and the other one as a tutor in a small business college. Professional short term goal My professional short term goals is to better my career by attaining the BSN. When I achieve this, my career will have improved in terms of services that I will offer because I will have improved my scope of knowledge Professional long term goal. My professional long-term goal is to be the head nurse of a National hospital. This I can achieve after attaining my MSN. Personal short term goal My personal short term goal is to work just one job that is well paying because taking two jobs is becoming cumbersome on my part. Personal long term goal I want to earn more money and change my lifestyle want to have a good life and a nice car. I also want to buy a better house in a more posh and safer neighborhood also want to move away from my current home which I have rented and into a new home that I own. Needed skills The skills needed to achieve the goals I have set for myself include personal skills, social skills, and professional skills, educational and thinking skills Personal skills I need Self awareness in order to identify my own needs, attitudes, feelings, strengths and weaknesses in order to achieve my goals. I will also actively identify and utilize a wide range of all the available resources and seek other viewpoints and opinions. I will consider actively the implications of my studies on my daily activities and my job. That is why I have come up with a well developed but dynamic plan. I will consistently motivate myself and assure myself that I can make it no matter what. I will listen to other people’s opinion share with them and ask their support whenever I need it. I will work closely with my colleagues both in campus and at the job. I will make sure that I achieve my MSN so that my long term goals can be achieved. Management of time. I will need to routinely use time well and ensure that I have not wasted any time on unnecessary activities. When I enroll for my masters, I will drop one job so that may concentrate more on my studies. Milestones for achieving the goals. Short term goals After completing my BSN degree. when I start working one well paying job Long-term goals when I become the head nurse of a National hospital When I build my own house. When I move out of my neighborhood into a better high class neighborhood. Hindrances Fear-this is one of the barriers that may prevent me from achieving the goals. This may be fear of not fairing well in my BSN which may inurn inhibit me from enrolling for my MSN. I am also afraid that my application for masters may be declined. I plan to work hard to ensure that such an occurrence will not happen. Unsupportive people-I have many friends and relatives who do not have the level of education that I have. They usually discourage me a lot and tell me to stop harassing myself with books and that I have two jobs. I plan to keep them off and to those that I cannot; I will simply ignore and /or assume them. Conclusion Personal commitment and dedication will be required to achieve the above goals. I will have to work with other people closely to achieve my long term and short term goals. This is because no man is an island. I will avoid negative thinking completely and work on being optimistic and motivated. I must have a strong drive and belief that I will achieve these goals. Though I have not stated a particular deadline, I plan to attain these goals in stages and to finally achieve my long term goals within the next 5years.i will also trust in God and pray unto him to make my plans come into fulfillment. Recommendations A personal goal plan should be realistic and attainable. There is need for each and every person to write up a personal goal plan. This will help one know what he is aiming in life and also what one has achieved so far. Goals may change and therefore one need to critically think what he/she wants in life before listing down the goals. Even after there is a change in goals one should not see him/herself as a failure. In that case, one should write up new goals and aim to achieve them. Change of short term goals does not necessarily mean a change in the long-term goals. References Chapman, A. (2007). Goal Planning Templates for Personal and Organizational Aims. Retrieved February 09 Mind tools ltd (2010).Essential Skills For an Excellent Career. Retrieved 09 February Peterson, D. (2008). How To Write SMAART Goals and Objectives. Retrieved February 09 Johansen, K. (1996). The Business Focus of HRD Leaders. Paper presented at the 1996 Academy of Human Resource Development Conference held in Minneapolis in February, 1996. Legge, M. Career tools retrieved February 4, 2010 from Rouda, H.



To prepare for this Discussion:Review this week’s Learning Resources and media program related to multiple regression.Create a research question using the General Social Survey that can be answered by multiple regression.By Day 3Use SPSS to answer the research question. Post your response to the following:What is your research question?What is the null hypothesis for your question?What research design would align with this question?What dependent variable was used and how is it measured?What independent variable is used and how is it measured?What other variables were added to the multiple regression models as controls?What is the justification for adding the variables?If you found significance, what is the strength of the effect?Explain your results for a lay audience, explain what the answer to your research question.Be sure to support your Main Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.Required ReadingsFrankfort-Nachmias, C., Leon-Guerrero, A., & Davis, G. (2020). Social statistics for a diverse society (9th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Chapter 12, “Regression and Correlation” (pp. 401-457) (previously read in Week 8)Wagner, III, W. E. (2020). Using IBM® SPSS® statistics for research methods and social science statistics (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Chapter 11, “Editing Output” (previously read in Week 2, 3, 4, 5. 6, 7, and 8)By Day 5Respond to at least one of your colleagues’ posts and comment on the following:Do you think the variables are appropriately used? Why or why not?Does the addition of the control variables make sense to you? Why or why not?Does the analysis answer the research question? Be sure and provide constructive and helpful comments for possible improvement.If there was a significant effect, comments on the strength and its meaningfulness.As a lay reader, were you able to understand the results and their implications? Why or why not?

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