INTRODUCTION Dyes have become part of daily living. What’s great about dyes is that they give variety to everything. Even the earliest humans used dyes to put color into their worlds, and they even used the most peculiar sources of the colors. Since then, dyes have dominated different kinds of industries. Before, dye manufacturers were only able to produce one color at a time. But now, dyes come in different colors and types as well. Dyes today are easier to use compared to earlier forms of dyes, because previous dye makers got their materials from animals, minerals, or any other common things that were never thought could produce colors.
This study is stimulated by queries such as how colored substances got their color and how do these colors last on fabrics. This investigation aims to explore the possibility of coming up with an effective product from recycled materials through the use of talisay extract to produce dye. The talisay Fruit is smooth and ellipsoid, 3 to 6 centimeters long, and prominently bi-ridged or keeled down to the sides. Pericarp is fibrous and fleshy, the endocarp hard. Leaves are shiny, obviate, 10 to 25 centimeters long, tapering below to a narrow and heart-shaped base with a expanded rounded apex.
When the fruit is chewed it produces a red-bitter substance can produce a dye. Statement of the Problem This research study aims to produce a dye from talisay. And seeks to answer the following sub questions: 1. What are the chemical contents of Talisay which makes it as an effective dye? 2. What processes should talisay undergo to be an effective dye? 3. What are the significant difference of talisay dye from the commercial dye in terms of: a. Color b. Texture c. Cost Hypotheses: Alternative: There is a significant difference between dye from talisay and the commercial dye.
Null: There is no significant difference between dye from talisay and the commercial dye. Significance of the study This research study aims to produce fabric dye from talisay fruit without wasting much time and money. This is very useful because talisay is known to produce a red substance that can be a useful dye. This study helps to produce a dye that is cheaper and economic friendly dye. Conceptual Framework Scope and Limitation This study will be conducted at the researcher’s residence, Bari Mangaldan, Pangasinan. This study focuses on frequent users of fabric dye.
It is to be presented to ages 10 and above. Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Talisay T. catappa is widely grown in tropical regions of the world as an ornamental tree, grown for the deep shade its large leaves provide. The fruit is edible, tasting slightly acidic. The wood is red and solid, and has high water resistance; it has been used in Polynesia for making canoes. In Tamil, almond is known nattuvadumai. The leaves contain several flavonoids (such as kaempferol or quercetin), several tannins (such as punicalin, punicalagin or tercatin), saponines andphytosterols.
Due to this chemical richness, the leaves (and the bark) are used in different herbal medicines for various purposes. For instance in Taiwan, fallen leaves are used as an herb to treat liver diseases. In Suriname, a tisane made from the leaves is prescribed against dysentery anddiarrhea. The leaves may contain agents for prevention of cancers (although they have no demonstrated ant carcinogenic properties) and antioxidants, as well as anticlastogenic characteristics. Extracts of T. catappa have shown activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ)-resistant (FcB1) and CQ-sensitive (HB3) strains.
Keeping the leaves in an aquarium may lower the pH and heavy metal content of the water. It has been used in this way by fish breeders for many years, and is active against some parasites and bacterial pathogens. ] It is also believed to help prevent fungus forming on the eggs of the fish http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Terminalia_catappa Uses Edibility / Nutrition – Kernels are edible, with a sweet-acidic pericarp. – Seeds are a good source of minerals; in descending order: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium. Folkloric – Red leaves are used to expel worms. – Fruit is said to be purgative.
– Leaves mixed with oil are rubbed onto the breast to relieve mammary pain. – Bark is used for gastric ailments, bilious diarrhea and dysentery. – The sap of young leaves mixed with the kernel oil has been used for the treatment of leprosy. – Bark decoction has been used for the treatment of gonorrhea and stomach cramps. – Leaves are applied to rheumatic joints. – Juice of young leaves used for scabies and other cutaneous diseases, headaches and colic. – Leaves macerated in oil has been used for tonsillitis. – In Sri Lankan folklore, juice of tender leaves used for pains, including headaches.
– In India, the bark is used as a diuretic and cardiotonic; leaves used for headache. – In Nigeria, leaves macerated in palm oil used for tonsillitis; stems and bark used for sexual dysfunction. – Seeds have been used for sexual dysfunction. Others – Kernel contains a fixed oil, 51-63% called Indian Almond oil, oil of Badamier, or in the Philippines, as Talisay oil. Studies • Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective: Study of leaf extracts of TC and an isolated antioxidant, corilagin, was found to provide hepatoprotection in experimentally induced liver injury through suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Topical application of ethanol and chloroform extracts of leaves in induced acute and chronic ear edema in mice showed reduced inflammation. • Antimicrobial: Study of the methanolic extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa showed inhibitory activity on B subtilis and S aureus. Phytochemical analysis yielded saponin, saponin glycosides, steroid, cardiac glycoside, tannins, volatile oils, phenols and balsam (gum). • Antimetastatic: Study showed extract of TC leaves exerted an inhibitory effect on invasion and motility of highly metastatic lung carcinoma cells.
It suggests TCE could be a potential antimetastatic agent. • Antinociceptive: Study of the leaf extract of TC concludes that it is useful as an analgesic, supporting it folkloric use in Sri Lanka. • Squalene / Antioxidant: Squalene was identified from the leaf extract of TC. The extract of leaves exhibited potent antioxidative and scavenging activities. • Anti-Diabetic: Study of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of T catappa all produced significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses.
Histological studies of the pancreas earlier necrosed by alloxan showed regeneration by methanolic and aqueous extracts. • Anti-Diabetic: Damage to pancreas in alloxan-treated diabetic control and regeneration of ? -cells by glibenclamide was observed. A comparable regeneration was noted with aqueous and cold extracts. • Aphrodisiac: Reports of Terminalia catappa seeds showing aphrodisiac activities in male rates. • Anti-inflammatory / Triterpenic Acids: Study of ethanolic extract of leaves yielded triterpenic acids responsible for the antiinflammatory activity of T catappa leaves.
• Antiparasitic / Antibacterial / Antifungal: Study looked into T catappa as an alternative to the use of chemicals and antibiotics in the aquaculture industry. Results showed eradication of Trichodina, fish ectoparasites, at 800 ppm. Ongoing research is being done to isolate the active ingredients in the Indian almond for fish pathogen treatment. • Antibacterial / Ornamental Fish Culture: Study evaluated the concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in a water extract of leaves and it’s in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals.
Results indicated a potential for use as antibacterial alternative for ornamental fish culture. • Oil / Biodiesel Potential: Study of castanhola in Brazil showed the oil obtained from the fruit kernels to yield around 49% (%mass). The fatty acid composition was similar to other conventional oils. Study of physiochemical properties of the TC biodiesel showed to be in acceptable range for use as in dieselengines. • Livestock Feed: The mesocarp of T catappa contain major nutrients of carbohydrate, oil and metal ions (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn) provide for biochemical activities required for livestock feed formulation.
• Antidiabetic: Study reports the leaf extracts exhibited significant blood glucose lowering in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. • Anthelmintic: Study of TC leaves showed anthelmintic activity through inhibition of motility and survivability of larvae of T. colubriforis, C curticei and H. contortus. • Hepatoprotective / D-Galactosamine / Radical Scavenging: TC leaf extract showed hepatoprotective effect against D-Galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced liver injury. There was dose-dependent inhibition of mitrochondrial swelling with dose-dependent superoxide radicals scavenging activity.
• Antimicrobial: Study demonstrated antimicrobial activity, more pronounced against bacteria than fungal strains. • Nutritional Properties of Seed and Oil: Seeds were found to be a good source of minerals. Oil contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic and linoleic acids. Dominant saturated acids were palmitic and stearic acids. Oil extracts exhibited good physiochemical properties and a potential usefulness as edible oils and industrial applications. • Erythropoiesis Enhancement: Study evaluated the potential of Terminalia catappa to induce erythropoiesis in adult Balb C mice.
A methanolic extract of T. catappa exhibited erythropoietic potential, inducing production of hemoglobin higher than untreated control. • Toxicological Study / Leaves: Study evaluated three different doses of T. catappa crude aqueous extract in two stages of toxicity. Results showed no toxicological effects on Sprague-Dawley white rats in a 14-day experimental period. • Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study of an aqueous extract of leaves showed analgesic activity which may be mediated through both central and peripheral mechanisms.
• Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of T. catappa and T. arjuna for in-vitro antifungal activity against A. niger, A. alternata, C. lunata and T. tonsurans. Both showed antifungal activities, with T. arjuna showing better efficacy. Methanol extract showed best activity with Curvularia lunata. • Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of T. catappa leaves and bark for antibacterial activity against clinical (sensitive and MDR) and ATCC strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, and MRSA Staphylococcus aureus.
Bark extracts showed better activity compared to the leaves extracts, and the methanolic extract the most active of all the extracts. • Hepatoprotective / Leaves / CCl4-Induced Toxicity / Triterpenoids: Study evaluated a chloroform extract of leaves on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage and D-galactosamine induced injury. The chloroform extracts yielded ursolic acid and asiatic acid, which dose-dependently inhibited Ca2++-induced mitrochondrial swelling. The hepatoprotective activity attributed to protection of the liver mitrochondria and scavenging action of free radicals.
• Natural Anti-solar Agent / Fruit: Study evaluated the UV absorption ability of a methanol extract of fruit of Terminalia catappa as an application as anti-solar agent. Results showed maximum absorbance at 200nm, good absorbance at 240nm to 300 nm, and moderate absorbance at 300-360nm. • Antitumor / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of a methanolic extract of leaves of T. catappa against Ehrlich ascitic lymphoma (ELA) in Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant antitumor activity, with the extract bringing back the altered levels of hematological parameters and liver enzymes. http://www. stuartxchange.
com/Talisay. html Dye A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and requires a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber. Both dyes and pigments appear to be colored because they absorb some wavelengths of light more than others. In contrast with a dye, a pigment generally is insoluble, and has no affinity for the substrate. Some dyes can be precipitated with an inert salt to produce a lake pigment, and based on the salt used they could be aluminum lake, calcium lake or barium lake pigments.
Dyed flax fibers have been found in the Republic of Georgia dated back in a prehistoric cave to 36,000 BP. Archaeological evidence shows that, particularly in India and Phoenicia, dyeing has been widely carried out for over 5,000 years. The dyes were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral origin, with none to very little processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from the plant kingdom, notably roots, berries, bark, leaves and wood, but only a few have ever been used on a commercial scale. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Dye One of the big draws to Perfect World is character customization.
What better way to continue that customization than to give your character their own sense of fashion. While there is a wide assortment of styles available in the boutique, you may not always get a color that appeal to you. Luckily, there are Dyes, or Pigments, available to change the color of your clothes. http://pwi-wiki. perfectworld. com/index. php/Dye_Information Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates, or minerals. The majority of natural dyes are vegetable dyes from plant sources –roots, berries, bark, leaves, and wood—and other organic sources such as fungi and lichens.
Archaeologists have found evidence of textile dyeing dating back to the Neolithic period. In China, dyeing with plants, barks and insects has been traced back more than 5,000 years. The essential process of dyeing changed little over time. Typically, the dye material is put in a pot of water and then the textiles to be dyed are added to the pot, which is heated and stirred until the color is transferred. Textile fibre may be dyed before spinning(“dyed in the wool”), but most textiles are “yarn-dyed” or “piece-dyed” after weaving.
Many natural dyes require the use of chemicals called mordants to bind the dye to the textile fibres; tannin from oak galls, salt, natural alum, vinegar, and ammonia from stale urine were used by early dyers. Many mordants, and some dyes themselves, produce strong odors, and large-scale dyeworks were often isolated in their own districts. Throughout history, people have died their textiles using common, locally available materials, but scarce dyestuffs that produced brilliant and permanent colors such as the natural invertebrate dyes, Tyrian purple and crimson kermes, became highly prized luxury items in the ancient and medieval world.
Plant-based dyes such as woad (Isatis tinctoria), indigo, saffron, and madder were raised commercially and were important trade goods in the economies of Asia and Europe. Across Asia and Africa, patterned fabrics were produced using resist dyeing techniques to control the absorption of color in piece-dyed cloth. Dyes such as cochineal and logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum) were brought to Europe by the Spanish treasure fleets, and the dyestuffs of Europe were carried by colonists to America. The discovery of man-made synthetic dyes in the mid-19th century triggered a long decline in the large-scale market for natural dyes.
Synthetic dyes, which could be produced in large quantities, quickly superseded natural dyes for the commercial textile production enabled by the industrial revolution, and unlike natural dyes, were suitable for the synthetic fibers that followed. Artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement preferred the pure shades and subtle variability of natural dyes, which mellow with age but preserve their true colors, unlike early synthetic dyes,and helped ensure that the old European techniques for dyeing and printing with natural dyestuffs were preserved for use by home and craft dyers.
Natural dyeing techniques are also preserved by artisans in traditional cultures around the world. In the early 21st century, the market for natural dyes in the fashion industry is experiencing resurgence. Western consumers have become more concerned about the health and environmental impact of synthetic dyes in manufacturing and there is a growing demand for products that use natural dyes. The European Union, for example, has encouraged Indonesian batik cloth producers to switch to natural dyes to improve their export market in Europe. Chapter III
METHODOLOGY Methodology contains the research design, the variables and materials, procedures in data gathering, the experimental flowchart of the study and statistical treatment used. Research Design This research study will be using completely randomized design (CRD). And this research design will test the potency of Talisay terminalia cattapa as an effective fabric dye. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and T-test will be utilized and statistical tools to test the significant difference of the talisay fabric sye and the commercial dye.
Materials and Equipment Casserole Bowl Stove Mortar and Pestle Strainer Talisay Procedures First you must prepare all the materials needed. After preparing, extract the coloring. If you will use leaves, extract it by sleeping it into half cup of hot water. If roots of talisay will be used as coloring, grind it in the mortar and pestle then cover with half cup of hot water. And if you will use Annatto seeds, extract it by covering with half cup of hot water.
After extracting separate the dye from the solid particles by pouring it to the strainer. Add 2 teaspoon of alum into the coloring in a bowl. Add 3 teaspoon of cassava starch. Heat the casserole in the stove and pour the solution if the casserole is already hot. Stir until it becomes sticky. If it is sticky enough remove the casserole in the stove and wait for it to cool. If it hot anymore, you can transfer it in the container. Variables Independent: Talisay fruit and Extraxt Dependent: Fabric Dye Control: Commercial Dye
There are 3 questions that need to be answered. The first two are tables(which i have attached). For there tables,
There are 3 questions that need to be answered. The first two are tables(which i have attached). For there tables, kindly please just complete them. For the table in Question B, please structure answers as ‘write a description on each one and how the work is allocated’. For the table in Question C, please structure answers as ‘write a description on each one and how that form of communication could be applied to the (cleaning team) When answering all 3 questions, please ensure you relate them to the given scenario, which I have attached. Thanks:)
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