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The Poem The Tyger By William Blake English Literature Essay

Introduction The poem ‘The Tyger’ belongs to ‘Songs of Experience’ which was written by the romantic poet William Blake. It was published in London in 1794. The Tyger is the most reflective poem on the way Blake viewed the world. It is full of imagery that captured the emotions of the time period. This paper will commence by giving a small summary and it will move on to analyze the poem with regard to style, tone, irony, diction, word order, images, figures of speech, symbols, allegory, sounds, patterns of rhyme and poetic form and finally conclude by giving a critique in the form of a personal response. Summary William Blake’s “The Tyger” is an interesting moral critique of Protestant Christianity, or more specifically, a theological query into the motivations of creation itself. Blake’s “The Tyger” builds upon the religious Christian theme of its poetic predecessor and goes on to ask questions concerning what Blake believed to be the existence of evil, the hatred of creation, and the Judeo-Christian God’s apparent desire to punish that which he creates. “The Tyger” brings light many problems that would be the philosophical and theological cornerstone of his Romantic artistry. Analysis William Blake (1757 – 1827) was born in London, England. He displayed a lot of creativity at a very young age. Unfortunately, he didn’t have enough funding to get institutionalized education beyond a drawing school. Therefore, he went took an apprenticeship at the age of fourteen under a London engraver as engraving was a necessary industry in the 18th century, as much of the book printing and illustration at the time was in high demand. (D. Wu) Blake’s lifelong profession as an engraver played a crucial role in how his poetry was published; indeed the two most significant aspects that lead to his most famous works, such as “The Tyger”, were his theological views of the Protestant Church and the preferred medium for his poetry: engraving. He read passionately and was a classic example of uninstitutionalized self-tutelage, but perhaps his greatest strength as a Romantic poet was his unique and original interpretation of the King James Bible and his undeniable talent in art. (Friedlander R.) “The Tyger” by William Blake is a popular example of his artistic unions between theologically critical Romantic poetry and the prints that he used as a medium for expressing them. William Blake shows us his fear when he sees this terrible tiger in the night and he exaggerates the description of the animal by saying, “Tyger! Tyger! Burning bright, In the forests of the night…” The poem contains six quatrains; and its rhyme is assonant, and follows perfectly the pattern aabb due to, in the case of the first and the sixth stanzas, the word ‘symmetry’ is pronounced in such a way that it rhymes with ‘eye’. Because of the simple structure and vocabulary, the reader is able understand the main topics and concepts, which are Evil and Good. These two essential ideas are symbolised in the ‘Tyger’. (Friedlander R.) The word ‘immortal’ gives the reader a hint that the poet refers to God. Then, the author wonders in what outlying places the tyger was made, meaning that these places cannot be reached by any human. Once the tiger’s heart began to beat yet again the poet asks, who could make such a frightening and evil animal. William Blake asks questions about the tools used by God. And he names the hammer, the chain, the furnace, and anvil. All these elements are used by an ironsmith. Therefore, according to the poet, God is a kind of craftsman. We can also find a semantic field related to Nature like, for example, ‘forests’, ‘skies’, ‘Tyger’, and ‘Lamb’. Nevertheless, the poet used a semantic field related to the creation of the ‘Tyger’. Following that, In the fifth stanza, the poet asks two significant questions. The first one refers to God’s feelings, “Did he smile his work to see?” Which means, was God happy with his creation? And in the second question he asks, “Did he who made the Lamb make thee?” The setting of “The Tiger” or the worlds this poem seems to conjure up are extremely diverse. In general, though it takes place in the abstract, without much more than “Forests of the night,” and “distant deeps or skies,” to give the reader any sense of location. The body parts referenced in this poem are hands, eyes, shoulders, and feet, which are examples of synecdoche. Therefore, the phrase “immortal hand” refers the whole being or person that the hand belongs to, while at the same time focusing on the hands as the means of creation. The eye represents the whole body and person, but also focuses our attention on the faculty of sight. (The Tyger) “The Tiger” presents a question that embodies the central theme: Who created the tiger? Was it the kind and loving God who made the lamb? Or was it Satan? Blake presents his question by saying, “What immortal hand or eye, Could frame thy fearful symmetry?” Blake realizes that God made all the creatures on earth. However, to express his bewilderment that the God who created the gentle lamb also created the terrifying tiger, he includes Satan as a possible creator while raising his rhetorical questions. Deeps appears to refer to hell and skies to heaven. In either case, there would be fire, the fire of hell or the fire of the stars. Of course, there can be no contradicting that the tiger symbolizes evil, or the personification of evil, and that the lamb represents goodness, or Christ. Blake’s inquiry is a variation on an old philosophical and theological question: Why does evil exist in a universe created and ruled by a kind God? Blake provides no answer. His mission is to reflect reality in arresting images. A poet’s first purpose, after all, is to present the world and its denizens in language that stimulates the aesthetic sense; he is not to exhort or moralize. Nevertheless, the poem does stir the reader to deep thought. Here is the tiger, fierce and brutal in its quest for sustenance; there is the lamb, meek and gentle in its quest for survival. Is it possible that the same God who made the lamb also made the tiger? Or was the tiger the devil’s work? The poem is more about the creator of the tiger than it is about the tiger intself. In contemplating the terrible ferocity and awesome symmetry of the tiger, the speaker is at a loss to explain how the same God who made the lamb could make the tiger. Hence, this theme: humans are incapable of fully understanding the mind of God and the mystery of his handiwork. The fire serves multiple purposes as an extended metaphor. First, it’s associated with the Tyger, which contributes to its ferocity and sublimity (the fact it’s big, powerful, and mysterious). Fire is also a source of energy, and since the Tyger seems to be filled with fire, then he must also be filled with energy. In another sense, the fire of the smith’s furnace is the fire of creation, the means by which the Tyger was formed. The whole poem is addressed to the Tyger. Can the Tyger talk? No. Does it even exist in a concrete sense? Probably not. The apostrophe helps the poet keep the subject alive and in-your-face, rather than talking about a bunch of generalities. William Blake wonders why and how god is responsible for good and innocence is at the same time, the one who inserts violence and evil in this world. However, the poet does not make any statement. He only asks questions which encourages the reader to think about the answers to all his questions. Finally, the last stanza is the same as the first one. This indicates that author is not able to understand the world where we live. Critic In my opinion, I think that the tiger is man, God’s shining creature, burning bright compared to his other creations. He describes some of man’s characteristics given by God. He says that a man is fierce, bold and ambitious, somewhat evoking an image of science and man’s desire for power over the earth and yet he is cultured and civilized, even introspective. These features are hard to understand in its complexity. But then, these traits of man turned into something else. Man, like hardworking little ants to God began to use the mind he had been given to change the earth. He turned his tools to darker purposes, becoming industrial and materialistic. They forgot about the beauty of nature, the freedom of the tiger he once was. Blake wonders if nature teared at this loss and if God smiled when he saw how the beauty and power of the creature he had created had turned astray. Did the creator of the innocent lamb really also make the men on earth in their sterile society of cheap pleasure and convenience? Now Blake wonders, not only who could define man, but who would dare? Conclusion In the poem “The Tyger” William Blake is stating that God should readily punish the creatures he brings into existence. God created the Lamb, but he also created the Tyger, and is so directly responsible for the misery of that same lamb, the Tyger that would prey upon it. God created Satan, and in doing so also readily damned him to Hell for acts that, in his power, God was very much in control of and could have prevented. William Blake’s “The Tyger” is such a fascinating theological critique, because it has forging in the depths of hell a monster to be unleashed upon mankind, not the Devil, but the Protestant God himself, the creator of the Tyger as well as the Lamb.
San Diego State University Cherokees and Creek Cultures Discussion.

I’m working on a Philosophy case study and need a sample draft to help me study.

A brief proposal on the topic of your research paper (see below) is required. You must tell
me what societies you have chosen, list your references, and explain why you choose those
groups. Your paper will consist of a comparison of two non-Industrial societies (e.g., two 4
World groups; we will discuss this process at some length in class). You are required to find two
“Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology” from the library and compare and contract them
following the general outline provided below. If you do not find a good case study in the USD
library, search the SDSU library catalog and order what you want from the “circuit” (ask a
librarian if you need to). It is possible to find two such societies using the eHARF files in the
library (see below). Topics that I chose are ( Cherokee and Creek ) cultures. The proposal paper shouldn’t be more then 2 to 3 pages.For the eHARF, you should use this link:…The link is only preffered to get the paper from.
San Diego State University Cherokees and Creek Cultures Discussion

Executive summary The report analyses Texas Roadhouse Inc. with the aim of defining its strategic management model. Through SWOT analysis, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the company are established. Several strategic management tools like the SWOT matrix, internal evaluation matrix, EFE matrix, IE matrix, SPACE matrix, Grand matrix, BCG, CPM, and the QSPM have been applied on the analysis of the Texas Roadhouse restaurants. From the analysis it emerges that the company has a competitive advantage held on its products and the product price. It is also found that Texas Roadhouse Inc. has the capabilities and capacity of using its opportunities to deal with the threats exposed by the external environment. This can encourage further market penetration. Basically, the product of the company has been the major reason why the company has remained competitive because it is unique. The internal factors evaluation matrix and the external factors evaluation have been recommended as the most appropriate strategic management tools as they will help the company grow. Outline Executive summary Texas Roadhouse existing mission, vision, objectives and strategies Developed mission and vision statement for the organization Texas Roadhouse external opportunities and threats competitive profile matrix (CPM) external factor evaluation matrix (EFE) Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Texas Roadhouse internal strengths and weaknesses. Other Matrices Internal evaluation matrix (IFE) SWOT Matrix Strategic position and action evaluation (SPACE) Matrix Boston consulting Group (BCG) Matrix Internal external matrix (IE) Grand Strategy Matrix Quantitative strategy planning matrix (QSPM) Advantages and disadvantages of alternative strategies Financial ratios Specific strategies and long-term objectives Specific annual objectives and policies Procedures for strategy review and evaluation Projected financial statement We will write a custom Report on Analysis of a company Texas Roadhouse Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Analysis of a company (Strategic Management Model) Texas Roadhouse restaurants existing mission, vision, objectives and strategies The mission of Texas Roadhouse is “Legendary Food, Legendary Service” (Texas Roadhouse, 2011) meaning that the company is there to stay through the provision of quality food to both the local and the international markets. It also means that the food and the services offered by the Texas Roadhouse restaurant are classic and legendary. The following are the objectives of the Texas Roadhouse; To provide high quality meals which are offered through friendly service To ensure that the customers are serviced with high quality and fresh food Use moderate prices for both food and drinks with the aim of attracting customers To increase sales as well as maintaining profits from the sales in the different existing restaurants To start new restaurants successfully and acquire others through franchising To expand their business both domestically and internationally so as to increase their market share. Provide a more relaxed atmosphere for its customers by creating a fun and relaxing atmosphere. To maximize sales all the year round as well as retaining the market share. Offer food and beverage prices that are affordable by all customers across a wider range of customers’ spectrum. Strategies applied The Texas Roadhouse has designed an operating strategy that would position each it is different restaurants as the domestic destination for the different segmented rage of consumers looking for meals of high quality and affordable as well as served in both attentive and friendly service (Texas Roadhouse, 2011). The operating strategy is based on a number of concepts that have enabled the fast and sustainable growth of the Texas Roadhouse restaurants. These key operative key components are; Offer of high quality and freshly prepared meals (Texas Roadhouse, 2011), to the different chain of customers. The company places great deal in ensuring that all the customers are able to acquire high quality and freshly made food all the time. This is achieved through the hand cutting of the steaks and preparing them in a customer satisfying manner. Throughout the restaurants’, Texas Roadhouse has developed unique recipes to ensure consistency in the food quality as well as their taste (Texas Roadhouse, 2011). To ensure that the food is of high quality, the management team inspects all the entrees before they are presented to the customer to ensure that the customers’ orders are matched. The order is also checked to confirm that that the expected standards are met of high quality, appearance as well as its presentation. On top of this, the management has been able to employ a product team coaches who provide continued training to kitchen staff. The education and the training of the kitchen staff is geared towards uniformity in recipes, portion size, food appearance, food safety standards, and the preparation procedures (Texas Roadhouse, 2011). Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of a company Texas Roadhouse Inc. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company offers a manager compensation which is performance based (Texas Roadhouse, 2011). The supervisors and managers who are also referred to as managing partners and market partners are compensated on performance based index. To ensure that the partners are well compensated, each partner is paid a particular salary and performance bonuses which is based on the partners share in the pretax income. This is aimed at attracting highly motivated, talented, skilled, and experienced market and managing partners. The company focuses on allocating most of its time on dinner. The operating hours are limited to dinner and the teams are offered a single shift on the weekdays to offer time for managing and preparing the dinner. This is geared towards the preparation of high quality meals with consistency to the different segmented loyal customers. Through the focus on the dinner, the Texas Roadhouse has been able to attract and retain experienced management team. Lastly, the company focuses on the low ration table servers to ensure that their teams’ servers focus greatly on the different esteemed guests. The dinners are served on individualized levels to ensure that each client get what they have ordered. Texas Roadhouse has been able to offer attractive price points to its different customers (Texas Roadhouse, 2011). The company has devised offers moderate prices levels to its beverages and food. The prices are sometimes even lower than competitors to attract a wider range of customers. Each of the meal has different price points aimed at attracting different customers with different income levels and make them satisfied by making them feel appreciated. The expectations of all the customers are met in Texas roadhouse as well as by meeting their budgets. For example, steaks and checks have different prices with a difference in the weight of each steak. The restaurant has devised a per guest average check which is based on the number of sales divided by the guests numbers and offered at $14.63 (Texas Roadhouse, 2011). Texas Roadhouse Inc has created a comfortable and fun atmosphere for its guests. The company believes in repeat business thus the need for comfortable atmosphere. For instance, the company has lodge décor which have different artifacts, rugs, Southwestern prints, neon signs, and hand painted murals (Texas Roadhouse, 2011). On top of these, the restaurants offer jukeboxes that usually play country music hits in a ceasing manner. It also offers in-house entertainment like birthday celebrations, and line dancing. Developed mission and vision statement for the organization Mission of the Texas Roadhouse restaurant could be “the provision of high quality foods, with friendly services” whilst the vision statement would be” to be the leading provider of highly quality foods in affordable food prices.” Texas Roadhouse Restaurants’ external opportunities and threats SWOT is an analysis framework that gives the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats that an organisation faces in the market industry (Hill
Remington College Tampa Campus ?Lifelong Learning is Part of Nursing Practice Paper.

Competency Evaluate the importance of personal and professional lifelong learning, including the interrelationships of clinical reasoning and clinical judgment. Scenario As a BSN prepared Registered Nurse, you are due to renew your license for the first time. You and your manager overhear other nurses complaining about the continuing education requirement. Your manager suggests you create a handout for the staff lounge bulletin board regarding the importance of lifelong learning as it pertains to clinical reasoning and judgment. To help you get started, she suggests you read the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report titled The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health (2010) so that you will understand “why” it is so important. Instructions Read Section 4 of the IOM report (2010) titled Transforming Education and respond to the following questions in a Word document. Describe an initiative that resulted from the IOM report. Discuss the impact of the identified initiative. Summarize the interrelationships that exist between lifelong learning, clinical reasoning, and clinical judgment.Provide clearly stated detailed description of an initiative that resulted from the IOM report that includes a national, state or local initiative.Provide clearly stated, detailed summary of the impact of the identified initiative, including the impact of nursing, nursing education, healthcare facilities, and client care.Provide clearly stated, detailed summary of the interrelationships that exist between lifelong learning, clinical reasoning, and clinical judgment.Do not use 1st person in scholarly writing. Use 3rd person only. APA format. Formal style reflected throughout the document, including no spelling, grammar, or APA format errors present. Adequate references with adequate in text citation. Please do this assignment using only research published within the past 5 years. Plagiarism free
Remington College Tampa Campus ?Lifelong Learning is Part of Nursing Practice Paper

Hydraulics Lab report

Hydraulics Lab report.

I’m working on a engineering writing question and need support to help me understand better.

I’m working on an engineering report and need support to help me study.I have a lab report for water resources engineering and I did the excel calculations I just need help writing the reportIntroduction (10 points)The introduction should be a paragraph that contains the goals of the lab and an overview of what the reader can expect to find within the report. State the objective of the lab exercise. Though this is provided in the lab documents, the purpose should be restated in your own words.  Provide a brief overview or “roadmap” of the report contents.Results: This is the only section in which results should be introduced, present your final results from the analysis(tables). Start this section with a brief description of what your data shows. Give your reader a context in which to view the data. Present only your information (raw data, tables from excel sheet, graphs…etc.)Discussion: You should explain your results and their ramifications by answering the questions provided in the procedures (usually it is 3 to 5 questions). You can include details of the principles, relationships, generalizations, and consequences of your experiment. You must demonstrate that you understand your investigation and corresponding results. Be sure to relate your interpretation and discussion back to your objectives. Do your data answer your original question? You should also include a discussion of possible errors and exceptions. If relevant or available, discuss how your results compare pertinent standards.A good conclusion is usually quite short. A few sentences should be sufficient. Restate your numerical results, but do not editorialize about your results.Conclusion: Summarize the major points of your memo. A good conclusion is usually quite short. A few sentences should be sufficient. Restate your numerical results, but do not editorialize about your results..References (2.5 points)List all your reference writing HintsA lab report is considered a technical report. As such, it must be professional and neat. The report must be written with a word processor of your choice. All drawings must be made with a straight-edge and clearly labeled or drawn on the computer. Plots are an integral part of technical reports and must be professional:•Plots must be computer generated;•Scales must be readable to the same accuracy as the data obtained duringthe test;•Axes must be labelled;•Units of variables must be shown;•Various run results must be distinguished by different symbols and/or colors and each curve must be identified by a legend or a title;•Curves derived from data must show experimental data points;•Graphs must be drawn as smooth curves that represent an average of the experimentally determined data.•Curves derived from an equation should contain no symbols, but show the equation of the curve;•Graphs must be labeled/legendA portion of the grade for each lab memo will be based on the writing itself.•Be as clear, direct and concise as you can. Grammar, spelling, clarity, and style will all be considered. •Pay attention to tense. When describing established, factual material, the present tense can be used. A discussion section is generally written in the present tense. Even though you are discussing past results, you are interpreting them now. Completed procedures are usually referred to in the past tense.
Hydraulics Lab report

Strategic Business Plan

online homework help Strategic Business Plan. Developing a Strategic Business Plan Either in the start up process or when re-inventing one’s business development, the design of a strategic business plan is an indispensable step towards a successful and viable business. Strategic planning involves setting up a sound and multifaceted plan or strategy to follow over a defined time period.It can involve all aspects of the business, or just a small part of it i.e. a selected department such as the marketing department.However, this does not mean that strategic business planning is only for large scale businesses since it can also benefit the small business, especially at start up, when the business sets its first goals and establishes itself in the business landscape. Writing up a business plan is an important step of a starting business, since most lending bodies will not authorize loans in absense of a detailed business plan.Why is it important? Imagine sailing off for a voyage in the sea and not planning for resources or supplies that you might need. Developing a business plan is the only way to determine the allocation needs, personnel, utilities, marketing goals, outreach and all valuable aspects that make your business useful and unique in the sea of business. However, strategic planning is a process employed in any time period in a formal business administration, since it usually comprises of a long range planning process of a specific or broader managerial aspect, that will in a time-frame manner set the outline of the business’ goals and image and ultimately form its policy. To be successful, a strategic business plan, either at start up or as a means of sustainment of a particular policy, should provide with day to day reference for the decision making in organization and management of the business and should provide a template against which all decisions can be evaluated (Goodstein et al ,1993).Ackoff’s (1981) typology of planning, provides with several points to the understanding of the planning process, identifies as a key step in the business or organization’s decision to adhere to the long term goals of strategic planning.These are l Reactive planning ( planning through the rear view mirror) l Inactive (going with the flow) l Preactive or future planning l Proactive or designing the future planning. The most challenging and demanding type of planning is the proactive planning, which is based on the beleif that the organization or business itself, is responsible for shaping its future and thus can do differently i.e. to solve an anticipated problem.In order for an administration to sustain an applied strategic planning process in its midsts, it is anticipated that efforts are made to develop an openness for new ideas and allow for envisioning in serving the future. An area where envisioning is particularly useful is the mision development : who the business customers are, how will the business go about its tasks and the business raison d’etre. Moreover, the strategic planning process must be strongly intercalated with the organizational culture of the business, the latter being the social context in and through which the business performs its work. This connection will facilitate the easy transmission to the workers and administrators of the mission of the business, the specific operational goals and the means to acheive them. After the decision and contexts of the strategic planning are made, several steps are indispensable in the successful inplementation of the process: 1st setting the stage for planning: understanding the way planning works, the values scan and mission formulation 2nd Setting strategic business directions : strategic business modeling such as performance auditing, gap analysis 3rd Implementing the strategic plan : integrating action plans, contigency planning and implementation. In conclusion, a strategic business planning process is an expansion of the traditional business plan method towards the future developmentof the business, that formulates a strategy in anticipating change and maintaining its status in the business arena. Several steps are necessary in implementing a viable and successful strategy plan, most of which require serious documentation, market research and official design and control. In several examples in history, an inspired and well grounded strategy plan has been the means to ground-breaking enterpreneurships and immense success. REFERENCES: Ackoff (1981) Creating the corporate future. New York : John Riley Goodstein LD, Nolan T, Pfeiffer JW (1993) Applied strategic planning. Mc Graw Hill Strategic Business Plan

Importance of Cell Cultures

Importance of Cell Cultures. Introduction Cell culture is an extremely widely used process by which cells are removed from their natural environment and grown artificially under controlled and monitored conditions. It occurs in vitro, or in glass, more specifically in multicellular eukaryotic cells. The cells may be removed from their habitat directly and disaggregated with enzymes or mechanically before harvesting, or they may be a derivative of a cell line that has been created previously. It was adapted from a practice used in the early 1900’s and since then it has expanded and advanced research and scientific knowledge enormously. The conditions required for each culture vary, however the artificial environments conditions are consistent. It must consist of a suitable vessel which contains a medium that provides vital nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. Growth factors and hormones are also needed, as well as oxygen and carbon dioxide. It must monitor and regulate physico-chemical environment which includes pH and osmotic pressure, as well as temperature. Temperature is kept at 37°C, CO2 levels at 5% and humidity at 95%. Cell cultures are an extremely important tool for healthcare scientists. They provide a model system for physiology and biochemistry of selected cells to be studied. By examining their physiology their aging pathway can be studied and their biochemistry allows processes such as metabolic rate to be observed. The cells interaction with drugs could also be observed which proves a useful tool for drug screening programs, clinical trials and pharmaceutical companies. Whatever the purpose for using cell cultures, it is an extremely consistent and reliable process that has good reproducibility of results that can be obtained using a batch of clonal cells. Primary cell cultures are cultures that grow and maintain cells dissociated from their parental tissue via mechanical or enzymatic methods. They can be either adherent or suspension cells. Adherent cells are also known as anchorage dependent cells because they require attachment for growth. These cells are usually derived from organs such as the kidney where they are immobile and implanted into connective tissue. Suspension cells are the opposite and don’t require attachment to the culture vessel for growth. These types of cells are anchorage independent cells. They are cells that derive from the blood, where they aren’t attached to anything but are still suspended e.g. in plasma like lymphocytes. A secondary culture is a primary culture that has been sub-cultured. The sub-culture (passage) occurs when the cells are transferred from a culture vessel to another. This provides fresh nutrients and space for continued growth, because a primary culture has a finite life span. Common primary and secondary lines can be found in Table 1. After the first sub-culture, the culture becomes known as the cell line. Cells only undergo a finite number of replication cycles before cell death. This means that some cell lines will be finite cell lines. However, some cells undergo transformation. This can occur spontaneously but can also be virally induced in vitro. Undergoing transformation gives the cell the ability to divide infinitely, such as HeLa cells. The HeLa line is the oldest and most commonly used continuous cell line. Cervical cancer cells biopsied from Henrietta Lacks in 1951 show that they are remarkably durable and prolific. In 2012, Turner published a paper documenting its importance in the development of the polio vaccine. Table 1: Summary comparison table of cell line examples, their uses and origins Cell Line Original Cells Example paper Henrietta Lack (HeLa) cell line Cervical cancer cells from a biopsy from Henrietta Lacks, first immortalised cell line (Turner, 2012) COS-7 cell line Fibroblast-like cells from African Green Monkey kidney tissue (Vacante et al., 1989) SH-SY5Y cell line Neuroblastoma cells from a biopsy of a 4-year old female TO FIND AND ENTER!!! Hep G2 cell line Hepatocellular carcinoma cells from a biopsy of a 15-year old male’s liver (Mersch-Sundermann et al., 2004) Jurkat cell line T-lymphocyte cells in the blood of a 14-year old male leukaemia patient (Wang et al., 2012) The COS-7 cell line is a line derived from African green monkey kidney tissue. It is used in research against SV40, a cancer causing virus that was hidden in the polio vaccine (Vacante et al., 1989). The Hep G2 cell line is another continuous cell line of hepatocellular carcinoma. It plays a vital part in the research of human liver diseases by being a model for intracellular trafficking (Mersch-Sundermann et al., 2004). Jurkat cells, another continuous line, are a line of lymphocyte cells used to study leukaemia, T-cell signalling and HIV (Wang et al., 2012). This review will explore the use of cell lines in the laboratory and their applications. SH-SY5Y will be a particular focus, and will explore the application and importance of the cell line as one of the only lines used to study neuronal function and differentiation. SH-SY5Y cell line SH-SY5Y cells are a derivative cell line used majorly in scientific research. SH-SY5Y originally was cloned from a biopsy of bone marrow derived line called SK-N-SH, and then named as SH-SY. The biopsy was from a 4-year old female with neuroblastoma. This was subcloned again to make SH-SY5 and subcloned once more to form SH-SY5Y. Because this cell line has been derived from a primary source, it is a secondary culture. There is new, fresh growth medium in which the cells are suspended not attached, making them anchorage-independent cells in the cell line. They have been widely used since the 1980’s, due to their ability to express dopaminergic markers and neuronal function such as neurodegenerative processes. Because of these characteristics, they play a major role in the research of Parkinson’s disease. As mentioned before, the cells are subcloned. This process of sub-culturing is also known as cell passaging. Cell passaging is where a new microbiological culture is created by transferring a sample, or all, of a cell culture to a different growth medium. This process prolongs the life of the organism, renews depleted nutrient levels and also increases the concentration of cells in the culture. Cells cannot be held in their primary culture indefinitely because continual cell activity means there will be a gradual rise in toxic metabolites. For SH-SY5Y cells, there is a recommended limit of cell passaging. Passage numbers can affect cell physiology and morphology, protein expression and transfection efficiency, so the limit has been set to 20 to prevent unreliable and irreproducible results being collected. Use of SH-SY5Y cell line in research As conferred, SH-SY5Y is one of the only cell lines that can be used as a model system for neuronal function investigation. It is particularly good for investigating the effective of oxidative stress on neuronal cell lysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) at specific concentration are essential for standard cell function however over exposure to ROS is harmful to cells. There are 2 globin’s whose functions are still unclear. Neuroglobins (NGBs) and cytoglobins (CYGB) role has been suggested to involve detoxifying the effects of over exposure. Excessive ROS has been known to cause cell lysis after ischaemic strokes. By investigating the correct levels and limit levels of ROS it can have an enormous clinical impact on stroke recovery and treatment. Forde et al. investigates the effect of NGB and CYGB on the detoxification of ROS. The influence of cell lysis of surplus ROS is the primary focus, more explicitly hydrogen peroxide. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured at a ratio of 1:1 of Dulbecco’s minimum essential medium (DMEM) and Ham’s F-12 nutrient medium along with 10% foetal bovine serum at 5% CO2 atmosphere. The culture was maintained at 37°C in a humidified 95% atmosphere. L-glutamine provided an energy source and sodium bicarbonate acts as a pH buffer. Growth factors and non-essential amino acids (NEAA) are also present and standard factors. In the culture, penicillin and streptomycin are the selected antibiotics used. The pathogen cell membranes are broken down to prevent infection. In cell lines cross contamination can be rife, so using antibiotics prevents this and induced recombinant protein expression. Apart from preventing the obvious infection risk, if there is contamination there will be unreliable and inaccurate results. However, antibiotic resistance means that there may always be a level of low contamination. The prolonged use means antibiotics are only used where absolutely necessary so that it prevents these problems, such as in initial cell lines to prevent contaminated cells being carried on in sub cultures and protecting stock solutions. Methods and Materials After SH-SY5Y had been cultured, they then were transfected. NGB and CYGB plasmids were transfected with SH-SY5Y by nucleofectin. Nucelofectin is a transfection method that requires the use of electrode force to administer specific voltage. Reagents and electrodes produce the conditions required for transfection, which increases the permeability of the target cell. This allows the genetic material present in the culture to transfect into the globin plasmids. This is a reliable mechanism and produces good rates of success. After transfection, the globins were fused with the GFP gene by PCR-amplification. The NGB to CYGB region was amplified and digested with restriction enzymes. Ligation was then performed directly after in to PEGFP-N1 vectors. The culture cells were briefly re-suspended in nucelofactor solution and nueclofected with 2μg of plasmid DNA, producing a final result of NgbN1-pEGFP and CygbN1-pEGFP fusion proteins. These produce a yield of 40% eFP positive cells. The PCR identified the expression To examine the success of the transformation, PCR determined the expression of the globins. PCR measures the expression by recording the amount of mRNA present before and after amplification. For reactions involving GFP, fluorophene is added to act as a marker and signal upon excitation. Upon examination, over a 12 hour period there was upregulation 12 hours after transfection, meaning the globins were transfected successfully. This examination isn’t thorough enough to provide evidence of success. A western blot was performed to ensure thorough examination. Protein expression can be detected by electrophoresing the proteins through a 10% polyacrimide gel. The proteins were transferred on to a western blot by being electroblotted to an Immobilon P membrane. After staining with primary polyclonal antibodies they were incubated with a secondary antibody, and probed for antibodies upon completion with Supersignal West Pico Chemiliminescent substrate. Figure 1 displays the result of the western blot. Importance of Cell Cultures

Moraine Valley Community College Ancient Times Work Influence in Modern World Essay

Moraine Valley Community College Ancient Times Work Influence in Modern World Essay.

Im giving you plenty of time to work on it. NO PLAGIARISM. TOPIC: Students will have to find the most important connections that we find
in the present day with the ancient times and the influence of the ancients in our lives: some examples of topics to
cover are words and idiomatic expressions, traditions, technology of any kind, ideas, beliefs, politics, etc. It can be
done in organized sections by groups of civilizations (Egyptians, Sumerians, Babylonians, Greeks, Romans,
Chinese, etc.) or by a list of different topics (vocabulary and expressions from the Greeks, Romans, etc.; technology,
warfare tactics, traditions, construction techniques, religion, philosophical thoughts, etc.). In other words, you will
have to provide a list of main contributions, influences and connections of the ancient civilizations covered in this
class with the present world, and those most relevant for the process of globalization and common good, or
general progress. Each annotation of the list will have a short paragraph describing, explaining, and evaluating the
importance of that contribution, influence or connection. Typed double-spaced; Font: Times New Roman; Size: 12.
Bullet point paragraphs accepted as far as they are well explained. No limit on its extension, but a minimum of 8
pages is required, and the use of at least three (3) different sources. List of sources/bibliography required at the
end of the paper.
Moraine Valley Community College Ancient Times Work Influence in Modern World Essay