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The Pestel Framework Categorizes Environmental Influences Commerce Essay

The PESTEL framework categorizes environmental influences into six main forms: political, economic, social technological environmental and legal. Where by the politics highlight the role of government; economic refers to macroeconomic factor such as exchange rates, and discrepancy economic growth rates around the world; social influences include changing culture and demographics; technological such as internet; environmental issues such as pollution and waste; and finally legal embraces legislative constraints. The Western European brewing industry is highly penetrated; The PESTEL framework can be used to help identify the key forces that are driving the change in the market. Political Factors might be the dynamic operation of European government against drunken driving, binge drinking, and consequently long term health and fitness problems. These campaigns have the potential to push for law changes surrounding what alcohol can be bought in restaurants, pubs, bars and retail outlets. Decrease in the consumption of beer in Europe as many traditional key markets have increased awareness of the social problems associated with alcohol drinking. Economic Economic recession in 2009 has also lead to an effect on beer sales mainly in the United Kingdom where an estimate of 50 pubs closed per week due to downturn. Beer consumption per capita varies broadly among countries, for example being four times higher in Germany than in Italy. Example in table 1 comparing year 1980 to 2000 the consumption of beer has increased from 3534000 hectoliters to 6453000 hectoliters which is approximately 82.60%. Social Lifestyle in emerging market has changed due to the increase in the availability of disposable income, leading to an increase in beer consumption. The new trends like wines, non alcoholic beers, extra cold lagers and fruit flavored beers will adversely affect the consumption of beers. Education and health; there is an increasing awareness of the effect of alcohol on health and fitness. Particularly in the United Kingdom there is increasing hostility to so called ‘binge drinking’ excessive alcohol consumption in pubs and clubs. Technological Rate of technological change; as seen in the Anheuser Busch InBev (Belgium) company that efficient advantages will come from more central management of purchasing, together with media and IT from the optimization of its hereditary network of breweries and from the distribution of finest practices across sites internationally. Innovation of new products; the case witnesses that the introduction of higher priced premium products such as non alcoholic beers, extra cold lagers or fruit flavored beers has led to increase in sales. Environmental Pollution; population are getting more and more alert of the environment and it is essential that the companies do everything to avoid environmental pollution. It is important that the environmental load through the brewing development is as low as possible. Waste and recycling; reusability and recycling is significant, the brewing industry for instance treats their effluents so that they can use it again for irrigation. Through this they save power and lessen sludge disposal. Legal International law; when comparing Europe with the United States we have witnessed that in America it is prohibited to drink in public places comparing to Europe where one can drink alcohol wherever they want. This could lead to new laws that restrict drinking in the public places. Acquisition, licensing and strategic alliance have all take place as an important brewers conflict to control the market. For example in 2004, Belgian brewery Interbrew merged with Am Bev, the Brazilian brewer group to create the largest brewer in the world. A five forces analysis The five forces study was originally developed by Michael Porter in 1990, as a way of assessing the attractiveness of different industries or sectors in terms of competitive forces. The five forces constitute an industry’s structure, although initially developed with businesses in mind the industry structure analysis with the five forces framework is of value to most of the organizations. As well as assessing the attractiveness of the brewing industry the five forces can assist set an agenda for action on the range of areas that they identify. The five forces are: Threat of new entrants Threat of substitutes Bargaining power of buyers Bargaining power of suppliers Competitive rivalry POTENTIAL ENTRANTS COMPETITIVE RIVALRY Threat of entry Threat of substitutes Bargaining power Bargaining power SUPPLIERS BUYERS SUBSTITUTES FIG 1 THE FIVE FORCES FRAMEWORK Threat of substitutes The threat of substitute is high because there is an availability of wine, fruit flavored beer and also extra cold lagers. From table 1 and 2 in the case study we can witness the negative effect of the substitute on beer; taking an example of Denmark table 1 shows a decline in the beer consumption and in table 2 shows increase in the importation of exotic beers from overseas. Threat of new entrants Threat of entry depends on the degree and height of barriers to entry; barriers of entry are factors that need to be defeated by new entrants if they are to battle effectively. According to the case the threat of new entrants is very low because the industry is highly penetrated and mergers taking place, also there are global pressures for consolidation which sustain their competitive position in the industry. There are very few big brewery companies which makes them dominate the market, so for a new entrant would be hard to have that financial effort. Bargaining power of buyers Customers of course are necessary for the survival of any business, but sometimes consumers can have such high bargaining power that their suppliers barely make any profits. The bargaining authority is high due to the supervision campaign strongly against drunken driving, and binge drinking which has led to an increase in off trade (retail) than on trade (beer consumption in pubs or restaurant). The off trade is increasingly more conquered by big supermarket chains such as Tesco and Carrefour which gives them the bargaining power. Bargaining power of suppliers Suppliers are those who supply the organization with what it needs to produce the product or service. The main purchasing costs are wrapping, raw material such as barley and power. The case shows that the bargaining power of supplier in packaging is high due to the availability of only three can makers and shifting cost from one can maker to the other could be high either in terms of money or even technology. Competitive rivalry Competitive rivalry is are businesses with same products and services aimed at the same customer group. The competitive rivalry in the brewing industry is very high because almost all companies have the same product/ product differentiation is low, high rate of acquisitions, alliances and strategic alliance and also consolidation due to over capacity within the industry. Conclusion With regard to the PESTEL analysis and the Porters five forces analysis I conclude that in order to sustain the competitive position and market share in the brewing industry, one should acquire, license or strategic alliance with an existing company could be small, medium or already a large company. Question 2 Anheuser-Busch InBev [Belgium] A-B InBev is the largest brewer in the world; it achieved this position when InBev acquired the leading American brewer Anheuser Busch for 52bn. The company now has nearly 300 brands and approximate 50% share of the US market and owns 50% of Mexico’s leading brewers. The company is frank about the approach to renovate itself from the biggest brewing company to the best. STRENGTH WEAKNESS Largest brewer in the world Inherited network of breweries Strong financial power The merger of Belgian Interbrew and Brazilian Am Bev in 2004 The company’s strategy to transform itself from the biggest to the best by: Building strong global brands Increase competence through more central management of purchasing including median and IT. Greene King [United Kingdom] Greene King is now the largest domestic British brewer, which was established in 1799. It has expanded through a series of acquisition including Ruddles [1995], Morland [1999] and Hardys and Hansons [2006]. STRENGTH WEAKNESS Brew high quality beer from an efficient single site. Medium size brewing company Focused brand portfolio which is minimizing the complexity and cost of a multi brand strategy. Less financial power 2000 pubs across the UK with a particular dominant position in its home region of East Anglia. Expansion through acquisition, which led to critics calling the company greedy king. Tsingtao [China] Tsingtao brewery was found in 1903 by German settlers in China, after state ownership under communism Tsingtao was privatized in the early 1990s and listed on the Hong Kong stock exchange in 1993. Tsingtao has 13% market share of its home country, the company has described its ambition thus; to promote the continuous growth of the sales volume and income to step forward the target of becoming an international great company. STRENGTH WEAKNESS It is the Chinese brand leader in United States Small brewing company It’s now sold in more than 62 countries. Less financial power Almost 50% of exports Home market share is very low {13%} A bottle of Tsingtao appeared in the 1982 science fiction film blade Ronner. REFERENCE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBILIOGRAPHY Fundamentals of strategy (CH 2) By: Gerry Johnson, Kevan Scholes and Richard Whittington Lecture slides (LE 4
Saint Marys University Mod 8 Identification of Risks & Treatment Options Paper.

I’m working on a nursing writing question and need an explanation to help me learn.

Module 08 ContentPurpose of Assignment: To identify risks and treatment options for respiratory illnesses.Scenario:You are one of the LPNs on duty at the clinic today. It has been very busy; it is cold and flu season. There have been so many kids in with respiratory illnesses that there is a designated LPN in charge of getting them all checked in. That is your role today: you will be taking vital signs, obtaining weights, and alerting the RN to any child with abnormal vital signs.Your call the next child back to the treatment room for vital signs and a weight. This little one is three years old. He was brought in by his mom who says he has had a cough and sniffles for two days. Mom is also carrying a baby who she says is four-months-old. Mom says the baby has sniffles too, but she does not think the doctor needs to see the baby. The baby is sleeping when you call back the other child.This is the data you collected from the three-year-old child:Temperature- 102.2 F orally (above normal range)Heart rate- 110 (above normal range)Blood pressure- 100/60 (within normal range)Respiratory rate- 28 (above normal range)Oxygen saturation- 90% (below normal range)Weight- 28 pounds (within normal range)Instructions:Using the above scenario, answer the following questions:
There are four measurements above that are abnormal and will be reported to the RN. Which measurement has the highest priority and should be reported immediately? Explain your response.What additional information will be helpful to report to the RN regarding this priority concern? Explain your response and include what your findings might be.There are four vital sign readings that are abnormal. What is the normal range for each finding? What treatments would be anticipated for the oxygen saturation and the temperature? Which treatment will be given first? Explain your response.Additionally, since Mom reported that the four-month-old baby has sniffles. Should we be more or less concerned about this based on the child’s age? Explain your response.Format:Standard American English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.)Logical, original and insightfulProfessional organization, style, and mechanicsSubmit document through Grammarly to correct errors before submission
Saint Marys University Mod 8 Identification of Risks & Treatment Options Paper

identify a comprehensive set of abnormal scenarios, computer science homework help.

Use the techniques in Section 13.3.1 to identify a comprehensive set of abnormal scenarios associate with the normal meeting scheduling scenario in Figure 4.10 and represent these by sequence diagrams.Deliverables:Your answers should be 2-3 pages in length, follow the APA format, and free of grammatical and spelling errors.Refer requirements engineering textbook here https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/
identify a comprehensive set of abnormal scenarios, computer science homework help

Need answer in 1500 word

Need answer in 1500 word.

I’m working on a finance question and need guidance to help me learn.

You work for firm XYZ situated in Australia, and your boss has become concerned about the current economic environment, especially as it is related to the different types of exposures that your firm may face in the near future. You are asked to provide a report, which evaluates how your firm is exposed, the risk management implications for your firm, and possible hedging strategies. You are also required to provide a recommendation for what your firm should do.
Need answer in 1500 word

GMU Italy Was Primed for The Renaissance for Money Question

assignment writing services GMU Italy Was Primed for The Renaissance for Money Question.

According to the Crash Course World History video that I assigned for you to watch, the presenter, John Green argues that “Italy was primed for the Renaissance for exactly one reason.”  What was that reason?
Group of answer choicesMoney
Religion
Intellectualism
Realism
Flag question: Question 2Question 21 pts
In the Crash Course World History video that I assigned, John Green makes the following argument about the Renaissance: 
Group of answer choicesHe believes that the Renaissance was centered in the Ottoman Empire and not Europe
He proclaims that the Renaissance didn’t even happen
He supports the view that the Renaissance began with the lower classes rather than the elites. 
He announces that without the Renaissance the Protestant Reformation would not have happened.
Flag question: Question 3Question 31 pts
Castiglione’s The Courtier was a:
Group of answer choicesa sharp denunciation of the wasteful lives of aristocrats
a work on how to achieve political power and then keep it
very popular handbook laying out the new skills in politics, arts, and personal behavior expected of Renaissance aristocrats 
a primer on military training for nobles
Flag question: Question 4Question 45 pts
Match the people associated with the cultural world of the 14th century with the correct definition (see Chapter 11): 
Group of answer choicesA Florentine who wrote about easygoing, cynical postplague values in the Decameron 
[ Choose ] Christine de Pizan Geoffrey Chaucer Dante Alighieri Petrarch Giovanni Boccaccio 
An English author whose most famous work is a collection of stories told by a group of twenty-nine pilgrims on a journey to the tomb of St. Thomas à Becket

[ Choose ] Christine de Pizan Geoffrey Chaucer Dante Alighieri Petrarch Giovanni Boccaccio 
This Italian’s most famous work, the Divine Comedy, is considered a synthesis of medieval Christian thought

[ Choose ] Christine de Pizan Geoffrey Chaucer Dante Alighieri Petrarch Giovanni Boccaccio 
This author wrote texts encouraging women to become well educated and defend themselves against the intellectual attacks of men

[ Choose ] Christine de Pizan Geoffrey Chaucer Dante Alighieri Petrarch Giovanni Boccaccio 
This author mostly wrote sonnets, but also played a large role in the revival of the CLASSICS OPTIONS for QUESTION 4 christin de pizar,geoffer chaucer,dante aligheri,petrach,giovAnni boccacio.
Question 51 pts
Erasmus of Rotterdam was all of the following except:
Group of answer choicesa supporter of Luther and a fellow Protestant
the author of In Praise of Folly
a humanist
a gentle critic of the Catholic church
Flag question: Question 6Question 61 pts
The Diet of Worms was:
Group of answer choicesa meeting in which Martin Luther stood up to the powers of Germany
a meeting in which Martin Luther compromised with the Catholic church
a meeting of cardinals to pass judgment on Thomas More
a diet plan to promote physical fitness described in The Courtier
Flag question: Question 7Question 71 pts
The word renaissance means rebirth.  What is being reborn in the era we call the Renaissance?
Group of answer choicesMedieval trade and communications networks
Christianity
the Old World
the Classical age of Greece and Rome
Flag question: Question 8Question 81 pts
Martin Luther was most angered by the Catholic church policy of:
Group of answer choicesdemanding payment for services like confession
selling indulgences
pluralism
simony
Flag question: Question 9Question 91 pts
As a young monk, Martin Luther
Group of answer choicesavoided confession because he thought it was unnecessary for salvation
believed that a corrupt church could not save his soul
was fearful that he could never do enough good deeds to deserve salvation
was confident that he would be saved by God because he did so many good works
Flag question: Question 10Question 101 pts
Machiavelli’s ideas as expressed in The Prince would have led to:
Group of answer choicesa concept of politics in which gaining and keeping power is the most important issue
a more powerful pope
a new attitude of moral responsibility among politicians
a democratic and unified Italy
Flag question: Question 11Question 115 pts
Match the quote to the correct speaker:
Group of answer choices”Since then Your Majesty and your lordships desire a simple reply, I will answer without horns and without teeth.  Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason– I do not accept the authority of popes and councils, for they have contradicted eachother– my conscience is captive to the Word of God.” 
[ Choose ] Martin Luther Erasmus of Rotterdam Laura Cereta Leon Battista Alberti Niccolo Machiavelli 
“Whenever you have to kill someone, make sure you have a suitable excuse and an obvious reason.”

[ Choose ] Martin Luther Erasmus of Rotterdam Laura Cereta Leon Battista Alberti Niccolo Machiavelli 
“I did no doubt that my wife was most loving, and more discreet and modest in her ways than any, but I still considered it safer to have her unable, and not merely unwilling, to harm me….”

[ Choose ] Martin Luther Erasmus of Rotterdam Laura Cereta Leon Battista Alberti Niccolo Machiavelli 
“You brashly and publicly not merely wonder but indeed lament that I am said to possess as fine as mind as nature ever bestowed upon the most learned man.  You seem to think that so learned a oman has scarcely before been seen in the world.  You are wrong on both counts.”

[ Choose ] Martin Luther Erasmus of Rotterdam Laura Cereta Leon Battista Alberti Niccolo Machiavelli 
A good prince is one who holds the life of each individual nearer than his own, who works and strives night and day for just one end — to be the best he can be for everyone.”

[ Choose ] Martin Luther Erasmus of Rotterdam Laura Cereta Leon Battista Alberti Niccolo Machiavelli 
Flag question: Question 12Question 121 pts
Italian artists in the 15th century began to:
Group of answer choicescopy the works of 11th century artists
focus on the themes of religion and women
focus on realistic portrayals of people
move away from the study of anatomy
Flag question: Question 13Question 131 pts
Who is often associated with printing the first book using moveable type in Germany?
Group of answer choicesErasmus of Rotterdam
Isaac Newton
Jan Arnolfini
Johannes Gutenberg
Flag question: Question 14Question 141 pts
The noble patron who protected Martin Luther from the pope was:
Group of answer choicesArchduke Joseph, Elector of Hanover
young Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor
Duke William of Orange
Duke Frederick “the Wise” of Saxony
Flag question: Question 15Question 151 pts
What factor was shared by both the Middle Ages and the Renaissance?
Group of answer choicesreligion (Catholicism) was important in people’s lives
people wanted to know how to make money and be successful in trade
people were concerned with the correct way to lead others
realism and beauty were important to a comfortable lifestyle
Flag question: Question 16Question 161 pts
Our textbook notes that Renaissance women like Isabella d’Este and Battista Sforza played important roles in what aspect? 
Group of answer choicesthese noble women created brilliant courts
they traveled Europe as diplomats for their husbands
they were educated and enlightened leaders of convents
they were scholars who translated the great works of the ancients
Flag question: Question 17Question 171 pts
The Italian Renaissance was primarily:
Group of answer choicesnew views that were part of the recovery from the disasters of the 14th century
a product of rural Italy
characterized by a preoccupation with religion
a mass movement of the peasants
Flag question: Question 18Question 181 pts
The Calvinist belief that certain people were members of the “elect” meant that these people were given salvation because of: 
Group of answer choicesthe performance of good works
predestination
their fervent faith
transubstantiation
Flag question: Question 19Question 191 pts
Two key areas of Renaissance technological innovation were:
Group of answer choicesoptical instruments and lens grinding
mill construction and hydraulics
mining and metalworking, including the manufacture of firearms
fireworks and glass making
Flag question: Question 20Question 201 pts
All of the following are reasons that Portugal got involved in maritime trade except:
Group of answer choicesthey enjoyed a good mid-Atlantic location
a desire to gain wealth
a desire to spread Christianity
a desire to break from the Catholic Church
Flag question: Question 21Question 211 pts
In the long term the Columbian Exchange:
Group of answer choicesbrought a lasting decline in world population because of the ravages of diseases like smallpox
had no influence on the world population
led to economic instability due to a glut of Japanese silver
increased world population because of the spread of new food crops
Flag question: Question 22Question 221 pts
According to the Florentine humanist, Leonardo Bruni, history should be studied first (after a mastery of Latin grammar) because:
Group of answer choicesreligion is not a reliable source of wisdom and inspiration
understanding the past is the key to making better business decisions and gaining wealth
studying the past makes it easier to understand the affairs of the current era
people are doomed to repeat past mistakes
Flag question: Question 23Question 231 pts
In Laura Cereta’s Defense of the Liberal Instruction of Women what reason does she give for why there are so few intellectual women in Renaissance Italy?
Group of answer choicesthe challenges of caring for home and family are too demanding to allow women time to get educated
Men have prevented women from gaining education
women are too preoccupied with childbearing to worry about intellectual pursuits
Women choose lesser goals for themselves
Flag question: Question 24Question 241 pts
What is Bernal Diaz describing in this excerpt from 1502:
“We could not walk without treading on the bodies and heads of dead Indians.  I have read about the destruction of Jerusalem, but I do not think the mortality was greater than here in Mexiso, where most of the warriors who had crowded in from all the provinces and subject towns had died…Indeed, the stench was so bad that no one could endure it…Even Cortes was ill from the odors which assailed his notrils.”
Group of answer choicesThe ravages of smallpox in the New World
what was left of the city of Tenochtitlan following a massive earthquake
the bubonic plague in Europe
the aftermath of a battle between the Spanish and the Aztecs
Flag question: Question 25Question 251 pts
All of the following are policies of Elizabeth I of England except:
Group of answer choicesencouraging the nobility to get involved in trade and invest in businesses
relative tolerance of Catholicism
promoting the merchant class
encouraging the rights of women
Flag question: Question 26Question 261 pts
The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre was ordered by the French queen against what group?
Group of answer choicesJoan of Arc
Huguenots
Lutherans
Catholics
Flag question: Question 27Question 271 pts
the Edict of Nantes:
Group of answer choicesapproved of the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
ended the 16th century wars between the Catholics and the Huguenots in France
permitted Huguenots to attend universities throughout France
guaranteed religious freedom to all Jews in France

GMU Italy Was Primed for The Renaissance for Money Question

Effect of Dithiotheritol Dtt Concentration

Effect of Dithiotheritol Dtt Concentration. Immunoglobulin M is the first antibody produced in an immune response and is a pentameric structure held together by sulphide bonds in the J-chain. Dithiothreitol (DTT) cleaves inter-chain and intra-chain sulphide bonds at different concentrations abolishing the haemagglutination property of IgM. Varying concentrations of DTT were examined and it was concluded that concentrations of DTT higher than 0.006 mol/L, completely denatured the structure of IgM leading to loss of agglutination activity. INTRODUCTION In collaboration with factors of the innate immunity, natural Immunoglobulin M (IgM) provides a first line of defense against invading antigens. IgM is pentameric and is found in serum. In addition to its natural presence, IgM could potentially bind to 10 antigenic determinants per molecule which also enables it to react with a broad spectrum of antigens simultaneously (Boes et al., 1998). The five identical monomers of IgM are made up of two heavy and two light chains that are held together by inter-chain sulphide bonds. The inter-subunit J-chain sulphide bonds hold the four-chain units together forming the larger IgM pentamer (Delves et al., 2011). J-chain is a 15-kDa glycoprotein that is covalently associated by disulfide bonds with IgM (Koshland, 1985). The reactions of antibody with a multivalent antigen results in the cross linking of the various antigen particles by the antibodies. This eventually results in the clumping of antigen particles by antibodies and is known as agglutination (Coico and Sunshine, 2009). The voluminous IgM antibodies (molecular weight of 970 kDa) have large Fab areas that are far enough apart and thereby facilitate the bridging of red blood cells separated by the zeta potential. This property, and the pentavalence of IgM antibodies is the major cause for the effectiveness of IgM antibodies in interacting with the blood type antigens (RhD) on the surface of erythrocytes resulting in agglutination (Coico and Sunshine, 2009). Reducing agents such as Dithiothreitol (DTT) inactivates IgM antibody and abolishes agglutination activity (Okuno and Kondelis, 1978). This study was aimed at evaluating and understanding the concentration dependent activity of DTT in the inactivation of IgM. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sample Preparation: A stock solution of 0.01 mol/L dithiothreitol (DTT) was appropriately diluted with saline (0.9%), in ten fresh sterile tubes, resulting in dilutions ranging from 0.01mol/L to 0.001mol/L. One drop of each of the aforementioned dilution and one drop of diluted anti-D IgM were mixed in further ten tubes. Saline was used as control. The reaction tubes were incubated in a 37°C water bath for 20 minutes. Two drops of RhD positive Red Blood Cells (RBCs) were added to each tube, gently mixed and incubated at 20°C (room temperature) for 20 minutes. Observation of agglutination: The reaction tubes were centrifuged at 800g for one minute and were gently shook over a white background and examined for agglutination. Addition of second antibody: Two drops of anti-IgM antibody were added to tubes that contained non-agglutinated samples, and were incubated in a water bath at 37°C for 20 minutes. The samples were then centrifuged at 800g for one minute and were examined for agglutination against a white background. RESULTS Variations in the concentrations of DTT showed varied levels of agglutination (Table 1). Tubes bearing DTT of concentrations between 0.001 mol/L and 0.006 mol/L and the control tube, showed agglutination. Still, the degree of agglutination observed was much lesser in higher concentrations (0.006 mol/L) compared to lower concentrations (0.001 mol/L). No agglutination was observed at DTT concentrations higher than 0.006 mol/L. No additional change was observed despite addition of anti-IgM antibody to tubes with DTT at concentrations ranging from 0.007 mol/L to 0.01 mol/L, as shown in Table 2. DISCUSSION Inactivation or fragmentation of IgM can be achieved by treatment with reducing agents such as, 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) (Pirofsky and Rosner, 1974), reductant Tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) (Getz et al, 1999), or even enzymes such as pepsin (Kishimoto et al., 1968). Obnoxious odour, requirement for dialysis, cost and time factors are certain drawbacks associated with such methods (Getz et al, 1999) Thus treatment with DTT (OkunoEffect of Dithiotheritol Dtt Concentration

Supply Chain Management TLMT 313

Supply Chain Management TLMT 313.

Assignment InstructionsThe case study link is provided below for the Case Study 2. Read and study the case and complete the questions at the end of the study. Use the case study outline below to assist you with your analysis.
Questions should be answered using case study format. Ensure that you
adequately explain the problem, describe alternative solutions and
justify your recommendation. This exercise should be able to be
completed in approximately 3-6 doubled space pages. Attached completed
Case Study #2 as a MS Word document in the assignment area of the
classroom – Case Study #2.

Case Study 2
Case Study Outline (See OUTLINE FOR CASE ANALYSIS below)
Grading RubricOUTLINE FOR CASE ANALYSIS
Title Page (APA formatted)
Case Name:
I. Major Facts
(State here the major facts as you see them. Make statements clear and
concise for your own understanding as well as for the understanding of
the other students and the instructor.)
II. Major Problem
(State here the major problem as you see it. Emphasize the present major
problem. You may wish to phrase your statement in the form of a
question. In a few cases, there may be more than one major problem. A
good problem statement will be concise, usually only one sentence.)
III. Possible Solutions
A. (List here the possible solutions to the major problem. Let your
imagination come up with alternative ways to solve the problem.
B. Do not limit yourself to only one or two possible solutions. These solutions should be distinct from each other.
C. However, you may wish to include portions of one solution in another
solution, as long as each solution stands alone. Only in this manner
will your subsequent choice be definitive.
D. Briefly note advantages and disadvantages of each possible solution.)
etc.
IV. Choice and Rationale
(State here your choice, A or B or ___ and the detailed reasons for your
choice. You may also state your reasons for not choosing the other
alterative solutions.)
V. Implementation
(Prepare a plan to implement your choice)
Appendix (Answer case study questions)
Reference Page (APA formatted)
Supply Chain Management TLMT 313

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