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The perfect machine: building the Palomar telescope Essay (Book Review)

Table of Contents Introduction Palomar Telescope The Very Large Telescope Winning strategy Strength and weakness of the book Conclusion Reference Introduction The designing, construction, and execution of the Palomar telescope took around quarter of a century. The telescope was a state-of-art device, which drove technology to the edge. There existed numerous internal strains in the project. The collaboration between science and industry hardly ever went effortlessly (Florence, 2011, pp. 8-15). Ronald Florence, the author of “The perfect machine: building the Palomar telescope” performs an excellent job in bringing forth the drama involved in the project. The drama by Ronald Florence is however not of the kind of Indiana Jones, but of conflicts in personality, the distressing of the resolution to engineering difficulties, and the vigor of the attempt to generate an appropriate mirror blank. One could even note the concern at the period of the long extensions in the course of waiting for the cooling of the mirror coupled with during its erection at the appropriate shape. Even if this advance could not result to an intellectual account of the project, it is suitable for an excellent reading. The construction of the Hale Telescope is somewhat a lengthy account. The entire project was filled with difficulties in addition to the existence of some critical setbacks that could have terminated the entire project including the Hubble Space Telescope. Nevertheless, the Hubble did not turn out to be the only telescope to encounter such initial aches. This situation is as well relevant to the 200-inch (5 meter) Hale Telescope situated at the Palomar Mountain. Ronald Florence generates a perfect book concerning the construction of the 200-inch Palomar telescope that was indeed a perfect machine. Palomar Telescope According to Florence, many researches have looked into the construction of the Palomar telescopes with the inclusion of the efforts by David Woodbury. As suggested by Florence, David Woodbury and his publication are in fact a section of the account for he even assisted in obtaining a great form of the project. Even though there are some current researches on Palomar, “The Perfect Machine” stands as the sole complete and detailed account of the Palomar story. With respect to works by George Ellery, the 5-meter telescope signifies the largest telescope internationally. George Ellery is a solar astrophysicist who had the expertise of obtaining huge sums from rich men. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, Ellery was in a position to perceive the worth of large telescopes with regard to resolving the puzzles of stellar advancement and cosmology (Florence, 2011, pp. 16-20). In 1923, Ellery and his comrade engineer, Francis Pease, developed confidence that a much larger telescope would be constructed on condition that they had the necessary monetary requirements. Certainly, they approximated the total cost to be $ 5 million. Ellery overwhelmed Wickliffe Rose, the manager of Rockefeller Foundation (RF), with the notion of the telescope and by the close of 1928, the finances for the building of the 5-meter telescope were provided. Ronald Florence opens his book with a synopsis of the “Great Debate” by Shapley-Curtis. The “Great Debate” denotes a crucial instance in the hullabaloo over if nebulae existed in the galaxy or if galaxies were on their own. Moreover, the author explains the position of cosmology, the significance of large telescopes to the ground, and the setting of Ellery, viz. the initiator of the 200-inch. Luckily, he uses much time in the discourse of the influence of the two main important occasions that had an impact on the application of the telescope: the vast misery and the Second World War (Florence, 2011, pp. 21-25). The 5-meter project offered jobs during the misery and permitted numerous companies to focus on manpower and the attempts into special study for the project than they could have at an instance when business was in an excellent state. On the other hand, the impact of the war resulted in the stopping of the building of the telescope by drawing of the labor force as well as resources. The most fascinating sections of the book are illustrations of the people engaged in the construction of the telescope. We will write a custom Book Review on The perfect machine: building the Palomar telescope specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The individuals that played a key role in the construction of the telescope include George Ellery who had a frenzied pace that resulted to his downfall (Florence, 2011, pp. 56-75). His endeavor, as a technical industrialist, coupled with his demanding study approach and the course of Mount Wilson Observatory, acted as the correspondent of burning the candle at its two ends and brought about his entire collapse in 1910. Following the downfall, Ellery could swap short periods of intense labor with instances of severe exhaustion. For George Ellery, the 200-inch telescope acted as his last project as well as the one, which could give him a great reputation. Ellery is best remembered for this telescope. Additionally, there existed other individuals in the army like Clyde McDowell. Clyde withdrew from the navy and abandoned an opportunity and reputation in a bid to administer the building of the telescope. His form of administration led to the effortless construction of the telescope. Moreover, McDowell acquired new friends with his perception that the construction of the telescope was the same as the construction of a massive battleship gun tower. McDowell employed retired military Colonel Brett to manage the building site on Palomar. On his part, Brett managed the site in the same way as an army operation, to the extent of serving a nasty meal each week to permit the employees long for others (Florence, 2011, pp. 89-112). Ronald Florence illustrates the scientists in addition to the engineers as considerably the most impressive characters in the drama. It is not hard to express sympathy for individuals like McCauley of Corning as well as his impressive attempts to come up with an appropriate piece of Pyrex for use as the telescope mirror. All things appeared to break down for McCauley, starting with a superior obtaining recognition for his efforts to a downpour that threatened to tear down the second Endeavour at a 200-inch (5 meter) mirror blank. Ronald Florence has as well accomplished a service through shedding light on an individual that has obtained very little recognition, Rein Kroon. Rein was a youthful engineer from the Netherlands who was working for the project initiated by Westinghouse, the constructers of the telescope mounting. Rein managed to resolve many difficult setbacks entailed in the telescope mounting (Florence, 2011, pp. 123-152). The aforementioned setbacks included the way to make use of the oil-film comportments for mounting, the interior plan for the north “horseshoe” deportment, and plan for the declination deportments. The endeavors of these men as well as others described in the book led to the completion of the 200-inch Hale Telescope that started its operation in 1949. Not sure if you can write a paper on The perfect machine: building the Palomar telescope by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Very Large Telescope During the early 1980s, there existed more than half of a dozen observatories of telescopes accessible to astronomers internationally, La Silla being among them. Arrangements were underway to build stronger and larger telescopes having primary mirrors. The Keck Foundation (KF) allowed the Californian Institute of Technology (CIT) and the University of California to construct twin 10-m telescopes and situated it on Mauna Kea. This aspect played a key role in the provision of initial light and in particular concerning ground-anchored spectroscopic similar to the Hubble Space Telescope (Florence, 2011, pp. 219-250). Switzerland and Italy had become part of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in 1981, thus allowing the building of the 3.5-m fresh expertise Telescope with initial developments in dynamic optics. These developments were vital for the next move; viz. the building of a Very Large Telescope (VLT) that received the approval in 1987 and it was constructed on Cerro Paranal in Chile. This 8.1-m telescope (Gemini) as well as an 8.3-m Subaru telescope came into being at around the same period. The Very Large Telescope was planned from initial stages as an incorporated structure containing 4 of the 8.2-m telescopes, comprising the likelihood of to merge the light telescopes for optical interferometers, thus paving the way for breathtaking spatial settlement. The majority of VLT devices were constructed in close partnership with establishments in nearby states. The whole lot of the initial device set was completed at around mid 2007 with the ordering of CRIRES. The Paranal stock comprised the screw adaptive optics network in addition to a fast-reaction method to respond to quick transient occurrences. Later on, the near infrared frequency was incorporated as generation-1.5 device. The Very Large Telescopes have added to all sections of astronomy encompassing the kind of dark substance and dark energy, the excessive physics of gamma radiation ruptures, as well as the configuration, organization, and development of galaxies and solar system. The productivity with respect to referenced research papers was almost 500 in 2007, thus making about 2200 since initiation with subsequent yearly augments. The total of observing applications for European Southern Observatory amenities has nearly tripled in the last decade. The User Portal has approximately 4000 certified clients and the archive holds 74 Terabytes of statistics and improved statistical products (Florence, 2011, pp. 298-325). Winning strategy The Very Large Telescopes initiated businesses for Keck telescopes in about 5 years. Nevertheless, the notion of constructing a completely integrated structure having 4 of the 8.2-m telescopes with time and offering a dozen foci for a cautiously planned backup of devices accompanied by 4 of the 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescope proved to be the proper one for the interferometer. The inclusion of a lasting and sufficiently financed device and expertise were constructed in association with establishments in the neighboring states, with similar participation in labor remunerated by assured keeping of time, and has developed the most improved ground-anchored optical observatory in the universe. The progression model prohibits guest as well as service style and offers the best observing effectiveness in the world on a position where almost 90 per cent of the nights are unclouded (Florence, 2011, pp. 382-425). In the society today, the achievements of the Palomar telescope have facilitated technological inspirations, for instance, the European Southern Observatory personnel were motivated to construct, drive, and back the best probable observatory. In this regard, the Very Large Telescope is possibly the natural replacement of the Perfect Machine that was situated at Mount Palomar. Strength and weakness of the book Ronald Florence does not just offer a vibrant story of the design and building of Hale telescope, but he also attracts the reader to share his enthrallment for a splendid project in addition to a remarkable technical machine. The book is beyond a well written piece and turns out to be fascinating. Nevertheless, there exist some weaknesses in the book. At some point, the author wrongly offers praise to the designers of the Palomar telescope for novelty that had been tested long before, like the standard of the support of the principal mirror. The description of the unmoved ending of the principal mirror seems entirely questionable with regard to the metrology of the moment, being of excessively low resolution to permit any significant confirmation of local redesigning as detailed by the author. Additionally, the post-1950 era could as well have merited a rather wider and fairer description. Moreover, the introduction of completely new and extensive perceptions, like active optics, under the custody of European designers, and dealers is totally disregarded. Overall, the vision and the effort concerning the construction of the Palomar telescope spring from each page; it is an almost flawless book regarding an almost perfect machine. Conclusion By around 1980s, there hailed observatories of telescopes accessible to astronomers internationally that were perhaps the natural substitution of the Perfect Machine that was positioned at Mount Palomar. Ronald Florence used reasonable time in the study of the story as portrayed by the endnotes that demonstrate his usage of a lot of time in search of primary data from the archives. Nevertheless, Florence is yet to seize a number of the noteworthy historical concerns concerning the 200-inch telescope and in this regard, intellectual treatment is anticipated of the Palomar Observatory by a historiographer of science and technology. An excellent intellectual historiographer was perhaps not the intention of Ronald Florence (this is evident in the lack of preface as well as a bibliography; in its place there are works stated at the endnotes). Luckily, an excellently studied and perfectly written story is developed in the book. Reference Florence, R. (2011). The Perfect Machine: Building the Palomar Telescope. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.
Buying and selling: Global supply chain Paper.

Five page paper, double spaced, 12 Font, TNR. It needs to have images, graphs, and info from the attached excel (don’t count toward the 5 pages). This paper involves an excel assignment. Please don’t bid before looking at the attached excel file. Part Teardown Exercise – The Computer Mouse Situation:You are a buyer at a major computer manufacturing company.Having recently been hired after graduating from the prestigious WSU Supply Chain Management program, your management has decided to let you lead your own sourcing package in order to demonstrate your purchasing abilities.You have been assigned to work in a team.The product you have been tasked to source is the computer mouse.Recently technological innovations have rendered the traditional mechanical mouse with the rolling ball underneath obsolete.The new technology is the optical mouse.Your organization does not know how much the new optical mouse will cost and has therefore asked you to run a sourcing package in order to find out the new market price and identify a recommended supplier to partner with. The current supplier of the mechanical version of the mouse has been an excellent supplier in the past and has gone out of their way to try to win the business for the new optical versions.In fact they have even given you a prototype sample to demonstrate the maturity of their development process.The supplier will be providing you with a quotation for the product using the standard piece price breakdown form at a later date. Task: Your task is to get ahead of the curve and develop your own price analysis of what the part should cost.You will do this by taking apart the prototype mouse down to the component level and building up your own price breakdown sheet that you will be able to use in price negotiations with the supplier. Traditionally, suppliers are less than complete in their piece price breakdowns, choosing to lump together numerous cost components in order to inhibit full visibility into component pricing.You however, cannot do this, but must estimate costs down the component level of purchase for your supplier.In other words, the paper label on the bottom side of the mouse must be a separate line item, just as each screw, resistor, capacitor and microprocessor, to name a few items, should also be separate line items.You will use your company’s standard quoting template / piece price breakdown form for all parts. Volume Assumptions:100,000 units per year for 3 years Use a standard Dell Computer Mouse. Please be specific about the mouse parts. (I mean very specific. List everything you can think of, even the smallest parts that are used to make the mouse, don’t forget the interior along with the exterior i.e the plastic used to bulit it, wire etc) Look at the attached excel for price breakdown template which needs to be in the paper. The paper should have the information below and whatever else you think is necessary Executive summary: Overview of the whole paper Supplier Quotation Team estimate: Insert copy of breakdown here for example, (excel) Material: Labor:Burden:Etc….Total: Table here comparing supplier quote to your estimate. Highlight the discrepancies as “opportunities” for improvement on quotation Details of each component Mouse Cover Material:ABS Weight: 0.05kg Per Piece Material Cost: $2.00/kg * 0.05kg = $0.10 Price estimate source:… Painting and Printing Logo: $0.20 Estimated Tooling Cost: US$50,000 (capacity 100,000 units per year) Per Piece Tooling Cost: US$0.10 Total Estimated Piece Cost: $0.40 Quoted Piece Cost: $0.90 Opportunity: $0.50 NOTE:I MADE UP THESE NUMBERS – DO NOT INTERPRET AS ACTUAL FIGURES Summary of the paper : Total up the opportunity and document what you feel the quoted price should reduce to….. This will “kick off” negotiations with the supplier
Buying and selling: Global supply chain Paper

Principles of Marketing Mod.1.

Module 1 – CaseMarketing and Marketing StrategySelect TWO products which you have recently bought or rented, ONE a High Involvement purchase, and ONE a Low Involvement purchase, in the following product categories:HIGH INVOLVEMENT (expensive or otherwise important): Examples:Automobile,Home or apartment,JewelryLOW INVOLVEMENT (relatively inexpensive or routine):Candy barFast foodNewspaper or magazineExcluding the title page, any appendices or references write a four page paper in which you do the following:First PageApplying the teaching materials, explain why the first product you chose was a High Involvement purchase and why the second was a Low Involvement purchase. (10%)Using the five stage model of the Purchase Decision Process in the model of consumer buying behavior described in Module 1, describe in detail the process you went through in buying each product. Bear in mind that the purpose of the assignment is to demonstrate the depth of your understanding of the teaching materials. (20%)Second PageIdentify and discuss the differences between the way you went through the purchase decision processes for the two products. (20%)Third and Fourth PagesAssume now that you are a marketer of both of the two products that you have discussed in the previous pages. Applying only the teaching materials, (specifically the presentation “Uses of a Model of Buying Behavior”), explain how you might use your understanding of the Model of Consumer Buying Behavior for the two products. (Note that the presentation “Uses of a Model of Consumer Buying Behavior” is relevant to this part of the assignment). (50%)List at the end all of the references you have cited in the body of the paper.Note that the weight that will be assigned in grading to each of the sections of the assignment is indicated as a percentage after each one.Ensure that you include on the title page:the name of the university, (Trident University International).the course number, (MKT301),the term, (Winter 2012),the Module number, (Module One),the words in bold above including both the two sets of high and low involvement products and the section starting “First Page” and ending “…of the assignment.”the brand names of the two products you chose for each type of involvement, e.g. “High Involvement: Samsonite luggage; Low Involvement: Del Monte canned fruityour name,the name of the professor or instructor to whom the paper is submitted, (your assigned Professor or Instructor) andthe date on which it was written.IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT YOU INCLUDE ALL THE INFORMATION INDICATED ABOVE.
Principles of Marketing Mod.1

SOC FPX 2000 Capella University Cultural Diversity Religion Essay.

 describing, examining, and reflecting upon a personal cultural diversity encounter.
Understanding cultural diversity from a sociological perspective first requires understanding the concepts and theoretical frameworks that guide sociological thinking. Cultural diversity encompasses a variety of social categories, including race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, social class, age, and physical or mental disability. Sociologists examine these categories at both the micro level (how they affect or are affected by individuals) and at the macro level (how they impact society as a whole).
In this assessment, you practice making connections between the micro and macro levels by examining how your personal experiences or observations connect to broader issues related to diversity in American culture. For example, if you have observed or experienced firsthand a situation involving prejudice, stereotypes, or discrimination in the workplace, consider not only how that situation relates to broader patterns or trends in the workplace but also to specific theories of diversity within the field of sociology. By placing your personal observations and experience in the context of the society in which you live, you will be thinking like a sociologist and practicing your sociological imagination.
Demonstration of Proficiency
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Describe theoretical ideas of power in relation to policy.

Connect a personal experience to sociological concepts of power.

Competency 3: Analyze the effects of social policy using aggregated data.

Analyze data to make valid sociological inferences.

Competency 4: Analyze how laws are applied or created based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age, and social class.

Analyze how laws or policies are applied to a diversity issue.

Competency 5: Apply diversity strategies in professional, educational, and personal contexts.

Apply strategies for addressing a cultural diversity issue.
Discuss personal characteristics or experiences that might account for feelings or reactions involving a diversity issue.

Competency 6: Communicate effectively.

Write coherently to support a central idea in appropriate format and with few errors of grammar, usage, and mechanics.

Reflect on an instance when you or someone else were unfairly excluded, discriminated against, or otherwise neglected or treated inappropriately due to race, ethnicity, age, gender, social class, sexuality, disability, or other category related to diversity. Depending on the setting in which the incident occurred, consider whether any laws or policies were violated, either those established by an organization, such as a business or school, or state or federal antidiscrimination policies.
Write an essay in which you complete each of the following:

Part 1 – Describe your experience:

Describe the event and the underlying diversity issues at play.
Describe your opinions, feelings, actions, and what you learned from the event.

Part 2 – Examine your experience:

Discuss experiences from your personal background that might account for your feelings or reactions. Consider areas such as your ethnicity, history, upbringing, local mores, recent events, et cetera.
Connect your experience to at least three sociological concepts and/or issues. For example, if you are writing about what if feels like to be an outsider, you could connect your discussion to the concept of power or social structure, or the broader issue of relationships between dominant and minority groups.

Examples of other concepts you could include are prejudice, discrimination, stereotypes, cultural pluralism, assimilation, structural mobility, social distance, and modern racism.
Examples of theories include functional or conflict theory, Marx’s and Weber’s theories of inequality, Park’s race relations cycle, Gordon’s theory of assimilation, human capital theory, scapegoat hypothesis, and the theory of authoritarian personality.

Incorporate research on the broader issue that your experience illustrates. For example, if the incident you describe involves discrimination in the workplace, research workplace discrimination and find data on the prevalence or nature of this problem. If the incident involves bullying at school, locate data on how extensive this issue is. Questions to consider include:

Is the type of incident you describe commonplace?
Where might this be most prevalent?
Among what groups is it most likely to occur?
What trends did you notice in your research? For example, does the kind of incident you experienced or observed seem to be an increasing problem, or is it declining over time?

Analyze how relevant laws or policies might be applied to this situation. These may be civil or criminal laws or, perhaps, policies established in the workplace or schools.

Consider whether any laws or policies were violated and how those laws or policies might be changed or better enforced to address the situation you describe.

Part 3 – Reflect on your experience:

Based on your reflections of the event and the research you have now done, share personal strategies that are useful for informing the interactions or relationships between the involved parties, as well as your own understanding or perspectives.

Additional Requirements

Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
Length: 5–7 pages, not including title and reference pages.
Format: Include a title page and reference page, and format the paper and your citations according to current APA style and formatting guidelines.
Sources: Cite at least two scholarly sources.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12-point.Resources: Diversity Basics
The following resources introduce you to the concept of diversity and what it means to examine this concept using a sociological perspective.

Resource Bank | Transcript.

This is a general resource for cultural diversity topics.

Abercrombie, N., Hill, S., & Turner, B. S. (2006). The Penguin dictionary of sociology (5th ed.). London, England: Penguin.

This dictionary includes descriptions of key terms in sociology.

Healey, J. F., Stepnick, A., & O’Brien, E. (2019). Race, ethnicity, gender, and class: The sociology of group conflict and change (8th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.

Chapters 1, 2, and 3.
These chapters explore diversity from a sociological perspective.

Plaut, V. (2014). Inviting everyone in. Scientific American, 311(4), 52–57. 

This article focuses on strategies for promoting diversity in the workplace and classroom.

Prince Inniss, J. (2011, September 8). What explains social inequality? [Blog post]. Everyday Sociology. Retrieved from…

Prince Innis shows how to apply sociological theories to the topic of inequality.

Triana, M. (2017). Managing diversity in organizations: A global perspective. New York, NY: Routledge.  

Triana’s book defines key concepts and theories and describes important social and political issues related to diversity.Resources: Diversity Demographics
Diversity encompasses a variety of categories, including age, race and ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, disability, and social class. The resources below focus on these demographic aspects of diversity.

AAUW. (2017). The simple truth about the gender pay gap. Retrieved from…

This report describes and analyzes data on the gender pay gap and its causes and consequences. 

Callard, F., Sartorius, N., Arboleda-Flórez, J., Bartlett, P., Helmchen, H., Stuart, H., … Thornicroft, G. (2012). Mental illness, discrimination and the law: Fighting for social justice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

This book discusses issues facing those with mental illness and ways that legislation can protect and advance their rights.

Demographic Characteristics by Race | Transcript.

This resource presents a variety of data on the major racial and ethnic categories in the United States.

Economic Inequality | Transcript.

These charts show data on economic inequality in the United States.

Healey, J. F., Stepnick, A., & O’Brien, E. (2019). Race, ethnicity, gender, and class: The sociology of group conflict and change (8th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.

Parts III and IV in this text address data and issues pertaining to the many forms diversity takes.

Nelson, T. D. (2016). The age of ageism. Journal of Social Issues, 72(1), 191–198. 

This article discusses the increasing significance of research on Ageism and the “graying of America.” 

Parry, E. (2014). Generational diversity at work: New research perspectives. New York, NY: Routledge. 

This book examines the characteristics of generational groups and how those characteristics translate to the workplace.

Peters, W. (Producer). (1985, March 26). A class divided [Television series episode]. Frontline. Retrieved from…

Teacher Jane Elliott divides her grade school classroom based on eye color in order to teach a profound lesson in prejudice and discrimination.

FMG Video

The following videos were purchased through Films Media Group for use in this Capella course. Any distribution of video content or associated links is prohibited. 

Race and Sex: What We Think (But Can’t Say) | Transcript.
Running time: 3:52. 
The Story We Tell: Race – The Power of an Illusion | Transcript.
This video traces the history of race and its social construction in American society.
Running time: 1:38.
Taking a Stance Against Racism and Discrimination | Transcript.
This series of video clips shows segments from the news program What Would You Do? These segments focus on the many forms that diversity takes
Running time: 3:29.

SOC FPX 2000 Capella University Cultural Diversity Religion Essay

Approaches to Aviation Safety Management

Approaches to Aviation Safety Management. Benefits and Drawbacks of the Predictive, Proactive and Reactive Approaches to Aviation Safety Management Introduction Safety management in aviation is not a new 21st century topic. In the past aviation safety improvement was characterized by a fly-crash-fix-fly approach. We found fly airplanes that have the occasional unfortunate crash and we would investigate the cause(s) to prevent it from happening again. Sometimes the causes would be weather related or mechanical failures, but more often the main cause would be human error usually “the pilot”. Essentially, the prevailing philosophy was once determined to be the pilot; therefore, other pilots were simply encouraged to not make the same mistakes that happened before. Safety management should not be viewed as simply a means to an end or a blind adherence to industry standards, but rather as a company and industry wide commitment to the best practices and continuous improvement of everything safety related. In an effective safety management system, the focus is shifted from a reactive to proactive method of managing risk. The prevailing view of risk should be professional and realistic, focusing on eliminating or maintaining optimum levels of acceptable risk using past incidents, professional’s perspectives and insights. The aviation industry has in the past been comfortable maintaining a reactive position to safety regarding occurrences as isolated accidents, and consistently taking actions only when something happens. The introduction of safety management systems is shifting the focus from enforcement centered to a more proactive approach which can establish the perception that safety is simply the best and the most effective and most profitable way to do business. The Benefits and Drawbacks of the Reactive, Proactive and Predictive Approaches to Aviation Safety Management. Safety means different things to different people in relation to their circumstances. The Merriam Webster online dictionary defines safety as the “condition of being safe from undergoing or causing loss, injury or hurt” (Merriam Webster Online Dictionary, 2017). The International Civil Aviation Authority defines safety as “the state in which the risk of harm to persons or of property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below and acceptable level through a continuous process of hazard identification and risk management” (ICAO, 2006). Aviation safety management is described as a planned, documented and verifiable method of managing hazards and associated risks (Bottomley, 1999). It is a strategic process that identifies and addresses safety issues. It includes the important organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures. (ICAO, 2009). ICAO has required its member states to develop and implement SMS programs to improve safety and the FAA is encouraging aviation service providers to develop an SMS. Of course, the overarching goal is to improve safety while the experts of ICAO believe that deployment of an SMS is the best means of achieving that goal. The transformation of the aviation industry from what it was to what it is at this present time is as a result of continuous investment in aviation safety. These efforts made by the aviation community as safety have been the highest priority for the aviation industry over the past 100 years. Developments in technology, training and risk management have resulted in commendable improvements. The Aviation Safety Management concept represents the transition from a reactive culture to a proactive culture. Globally, the accident rate will never be zero because human error will always be a component of nearly every operational activity. However, the accident rate can be reduced by implementing proactive and predictive methods into the organizations management system. The safety management concept shows a progression from a reactive culture driven by investigating the most recent smoking hole to a proactive environment of identifying and resolving operational hazards associated with significant changes in the operation before they are implemented. Approaches to Aviation Safety Management ICAO identified three approaches to Aviation Safety Management as follows: Reactive approach Proactive approach Predictive approach The Reactive Approach The term ‘Reactive’ means being responsive to something. The reactive approach entails action after an accident has taken place to either minimize its effects or to take advantage of the event. It involves responding to accidents as they occur. This was how the early aviation system did risk management because they did not have enough experience and technological knowledge. The reactive approach to aviation safety management is often equated with the well known “fly-crash-fix-fly” adage. There is an accident or incident and we use investigative tools to try to determine what the contributory factors that caused the problem. ICAO uses the term to include “incident analysis, determination of contributory factors and findings as to risk”. This approach involves the analyses of outcomes or events. Incidents and accidents are clear. Correcting the deficiencies found using standard reactive measures should reduce and manage errors that led to a particular incident. This approach is used in new SMS programs that do not have the requisite safety data to practice proactive or predictive safety management. Benefits of the Reactive Approach Accident investigation is an important reactive component of the aviation safety management system. Accident investigation contributes to the continuous improvement of the aviation safety system by providing the root causes of accidents and incidents. Finally, lessons are learned from analysis of events. Information received from the reactive approach can support decisions regarding the development of corrective actions and corresponding allocation of resources and may identify necessary improvements to the aviation system. Most investigation exercise also uncovers hazards or threats. An effective investigation process includes the identification and discrimination of the immediate, underlying and root causes of an aircraft accident as well as the active and latent errors leading to an accident. This approach through analysis of data from numerous accidents has aided in the identification of recurring patterns or risk factors that are not always apparent when individual accidents are investigated. It provides the motivation and opportunity to identify and collect safety data. Drawbacks of the Reactive Approach According to the NTSB, due to the complex nature of accident investigations, providing timely accident reports has been challenging. Thus, it can be said that the reactive approach is time consuming. This approach requires a lot of resources for its successful completion. It is a result of the resource constraints that the NTSB has developed the accident launch criteria to determine which accidents to investigate (largely related to the number of fatalities or other risk factors). Modern safety theory would suggest that relying on correcting deficiencies found through incident investigation as a means to reduce error is somewhat restrictive (WeigmamApproaches to Aviation Safety Management

You will need to summarize the introduction (why they were doing the study), the methods, and the results. Additionally, you

assignment writing services You will need to summarize the introduction (why they were doing the study), the methods, and the results. Additionally, you need to include a conclusion section, but instead of summarizing the paper’s conclusions, I want you to tell me why you think the paper was important (or not) and if the authors achieved their goals. Your summary of the introduction, methods, and results must be at least ½ page in length. The entire summary must be no longer than 1 page. You must use Times New Roman font, single-spaced, 12-point font size, paper margins must be 1 inch on each side, and only one space is allowed between each section of the summary.

UOC Reputation Services Safeguarding the Brand Discussion

UOC Reputation Services Safeguarding the Brand Discussion.

respond to all the following questions. Make sure to explain and backup
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include at least two references.As
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individual consumers, as well as, perhaps, large organizations that are
security conscious like our fictitious enterprise, Digital Diskus, what
will be the expectations and requirements of the customers? Will
consumers’ needs be different from those of enterprises? Who owns the
data that is being served from the reputation service? In addition, what
kinds of protections might a customer expect from other customers when
accessing reputations?
UOC Reputation Services Safeguarding the Brand Discussion

Purdue Global University Promoting Safety and Reducing Risk Discussion Paper

Purdue Global University Promoting Safety and Reducing Risk Discussion Paper.

I’m working on a nursing discussion question and need guidance to help me learn.

Read the required readings. Next visit the CDC Injury Prevention and Control website; Child safety and injury prevention. Additionally review the CDC Childhood Injury report.…For this discussion create an outline with supportive content for the implementation of a simple educational program or intervention to promote health and reduce injury risk for the childhood and/or adolescent population. Focus can be for an individual, specific group or population. Include the topic, target audience /learner characteristics. Introduction may include statistics of why the topic is important, population affected and pertinent risk factors. Include, objectives, goals, the intervention and means you will use to evaluate the program. Show evidence based support for the intervention. Comment on others projects and share ideas and interventions supported by studies.3 References APA 7th Edition
Purdue Global University Promoting Safety and Reducing Risk Discussion Paper

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