PART A Q1. The Nyquist theorem is one of the deciding factor in data communication. The fibre optics as well as the copper wires are communication mediums. Do you think the theorem is valid for the fiber optics or for the copper wires. Ans. Nyquist theorem is valid for both fibre optics and copper wires this is because the Niquist theorem is purely depend upon the mathematic function and has not any concern with the transmission media for communication. According to Henry Nyquist, a perfect channel has a finite transmission capacity. He derived an equation expressing the maximum data rate for a finite bandwidth noiseless channel. Nyquist said that if an arbitrary signal has been run through a low-pass filter of bandwidth B, the filtered signal can be completely reconstructed by making only 2Bsamples per second. Sampling the line faster than 2B times per second is pointless because the higher frequency components that such sampling could recover have already been filtered out. If the signal consists of L discrete levels, Nyquist’s theorem states: Maximum bit rate =2* Bandwidth log2 L. For noisy channel: Capacity = bandwidth * log2 (1 SNR), where SNR is signal to noise ratio. Q2. Noise affects all the signals which are there in air. There are some communicating modulation techniques. Noise affects which of the modulation technique the most. Ans. Noise is defined as the disturbance in the signal. When data is send over the network in the form of signal, due the various natural or unnatural circumstances produce disturbance in the signals which is called noise. The noise is various kinds such as thermal noise, crosstalk, and impulse noise. Noise affects all the signals but there are some modulation techniques which are used to reduce the noise. These techniques are: Amplitude modulation Frequency modulation Phase modulation The amplitude modulation is affected most by the noise this is because there is the change in only amplitude and the amplitude is affected easily by the noise. Q3. An analog signal carries 4 bits in each signal element. If 10,000 signal elements are sent per sec, find the Baud Rate and Bit Rate? Ans. Given signal carries r =4 Signal element s=10000 Let N be the bit rate We know that S = N*(1/r) ð N= S*r ð N= 10000* 4 ð N=40000 bps Bit rate is equals to 40000bps Q4. What are the reasons for the imperfection caused in transmission media? How the perfection can be measured? Ans. There are certain reasons for the imperfection caused by the transmission media. These reasons are describe below: Attenuation: All the transmission media has some sort of loss of signal i.e. called attenuation which make then imperfect. During the transmission of the signal from one place to another the loss or energy is occurred which reduce the overall strength of the signals which is called attenuation. For this is reason amplifier is used in various place in the transmission. Noise: Noise is the basically the disturbance which is produced in the signal when the signal send over the transmission media then the natural and un natural climate affect the signal such as pollution etc. So that some kind of distortion is occur in the signal. Every transmission media is affected with the noise which makes the signal imperfect. Distortion: Distortion means that the change in the signal. Due to some circumstance there must be change in the signal. The signal may deviate from actual one this is called distortion. The perfection can be measure in the form the above three. A transmission media which has less attenuation, less noise and less distortion that transmission media is called perfect. Q5. There are numerous multiplexing techniques available. What in your opinion is the most appropriate multiplexing technique for the fiber optics as well as copper wires? Ans. Multiplexing is the process of converting n signal to the one. There are various technique but two basic technique are FDM(Frequency Division multiplexing) TDM(Time Division multiplexing) wavelength Division multiplexing In fiber optics multiplexing the best technique used is called WDM Wavelength division multiplexing. The basic principle of WDM on fibers is that n fibers come together at an optical chamber, each with its energy present at a different wavelength. The four beams are combined onto a single shared fiber for transmission to a distant destination. At the far end, the beam is spilt up over as may fibers as there were on the input side. Each output fiber contains a short special- constructed core that filters out all but one wavelength. The resulting signals can be routed to their destination or recombined in different ways for additional multiplexed transport. In the case of the copper wire Frequency division multiplexing technique is used. First the voice channels are raised in frequency, each by a different amount. Then they can be combined because no two channels now occupy the same portion of the spectrum. Notice that even though there are gaps (guard bands) between the channels, there is some overlap between adjacent channels because the filters do not have sharp edges. But nowadays there is use of the Time division multiplexing is used which is particularly deal with the digital signal. In this technique the conversion must be take place from analog to digital signals. Q6. While transferring the data from the transmission medium there are various aspects of your data getting tempered by other users? What’s your opinion is the most secure and insecure transmission medium. Justify your answer with an example. Ans. Transmission media is the aspect which is caused for tempering of data by the other. All transmission media has this problem. When we use the copper wire it can be taped by another one. One of the improve version is the optical fibre which An improved media is fiber optic cabling, this media does not emanate any signals since it uses light sources to transmit the signals from node to node. It has proved to be the most secure media available for use on LANs today and will continue to be the most secure media until the black hats discover a way to tap it undetected. The last medium reviewed is the wireless media which uses the airways as their path from node to node. The only way to guarantee secure transmissions is to use a layered approach, or combination of techniques to try to encrypt the data. The best way currently to encrypt data over LANs is to use the IPSec protocol with any of the discussed media. IPSec security is compatible with all types of media so it is the one thing in common with allmedia that will almost guarantee the security of the pathways between nodes. PART B Q1.Assume a stream is made of ten 0s .Encode this stream , using following encoding schemes .How many can you find for each scheme ? Unipolar NRZ-L NRZ-I RZ Manchester Differential Manchester Ans. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Unipolar: it can be drawn as: NRZ-L: It can be drawn as: NRZ-I: it can be drawn as: RZ: it can be drawn as: Manchester: it can be drawn as: Differential Manchester: it can be drawn as: Q2. Two channels ,one with bit rate of 150kbps and another with a bit rate of 140kbps,are to be multiplexed using pulse stuffing TDM with no synchronization bits.Answere the following: What is the size of frame in bits What is the frame rate ? What is the duration of a frame? What is the data rate? Ans. Given bit rate of 1st channel=150 kbps Given bit rate of 2nd channel=140kbps Ans1. We allocate 3 slot for first and 3 slot for 2nd and we each size of frame is six bit. Ans2. Q3. Contrast
Insurance and Healthcare Reimbursement-DQ1-Discuss your views
Insurance and Healthcare Reimbursement-DQ1-Discuss your views. Paper details Discuss the difference between civil law and criminal law penalties as they relate to coding violations. Which one do you feel is see more often in the legal system, explain? Which coding violation appears in the news more often, explain? Are your answers the same of different, explain why?Insurance and Healthcare Reimbursement-DQ1-Discuss your views
Ccjs week 5
essay writer Ccjs week 5. Paper details Research the training requirements for your local police department (searching for the State’s POST requirements will help you with find this information) My local police department is Chicago PD 2. Find 2 areas of training that you think are most valuable for police based on what you read this week, and based on the argument that police do not have good training- share these in the discussion board and tell WHY you think they are most valuable 3. Identify 2 areas where you think training is lacking in terms of how training in these areas would help the current state of police and community relations today and explain WHY you think the training is lacking and HOW training in these areas may improve policing and police/community relations.Ccjs week 5
Compose a summary of Robert Marks’s “Introduction–The Rise of the West?” in The Origins of the Modern World. Your
Compose a summary of Robert Marks’s “Introduction–The Rise of the West?” in The Origins of the Modern World. Your summary should be at least 300 words in length and observe the rules of correct grammar and spelling. An appropriate summary should give an overview of the entire chapter of the book and not just the opening pages. An acceptable summary should not need extensive quotations. However, it is important to note that you must put the author’s ideas in your own words. Simply retyping sentences from the book or superficially altering a word or two is not acceptable–it is plagiarism–so please be careful to avoid this pitfall.
EN 106 Park University Smartphones Addiction Review
EN 106 Park University Smartphones Addiction Review.
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does not use Chegg or Course Hero or any online cites to provide your answers. The
professor checks these other sites as well. If you do this to provide your
answers and don’t use your own, let me know immediately so I can choose someone
else to assist me. I have been notified that an assignment was linked to Chegg or Course Hero etc.Someone that uses their own
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documents attached with the instructions.Then let me know. Thank you.Subjects are:Writing Text book,Lunsford, Andrea. EasyWriter:
A Pocket Reference. 6th Ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2016. ISBN:
Greene, Stuart and April Lidinsky. From Inquiry to
Academic Writing: A Text and Reader. 4th Ed. New York: Bedford/St.
Martin’s, 2018. ISBN: 9781319071233Your
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EN 106 Park University Smartphones Addiction Review