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The Nestle Organistional Chart

According to Louis A. Allen as cited anon, Organisation is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority, and establishing relationship for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives.” According to Mooney and Railey, “Organisation is the form of every human association for the attainment of a common purpose.” In short, organizing is the determining, grouping and arranging of the various activities deemed necessary for the attainment of the objectives, the assigning of people to those activities, the providing of suitable physical factors of environment and the indicating of the relative authority delegated to each individual charged with the execution of each respective activity. (Anon.n.d) ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE The typically hierarchical arrangement of lines of authority, communications, rights and duties of an organization. Organizational structure determines how the roles, power and responsibilities are assigned, controlled, and coordinated, and how information flows between the different levels of management. Formal and informal organization A formal organization structure shows a recognisable chain of command, it also has many levels of management. This makes communication slower and decision making harder to implement. An informal structure is much more relaxed, with very few levels of management. This makes communication much easier between levels and decisions anr made faster. (Anon.n.d) Centralization and de-centralization Centralized organizational structures rely on one individual to make decisions and provide direction for the company. Small businesses often use this structure since the owner is responsible for the company’s business operations. Decentralized organizational structures often have several individuals responsible for making business decisions and running the business. Decentralized organizations rely on a team environment at different levels in the business. Individuals at each level in the busi. (Osmond Vitez, Demand Media. (2009).) Span of control The number of subordinates that a manager or supervisor can directly control. This number varies with the type of work: complex, variable work reduces it to six, whereas routine, fixed work increases it to twenty or more.( Product Structure The product structure describes the information that’s needed, or is produced, at each phase of the lifecycle. The workflow is defined as a set of tasks, characterised by resources, events, associated information, responsibilities, decision criteria, procedures to be used, and standards to be applied (Product Lifecycle Management,2011) Advantages 1. allows the business to make relatively quick decisions, and locate all personnel related to each other together 2. Clear focus on market segment helps meet customers’ needs. 3. Positive competition between divisions 4. Better control as each division can act as a separate profit centre Disadvantages: Redundancies often exist across product organizations as functional responsibilities are duplicated under each product organization. Economies of scale and scope are more difficult to achieve as this organization structure encourages less cooperation and coordination across the product units. Regional structure: ”One which takes account of the exclusive membership of countries which are geographical neighbours and identify closely with each other politically, not including non-regional members, although there are also ‘quasi-regional ‘organisations whose membership is basically limited to a geographical area of interest but which in practice includes non-regional members” (The Structure and Process of International Law: Essays in Legal Philosophy, Doctrine, and Theory,1983) Advantages: The country organization is capable of sensing and understanding local conditions and is able to formulate strategies which effectively meet the needs of local stakeholders. Policies in areas such as human resource management can be tailored to meet the needs and expectations of local employees, product mix and design can be optimized for local conditions, and the organization can respond more quickly to changing circumstances on the ground. Disadvantages: The disadvantages of the area structure are similar to those of the product structure. Economies of scale will be harder to achieve as different localities develop and implement very different product strategies on one hand, and invest resources in developing local functional expertise and effort which may well be duplicated unnecessarily across geographic units. Function Structure: “A functional structure is based on the primary tasks that have to be carried out, such as production, finance and accounting, marketing and personnel. This structure is typically found in smaller companies or those with a narrow, rather than diverse, range of services” (Managing Projects, Managing People,2008) Advantages Specialization – each department focuses on its own work Accountability – someone is responsible for the section Clarity – know your and others’ roles Disadvantages Closed communication could lead to lack of focus Departments can become resistant to change Coordination may take too long Gap between top and bottom Matrix Structure “A matrix structure is a combination of often takes the form of product and geographical divisions of functional and divisional structures operation in tandem” (Managing Projects, Managing People,2008) Advantages: The matrix allows functional efficiencies to be achieved while also allowing for the management of discrete product lines. Product managers remain focused on specific customer and product issues, yet can tap into the specialized support systems offered by strong functions. Where a geographic dimension is included in the structure, country managers or other local personnel can devote their attention to the development of location specific strategies. Communication and information sharing may be facilitated through the multiple dimensions. Disadvantages: The matrix is complex and often involves additional coordination costs. Confusion and ambiguity may result from multiple reporting relationships as a single individual may receive conflicting direction from their various supervisors. Multidivisional Structure “These divisions may be formed because of products, services, geographical areas or the processes of the organisation” (Managing Projects, Managing People,2008) Advantages: Profitable growth: when each division is its own profit centre, individual profitability can be clearly evaluated Internal labor market: the most able divisional managers are promoted to become corporate managers Disadvantages Managing the corporate-divisional relationship: finding the balance between centralization and decentralization Coordination problems between divisions: divisions start competing for resources and rivalry prevents cooperation CULTURE “Culture is the collective programming of the human mind that distinguishes the members of one human group from those of another” (Foreign Market Entry and Culture,2009) Types of Culture Handy’s culture types (1978) The theorist Charles Handy identified the four main types of culture. Power culture – wherever power is concentrated in a leader or top of the management team. Quite informal and flexible, it allows trusted staff to get on with the job. Role culture – where the authority is arranged in a hierarchy and the power depends on formal status. Many rules and procedures can make change difficult. It is Mostly seen in large bureaucratic organizations. Task culture – is purpose- and project-driven with leadership based on expertise for the task in hand. Often copes well with rapid change but may lack overall cohesion. Person culture – stresses the individual’s right to make decisions with shared rules only for mutual benefit. Effective for professionals and independent workers such as lawyers but may break up as conditions change. ((Kim Ann Zimmermann. (2012)) NESTLE ORGANISTIONAL CHART Functional Organization Chart Product BIBLOGRAPHY Anon. (n.d). Definition, Meaning
Motivational Interviewing for Alcohol Abusers Motivational interviewing is a method used by psychologists to help the client change behavior. It mainly involves client-centered counseling sessions. The aim of these sessions is to resolve the internal conflict within the clients in order to assist in the making of informed decisions by these individuals concerning their behavior. Previous research suggests that motivational interviewing may be used to achieve health behavioral change among elderly persons (cooper, 2012). Psychologists may use motivational interviewing during the feedback session. This may be useful to help alcohol abusers to recognize some of the symptoms related to alcohol abuse and the connection with their current health (mental, medical, and social). When dealing with an elderly person involved in alcohol abuse, a therapist may use one of the modifications of motivational interviewing. This is whereby the therapists point out the consequences of alcohol abuse that are related to the individual’s age. It has been determined that older persons fail to recognize the harmful effects of alcohol abuse. Therefore, despite the fact that motivational interviewing does not involve education, it is vital to educate the elderly population in order to foster an understanding of the connection between alcohol abuse and the health issues (and other difficulties) they face. Murphy, Chen, Naar-King, and Parsons (2012) studied the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in fostering behavioral change among HIV positive persons (youth) who abused alcohol and marijuana. This study was relevant since HIV-positive individuals usually abused alcohol and marijuana and this only made them vulnerable to high-risk sexual behavior (which was not proper). They found that motivational interviewing could be used to encourage healthy behavior change among the youth. From their study, they concluded that there were significant reductions in alcohol use. In addition to this, the individuals who went through the motivational interviewing sessions were less likely to be classified into the high-risk lot. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Alcohol Abusers The concept behind cognitive behavioral therapy is that behavior is influenced by an individual’s thoughts and not other external stimuli. Therefore, this therapy aims at changing the individual’s way of thinking rather than changing their circumstances. Therapists usually try to teach alcohol abusers to recognize those situations where they are likely to abuse alcohol (Witkiewitz

Japan versus Korean economic miracles Essay

Introduction Japan and Korea did not follow the same economic development models. While some similarities stand out between these two nations, it is clear that the internal and external circumstances in both countries were dramatically different. These differences in policies and strategies explain why models of economic growth in Japan and Korea were unique to each country. Why some scholars think that Korea and Japan used similar economic models Korea and Japan were countries that heavily relied on government intervention for the development of their economies. In Japan, the government was a key determinant of economic success, and it achieved this goal through centralized planning. It offered incentives to businesses as well as capital and information to crucial industries. Furthermore, it protected businesses from foreign competition while at the same time encouraged competition within targeted industries. Likewise, South Korea’s government pursued an aggressive economic development agenda. The government took part in provision of investment resources among central industries. Korean exports were forced upon players who would pursue growth without compromise. The focus on exports was also a crucial driver of economic growth in both countries. Their governments believed that it was crucial to maintain a healthy balance of trade by encouraging greater exportation and less importation. These institutions used different policies to achieve this intention of being a net exporter. Nonetheless, most of their target markets were also quite similar, and they included countries in the west such as the US. Both countries experienced periods of rapid economic growth rates but these were not without some fluctuations. In Korea, the problems were particularly common in the 60s and 70s. Likewise, Japan also underwent periods of economic stagnation within the 70s. Prior to the economic boom in both countries, agricultural was the mainstay of both economies. However, these nations industrialized rapidly. Their products proliferated into the global market, and they changed their stories from that of desperate dependent nations to strong industrial economies. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some scholars draw similarities between the central planning in both countries. Japan has the Ministry of Trade and Industry while Korea had the Economic Planning Board. These entities determined the pace at which economic growth took place through directed economic policies. Why Korea and Japan did not ascribe to similar economic models While both economies had immense government involvement in economic development, it is quite clear that the strategies pursued by these governments were quite dissimilar. Korea’s focus was on explicit export growth. It is worked with large Korean firms, known as chaebol, to set targets that would entitle them to immense benefits. These incentives included tax cuts, preferential credit access, loan access and high administrative support. On the other hand, Japan’s export strategy was as a result of the growth of heavy industries. Steel, electric and shipping industries had immense production capacities, which allowed them to supply material to the local market as well as to foreign consumers. Therefore, high export patterns were an outgrowth of investment in key industries in Japan while this was a direct goal for Korean players. Japan largely marketed its goods to the local market while many products in Korea could not be sold domestically. These policies resulted in structural imbalances in Korea and strong market bases in Japan. The steel industry in Japan was initially expanded to include technology imports from countries like the US. At the time, these investment decisions seemed extravagant. However, due to the rapid growth in other industrial sectors like shipping and automobiles, almost all the steel was absorbed by the local market. Therefore, the domestic-first principle was the guiding factor in Japan-led economic strategies. On the other hand, Korea produced several commodities that it did not sell locally; a case in point was the color TV. The government did not allow the sale of these items until the 80s. As a result, all of the goods were directed to foreign markets. Several other products like telephones and phonographs were only available to overseas buyers. This export-first approach explains why manufacturing led to monetary imbalances as domestic investments far exceeded domestic savings. We will write a custom Essay on Japan versus Korean economic miracles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Korea had greater foreign debt than Japan during its period of economic boom. While Japan had a healthy budget balance, Korea’s export-fist principle created gaps between productive investment and domestic savings. As mentioned in the latter paragraph, Korea had much less domestic savings than it ought to have had at its GDP. Therefore, insufficient funds to invest in future production were a problem. As a result, the government decided to borrow the difference from foreign partners. Foreign inflow of capital was quite high in Korea compared to Japan and other countries with similar economic partners. This occurred around the year 1985. On the flipside, Japan had healthy levels of domestic savings. Therefore, it did not need to borrow capital from foreigners and it kept its debt under control. In fact, initial investment led to greater investment in Japan, which was like a chain reaction. The situations that led to economic fluctuations in both countries were different and the reactions of their governments to the same were also dissimilar. First, Korea’s volatility stemmed from its immense reliance on exportation strategies. Therefore, the sale of produce would dramatically decrease if external occurrences took place. The government used to allow exporters to bring in raw materials, machinery and other components of production from external markets. Conversely, Japan’s fluctuations were brought on by its industry-dependence on oil for production. The latter government’s response to these fluctuations was more refined than South Korea. In part, the Korean government was not as well-experienced as Japan’s government in dealing with the monetary consequences of the fluctuations. Japan often worked on correcting the money supply as well fixing its inflation levels. On the other hand, the Korean government responded by heightening domestic capacity or accessing foreign loans. Korea and Japan’s approach to foreign policy and defense affected the economic outcomes. The Japanese model was one of neutrality, in that it pursued a pacifist agenda in international relations. This perspective stemmed from the wariness that the Second World War created. The Japanese felt that the post-war period was an opportunity to concentrate on economic development, so their relatively low defense budget contributed to greater capital availability for business. On the other hand, Korea had a relatively high defense budget especially in the early phases of growth because of effects of the Korean War. Not sure if you can write a paper on Japan versus Korean economic miracles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It should be noted while South Korea suffered from the effects of the war, Japan benefited from it by selling military supplies to the US Army. The latter was responsible for the earliest phase of the economic boom in this Asian country. One of the most distinct differences between these two nations in terms of their economic development agenda was how they increased industrial capacity. Japan largely focused on creating new industries while Korea dwelt on expanding the capacity of existing institutions. In fact, this explains why a large gap existed between large firms and small ones. The large firms in Korea (chaebol) grew and expanded while the small ones were not given a high priority. On the flipside, Japan attempted to pursue a bipolar strategy in which the government worked along side both small and large firms. Market concentration was much higher in the large-enterprise economy of Korea than it was in Japan. While the problems in Korea seemed to be overpowering it, the government eventually found its niche and stabilized the economy. This was due to a combination of internal and external factors. First, the government decided to pursue economic stability policies rather than growth policies. Korea’s leaders worked on inflationary pressures substantially and thus stabilized their economy. External factors that led to this stability included low interest rates, depreciation of the dollar as well as reduction of prices of raw materials and energy prices. On the other hand, Japan continued to remain prosperous due to its own set of external and internal forces. The government continued to protect local investors and offer them capital. However, external factors like a free-floating yen, pressure from the US to open its borders to greater capital flow and forced higher prices for their products in the US market explained why they continued to stay successful. Conclusion The Japanese economic model was substantially different from the Korean one. Japan had a domestic-first principle while Korea was export-led. Large conglomerates were responsible for growth while both small and large firms were the mainstay of the Japanese economy. The prevalence or non-prevalence of foreign debt and government response to market fluctuations also explains why these economic models were different.

college algebra questions 16 through 40

essay writing service free college algebra questions 16 through 40.

Question 16 (2.5 points) Evaluate the following expression without using a calculator.8log8 19Question 16 options:17382419Question 17 (2.5 points) Find the domain of following logarithmic function. f(x) = log5 (x + 4)Question 17 options:(-4, ∞)(-5, -∞)(7, -∞)(-9, ∞)Question 18 (2.5 points) Write the following equation in its equivalent logarithmic form.3√8 = 2Question 18 options:LOG2 3 = 1/8LOG8 2 = 1/3LOG2 8 = 1/2LOG3 2 = 1/8Question 19 (2.5 points) Use the exponential growth model, A = A0ekt, to show that the time it takes a population to double (to grow from A0 to 2A0 ) is given by t = ln 2/k.Question 19 options:A0 = A0ekt; ln = ekt; ln 2 = ln ekt; ln 2 = kt; ln 2/k = tA0 = A0ekt; ln = ekt; ln 2 = ln ekt; ln 2 = kt; ln 2/k = t2A0 = A0e; 2= ekt; ln = ln ekt; ln 2 = kt; ln 2/k = t2A0 = A0e; 2= ekt; ln = ln ekt; ln 2 = kt; ln 2/k = t2A0 = A0ekt; 2= ekt; ln 2 = ln ekt; ln 2 = kt; ln 2/k = t2A0 = A0ekt; 2= ekt; ln 2 = ln ekt; ln 2 = kt; ln 2/k = t2A0 = A0ekt; 2 = ekt; ln 1 = ln ekt; ln 2 = kt; ln 2/k = toe2A0 = A0ekt; 2 = ekt; ln 1 = ln ekt; ln 2 = kt; ln 2/k = toeQuestion 20 (2.5 points) Solve the following exponential equation. Express the solution set in terms of natural logarithms or common logarithms to a decimal approximation, of two decimal places, for the solution.ex = 5.7Question 20 options:{LN 5.7}; ≈1.74{LN 8.7}; ≈3.74{LN 6.9}; ≈2.49{LN 8.9}; ≈3.97Question 21 (2.5 points) Solve each equation by the addition method.x2 + y2 = 25 (x – 8)2 + y2 = 41Question 21 options:{(3, 5), (3, -2)}{(3, 4), (3, -4)}{(2, 4), (1, -4)}{(3, 6), (3, -7)}Question 22 (2.5 points) Write the partial fraction decomposition for the following rational expression. ax +b/(x – c)2 (c ≠ 0)Question 22 options:a/a – c +ac + b/(x – c)2a/a – c +ac + b/(x – c)a/b – c +ac + b/(x – c)a/b – c +ac + b/(x – c)a/a – b +ac + c/(x – c)2a/a – b +ac + c/(x – c)a/a – b +ac + b/(x – c)a/a – b +ac + b/(x – c)Question 23 (2.5 points) Solve the following system.3(2x+y) + 5z = -1 2(x – 3y + 4z) = -9 4(1 + x) = -3(z – 3y)Question 23 options:{(1, 1/3, 0)}{(1/4, 1/3, -2)}{(1/3, 1/5, -1)}{(1/2, 1/3, -1)}Question 24 (2.5 points) Find the quadratic function y = ax2 + bx + c whose graph passes through the given points.(-1, 6), (1, 4), (2, 9)Question 24 options:y = 2×2 − x + 3y = 2×2 – x + 3y = 2×2 + x2 + 9y = 2×2 + x2 + 9y = 3×2 − x − 4y = 3×2 – x – 4y = 2×2 + 2x + 4y = 2×2 + 2x + 4Question 25 (2.5 points) A television manufacturer makes rear-projection and plasma televisions. The profit per unit is $125 for the rear-projection televisions and $200 for the plasma televisions. Let x = the number of rear-projection televisions manufactured in a month and let y = the number of plasma televisions manufactured in a month. Write the objective function that models the total monthly profit.Question 25 options:Z = 200X + 125YZ = 125X + 200YZ = 130X + 225YZ = -125X + 200YQuestion 26 (2.5 points) Let x represent one number and let y represent the other number. Use the given conditions to write a system of equations. Solve the system and find the numbers. The sum of two numbers is 7. If one number is subtracted from the other, their difference is -1. Find the numbers.Question 26 options:X + Y = 7; X – Y = -1; 3 AND 4X + Y = 7; X – Y = -1; 5 AND 6X + Y = 7; X – Y = -1; 3 AND 6X + Y = 7; X – Y = -1; 2 AND 3Question 27 (2.5 points) Find the quadratic function y = ax2 + bx + c whose graph passes through the given points.(-1, -4), (1, -2), (2, 5)Question 27 options:y = 2×2 + x − 6y = 2×2 + x – 6y = 2×2 + 2x − 4y = 2×2 + 2x – 4y = 2×2 + 2x + 3y = 2×2 + 2x + 3y = 2×2 + x − 5y = 2×2 + x – 5Question 28 (2.5 points) Solve each equation by the substitution method.y2 = x2 – 9 2y = x – 3Question 28 options:{(-6, -4), (2, 0)}{(-4, -4), (1, 0)}{(-3, -4), (2, 0)}{(-5, -4), (3, 0)}Question 29 (2.5 points) Solve each equation by the substitution method.x2 – 4y2 = -7 3×2 + y2 = 31Question 29 options:{(2, 2), (3, -2), (-1, 2), (-4, -2)}{(7, 2), (3, -2), (-4, 2), (-3, -1)}{(4, 2), (3, -2), (-5, 2), (-2, -2)}{(3, 2), (3, -2), (-3, 2), (-3, -2)}Question 30 (2.5 points) Solve the following system.2x + y = 2x + y – z = 4 3x + 2y + z = 0Question 30 options:{(2, 1, 4)}{(1, 0, -3)}{(0, 0, -2)}{(3, 2, -1)}Question 31 (2.5 points) Perform the long division and write the partial fraction decomposition of the remainder term. x5 + 2/x2 – 1Question 31 options:x2 + x − 1/2(x + 1) + 4/2(x − 1)x2 + x – 1/2(x + 1) + 4/2(x – 1)x3 + x − 1/2(x + 1) + 3/2(x − 1)x3 + x – 1/2(x + 1) + 3/2(x – 1)x3 + x − 1/6(x − 2) + 3/2(x + 1)x3 + x – 1/6(x – 2) + 3/2(x + 1)x2 + x − 1/2(x + 1) + 4/2(x − 1)x2 + x – 1/2(x + 1) + 4/2(x – 1)Question 32 (2.5 points) Write the partial fraction decomposition for the following rational expression.4/2×2 – 5x – 3Question 32 options:4/6(X – 2) – 8/7(4X + 1)4/7(X – 3) – 8/7(2X + 1)4/7(X – 2) – 8/7(3X + 1)4/6(X – 2) – 8/7(3X + 1)Question 33 (2.5 points) Write the form of the partial fraction decomposition of the rational expression. 7x – 4/x2 – x – 12Question 33 options:24/7(x − 2) + 26/7(x + 5)24/7(x – 2) + 26/7(x + 5)14/7(x − 3) + 20/7(x2 + 3)14/7(x – 3) + 20/7(x2 + 3)24/7(x − 4) + 25/7(x + 3)24/7(x – 4) + 25/7(x + 3)22/8(x − 2) + 25/6(x + 4)22/8(x – 2) + 25/6(x + 4)Question 34 (2.5 points) Solve the following system by the addition method.{4x + 3y = 15 {2x – 5y = 1Question 34 options:{(4, 0)}{(2, 1)}{(6, 1)}{(3, 1)}Question 35 (2.5 points) Write the partial fraction decomposition for the following rational expression. x + 4/x2(x + 4)Question 35 options:1/3x + 1/x2 − x + 5/4(x2 + 4)1/3x + 1/x2 – x + 5/4(x2 + 4)1/5x + 1/x2 − x + 4/4(x2 + 6)1/5x + 1/x2 – x + 4/4(x2 + 6)1/4x + 1/x2 − x + 4/4(x2 + 4)1/4x + 1/x2 – x + 4/4(x2 + 4)1/3x + 1/x2 − x + 3/4(x2 + 5)1/3x + 1/x2 – x + 3/4(x2 + 5)Question 36 (2.5 points) Write the form of the partial fraction decomposition of the rational expression. 5×2 – 6x + 7/(x – 1)(x2 + 1)Question 36 options:A/x − 2 + Bx2 + C/x2 + 3A/x – 2 + Bx2 + C/x2 + 3A/x − 4 + Bx + C/x2 + 1A/x – 4 + Bx + C/x2 + 1A/x − 3 + Bx + C/x2 + 1A/x – 3 + Bx + C/x2 + 1A/x − 1 + Bx + C/x2 + 1A/x – 1 + Bx + C/x2 + 1Question 37 (2.5 points) Solve each equation by the substitution method.x + y = 1 x2 + xy – y2 = -5Question 37 options:{(4, -3), (-1, 2)}{(2, -3), (-1, 6)}{(-4, -3), (-1, 3)}{(2, -3), (-1, -2)}Question 38 (2.5 points) Solve the following system by the substitution method.{x + 3y = 8 {y = 2x – 9Question 38 options:{(5, 1)}{(4, 3)}{(7, 2)}{(4, 3)}Question 39 (2.5 points) Write the partial fraction decomposition for the following rational expression.6x – 11/(x – 1)2Question 39 options:6/x − 1 − 5/(x − 1)26/x – 1 – 5/(x – 1)5/x − 1 − 4/(x − 1)25/x – 1 – 4/(x – 1)2/x − 1 − 7/(x − 1)2/x – 1 – 7/(x – 1)4/x − 1 − 3/(x − 1)4/x – 1 – 3/(x – 1)Question 40 (2.5 points) Perform the long division and write the partial fraction decomposition of the remainder term. x4 – x2 + 2/x3 – x2Question 40 options:x + 3 − 2/x − 1/x2 + 4x − 1x + 3 – 2/x – 1/x2 + 4x – 12x + 1 − 2/x − 2/x + 2/x + 12x + 1 – 2/x – 2/x + 2/x + 12x + 1 − 2/x2 − 2/x + 5/x − 12x + 1 – 2/x2 – 2/x + 5/x – 1x + 1 − 2/x − 2/x2 + 2/x − 1
college algebra questions 16 through 40

Educational Attainment and Racial Discrimination Report

Introduction Education has often been a predicting factor when it comes to the lives of American citizens regardless of their race, color, or creed. However, research studies have shown that most minority races such as Hispanics, Native Americans, and African Americans have a chance of about fifty percent of graduating from college when compared to other races. Consequently, it is true that African American might have to contend with below average lives as a result of this academic inequality. For instance, some political elements have alluded to African Americans being ‘uneducated’ and ‘unwilling’ to do so. The association of the African American race with criminal tendencies can also be traced back to their access and involvement with formal education. There is a need to address the problem of black people and access to formal education in a more exhaustive manner. Currently, empty rhetoric and stereotyping dominates the debate on educational attainment in regards to racial discrimination. There is also a significant chance of minorities having problems with their careers even after they attain formal education. Standardized tests also pose a challenge to minorities in regards to their attainment of formal education. In average, African Americans perform poorly than the White majority in their standardized tests. In this report, the issue of educational discrimination and its long-term effects on the lives of colored people will be explored. In addition, this report will be useful to educational stakeholders in their quest for finding a lasting solution to the issues of educational attainment and racial discrimination. Educational Discrimination Educational inequality is a major factor in the issues of the educational-discrimination of African Americans. Educational inequality can be defined as “the difference in the learning results, or efficacy that is experienced by students who come from different socio-economic groups” (Nicholson‐Crotty, Birchmeier, and Valentine 1005). On the other hand, success in education is often measured in terms of grades that are assigned to students after they have gone through standardized tests. Overall success in education can be measured through college-entry rates and completion statistics. All these factors can be traced back to African Americans and their chances of success in educational attainment. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After failing to attain commendable levels of education, African Americans might experience difficulties engaging in further education even later on in life. For instance, “graduating from high school can dictate whether an individual is eligible to apply and be accepted into any post high school education” (Altonji and Blank 3200). Statistics have also “indicated that African Americans perform poorly in the two standardized tests (ACT and SAT) that are required in order for individuals to be admitted to colleges and universities” (Chavous 1081). Other majority groups have been found to have access to tools that enable them to perform better in standardized tests. The problems of African Americans suffering through an unequal education system have been reiterated by a former College Board President who once said; “tests are not the problem…students are not the problem…the problem we have is an unfair education system in America…an unequal educational system” (Nicholson‐Crotty, Birchmeier, and Valentine 1006). Attempts have been made to eliminate the ‘inequality’ element of the American educational system but none of these has achieved any significant results. For instance, between 2001 and 2005 there were extensive attempts to revamp the SAT testing procedures with the view of bridging the inequality gap in education. Effects of Educational Inequality: Income Educational inequalities often translate to subsequent problems in the lives of African Americans. One of these effects of educational inequality is income. Income inequalities among individuals and households have been found to have a direct connection to levels of education attainment. For instance, “a typical Black family had 60% as much income as a white family in 1968, but only 58% as much in 2002” (Steele and Aronson 439). These trends indicate that even after the attainment of Civil Rights, black families still make considerably less money than white families. This disparity in income has often been attributed to the education factor. An individual’s level of education determines how much money he/she can make. Governments and other stakeholders have also emphasized on the need for an individual to have a good level of education if he/she wants to ‘get ahead’. The National Center for Policy Analysis validates that people who drop out of high school earn fifty percent less than the individuals who graduate do (Fordham and Ogbu 179). We will write a custom Report on Educational Attainment and Racial Discrimination specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the same data bank indicates that individuals who graduate from college earn approximately 80% more money than individuals who only have a high school diploma. The percentage of individuals who graduate from college has remained steady for the last few decades thereby raising the question of what can be done to elevate the status of minorities in respect to educational attainment and income enhancement. When income levels are limited, it also means that most African American families do not have what it takes to raise the quality levels of their children’s education. This quagmire compounds the solution of income inequality in relation to educational attainment. Social Mobility Lack of adequate educational attainment also hampers individuals from attaining social mobility. Social mobility “refers to the movement in class status from one generation to another” (Chiswick 479). The lives of most African Americans are mostly synonymous with the notion of ‘rags to riches’ where an individual has to work hard to overcome the constraints of a previously diminutive lifestyle. However, the ‘rags to riches’ notion also coincides with the fact that the rates of social mobility among African Americans are oddly low. For most part of the lives of African Americans, social mobility has often been as a result of exceptional talent as opposed to educational attainment (Steele and Aronson 437). In addition, most sociologists and economists are in agreement that the rates of social mobility in the United States have most likely stagnated or decreased over the last three decades. This period of the last thirty years also coincides with the tumultuous juncture through when the African American race has undergone through a series of challenges. A stratified educational system is to blame for the general lack of upward mobility among African Americans. Education ‘opens doors’ for individuals, therefore ‘lack of’ adequate levels of this valuable commodity is poised to ‘close doors’ of upward mobility among African Americans. It is also important to note that while wages of individuals who have college degrees have increased tremendously over the last 50 years, individuals who lack any significant formal education have seen their wages stagnate or drop over the same period of time. Overall, “the educational system forces low-income families to place their children into less-than-ideal school systems those children are typically not presented with the same opportunities and educational motivation as are students from well-off families, resulting in patterns of repeated intergenerational educational choices for parent and child, also known as decreased or stagnant social mobility” (Chavous 1070). Not sure if you can write a paper on Educational Attainment and Racial Discrimination by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Educational Discrimination as a Catalyst for Social/Racial Discrimination America is currently a hot bed of social and racial discrimination, and low levels of academic attainment have acted as catalysts for this problem. In America, having a job or a good level of education does not necessarily exempt individuals from racial discrimination. Racial discrimination in America appears to be targeted at individuals indiscriminately thereby affecting various individuals differently. Statistics indicate that managers and other distinguished professionals earn considerably higher wages than other ordinary employees do (Altonji and Blank 3150). However, attaining a top-level position depends on a number of factors among them being an individual’s level of education. An average African American who aspires to hold a significant position in the society experiences discrimination both in regards to skin color and level/type of education. Therefore, an individual being disadvantaged in terms of educational attainment acts as a precipitating factor when it comes to matters of racial discrimination. In the American workforce, social discrimination is rife because African Americans are twice as likely as Caucasians to end up in the service sector and other menial jobs that require low levels of educational attainment. Other current statistics indicate that within the past decade “the percentage of workers who are managers of professionals increased from 29 percent to 33 percent for whites and from 16 percent to 22 percent for blacks” (Chiswick 580). Coincidentally, these statistics are supposed to reflect an uplifting of the position of African Americans in the American workplace. Recommended Solutions to Educational Attainment This is the most opportune time to tackle the issue of educational attainment and racial discrimination. The issue of racism has almost come to a full circle in America, and there are various solutions that can salvage the issue of educational attainment among African Americans. The most sound solution to the issue of race and discrimination is to ensure that educational opportunities are made available to all people irrespective of all their racial affiliation. The other approach is to ensure that all learners are subjected through a fair and balanced assessment system. For instance, some assessment methods were conjured when it the needs of the minority were often ahead of the needs of the majority. Consequently, these types of systems cannot provide sound solutions to the problem of educational attainment among African Americans. Yet another approach to inequality issues is to have the government come up legislation policies that can aid in eliminating the biases that apply to the American educational system. Online education is also set to harmonize educational systems in the United States and across the world because they are more considerate of the needs of the majority and they are also intended for mass consumption. The government and other stakeholders should also look into cases where educational inequality has been reversed in countries such as South Africa and India (Fordham and Ogbu 200). Conclusion Issues of educational attainment and racial discrimination among African Americans have been persistent throughout the history of America. On the other hand, it was assumed that the imbalances would be easily phased out after Civil Rights liberties were bestowed on all Americans (Steele and Aronson 437). Academic discrimination is precipitated by income levels and standardized tests and it is often manifested through lack of social mobility and job-based social discrimination. The government and other stakeholders hold the key solutions to the issue of educational inequality. Works Cited Altonji, Joseph, and Rebecca Blank. “Race and Gender in the Labor Market.” Handbook of Labor Economics 3.1 (2009): 3143-3259. Print. Chavous, Tabbye M., et al. “Racial Identity and Academic Attainment among African American Adolescents.” Child Development 74.4 (2003): 1076-1090. Print. Chiswick, Barry. “Differences in Education and Earnings across Racial and Ethnic Groups: Tastes, Discrimination, and Investments in Child Quality.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2008): 571-597. Print. Fordham, Signithia, and John Ogbu. “Black Students’ School Success: Coping With the “Burden of ‘Acting White’”.” The Urban Review 18.3 (1996): 176-206. Print. Nicholson‐Crotty, Sean, Zachary Birchmeier, and David Valentine. “Exploring the Impact of School Discipline on Racial Disproportion in the Juvenile Justice System.” Social Science Quarterly 90.4 (2009): 1003-1018. Print. Steele, Claude, and John Aronson. “Stereotypes and the Fragility of Academic Competence, Motivation, and Self-Concept.” Handbook of Competence and Motivation (2005): 436-455. Print.

HRM Human Resource Management in TESCO Organization

Identification of the organisation’s business strategy, mission and goals Tesco is, as Brand Finance (2014) notes, the largest retailer in UK, as well as being a highly significant retailer globally. As of 2014, Tesco is operating in 12 countries globally, and there are presently 6,780 Tesco stores. In addition, the company employs approximately 500,000 people worldwide. In addition to its core business in the grocery sector, Tesco has also diversified to offer a range of other products and services, such as personal finance and mobile phones. It has developed its ‘bricks and mortar’ business model to include an increasing emphasis upon modern day technology, through Tesco Direct (Ma, Ding and Hong, 2010) and the customer relationship management programme, Clubcard (Felgate, Fearne and di Falco, 2011). Business strategy Tesco’s has, as Schiraldi, Smith and Takahashi (2012) comment, a well-established and consistent business strategy that has enabled the company not only to strengthen the core UK business but also to expand successfully into a range of new markets. Those markets that were not successful, such as the US Fresh