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The Natural Resource Curse Essay

The natural resource curse affects countries with abundant natural resources. Studies done to investigate this phenomenon reveal several paradoxical issues relating the presence of natural resources in a country. For instance, countries that rely on natural resources for budgetary financing seem to have an inverse economic growth in relation to the percentage of the national budget financed using natural wealth. This paper looks at the issue of the natural resource curse with a view of uncovering why some countries suffer from it, while others do not. Natural resources refer to endowments in mineral wealth, or naturally occurring plant and animal life. Mineral wealth in this case refers to mined substances such as precious metals, gemstones, or oil wealth. Some of these resources occur near the surface of the earth. In this case, the resource may not require mining in the conventional sense. Timber is one of the most valuable natural resources extracted from naturally occurring forests. The worldwide demand for timber is growing mainly because of increasing control and restriction on logging by authorities concerned with the conservation of nature. To a certain extent, the presence of animals such as elephants and rhinos makes a country vulnerable to natural resource issues related to the ivory trade. However, the significance of animal related natural wealth is reducing because of greater enforcement of animal protection legislation. The natural resource curse refers to the paradoxical situation where countries endowed with natural resources tend to suffer from poor economic growth, war, and poverty, more than countries not endowed with these resources. This is counter intuitive because the presence of natural resources should mean the availability of finances to bankroll development projects in a country. However, many countries that have vast amounts of natural resources tend to suffer from slow economic growth, resource wars, and disproportionate levels of corruption. Scholars present various reasons for this situation that range from corruption, to weak governance. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why Some Countries Suffer From the Natural Resource Curse There are many reasons why many countries suffer from the natural resource curse. This section examines the role of corruption, resource dependence, weak central governments, and the international business environment surrounding trade in natural resources. The nature of natural wealth is such that it is difficult to track the exact quantities produced and then delivered to markets. In addition, after the sale of the resources, it is difficult to track with accuracy the exact amount of money that eventually ends up in projects that are for the benefit of the country. Many times, governments do not control the actual mining or extraction operations of the natural resources in their territory. For instance, oil companies such as BP control mining operations in many territories around the world. This means that the governments cannot know with complete accuracy whether the quantities of oil mined by oil companies are the actual ones. It is also possible for a minister in charge of mining to collude with the company to defraud the country. Since the government trusts the minister to control and report on the operations of the company, the country ends up losing revenue. On the other end, after the mining companies extract and sell minerals in the international market, the money may not reach development projects in the country because of corruption within government. The second cause of the oil curse is resource dependence of countries endowed with natural resources. This especially affects oil-producing nations. A good example is Nigeria where the country relies on oil and gas exports to fund more than eighty percent of its recurrent expenses. This overreliance on mineral wealth makes it difficult for the government to develop a sustainable tax base. Studies show that countries that do not have an effective tax net also tend to lack the capacity to address social issues in the country. Nigeria’s reliance on its oil wealth is part of the causative factors of the social challenges espoused by the conflict in the Niger Delta. In addition, Nigeria is in no position to challenge the activities of oil companies when they fail to meet environmental stipulations simply because the government relies on these companies to generate its operating revenues. We will write a custom Essay on The Natural Resource Curse specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This situation, compared to the America for instance is appalling. America took strong action against BP after the Deep Water horizon oil spill. America does not rely on oil in the same terms as Nigeria. Therefore, it had the liberty to enforce its laws after the spill. Thirdly, weak governments amplify the negative effects of the resource curse. A weak government does not have the capacity to address the social ills in the country. This usually comes from ineffective planning, or inconsistent implementation. Any government that cannot guarantee the territorial integrity of the country, or does not have the power to manage social order, is weak. Countries with mineral wealth also tend to have rebel groups seeking to control mineral rich areas. For instance, rebellion in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) takes place around mineral centers. No government in the DRC has gained control over the entire territory of the country. The fact that natural resources tend to occur in one region makes the resource rich areas easy targets of armed groups since they are easy to seize and control. Finally, the resource curse is a product of tilted international trading terms. For instance, OECD countries encourage the importation of raw material such as crude oil, but it discourages the importation of processed products. Importing processed products to the OECD is difficult because of a raft of tariff and non-tariff barriers. The net effect is that any country that wants to sell its natural resources to the OECD countries cannot establish a strong local manufacturing sector. The result is that the country remains dependent on the export of natural resources, while it imports equipment and finished products from its natural resource export destinations. How Countries Avoid the Natural Resource Curse Despite the strong indication that natural resources tend to bring more problems for some countries that solutions, there are examples of countries that seem to have avoided the curse. In this section, we look at three factors that contribute to avoiding the natural resource curse. These factors are the presence of a strong central government, diversified economies, and diversified markets. Saudi Arabia is one of the largest oil producers in the world. Oil accounts for about fifty percent of its national budget, and is responsible for about ninety percent of its export revenues. As such, Saudi Arabia should be suffering from the oil curse. This is not the case. The country has one of the most stable governments in the Middle East. It did not suffer during the Arab spring and it does not have any formidable rebel groups operating within its territory. Its only exposure is from terrorists who loath the presence of American bases in the country. This is an ideological issue, rather than a resource one. The case of Saudi Arabia shows that a strong central government can avert the resource curse. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Natural Resource Curse by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The ability of the government to maintain territorial integrity is a key part of the process of avoiding the natural resource curse. It is also instructive to note that Saudi Arabia is not a western democracy. Rather it is a monarchy. Its laws are some of the harshest in the world especially in regards to issues of social harmony. The point here is that avoiding the resource curse is not a question of the type of government in place. Rather it is a factor of how strong the government is in the management of the country. The second way in which countries can avert the natural resource curse is by diversifying their economies. A good case in point is Dubai, which is part of the UAE. Dubai struck oil in the mid twentieth century. The rulers of the city-state soon recognized that while the oil wealth was a great resource for the country, reliance on oil was not sustainable. This led to the development of economic plans that sought to transfer the oil wealth to other sectors of the economy. The goal of this move was to diversify the economic base of the country. The result of this is that Dubai is now an international trade hub, known more for its free port that for its oil. Oil is still an important part of the economic mix of the country, but even if the oil sector collapsed, the country will still be operational. Apart from its famous free port, Dubai is becoming a financial capital, a tourism hub, and a transport hub. Emirates Airlines, which is currently one of the largest airlines in the world operates from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Apart from the diversification of the economic base of the country, the UAE makes efforts to maintain social stability by ensuring all the citizens have access to quality education and healthcare. The third pillar in the effort to avoid the natural resource curse is diversifying the markets for the primary natural wealth. Diversifying the market for a country’s natural wealth makes it possible for the country to develop other sectors of the economy, and to control the prices of the natural wealth. Instead of relying on exports to regions with many tariff and non-tariff barriers, it is better to develop new markets for finished products to create jobs locally. Kenya exports processed oil to its neighbors after importing crude from the Middle East. If Kenya had its own oil, then it would have the full benefits of oil extraction. In conclusion, the natural resource curse is not impossible to deal with. However, it takes strong leadership on the part of the country endowed with natural wealth to deal with the associated issues. In this sense, the natural resource curse is really the product of bad leadership in the midst of abundance. Works Cited Bannon, Ian and Paul Collier. “Natural Resources and Conflict: What We Can Do.” Bannon, Ian and Paul Collier. Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Options and Actions. Washington DC: The World Bank, 2003. 1-16. Print. Chapin, Rosemary. Social Policy for Effective Practice: A Strengths Approach. New York: Francis
Abstract This paper primarily deals with examining the Alvis Corporation case study in order to evaluate the methods utilized by the manager in order to achieve a certain level of employee consensus involving vacation time and the quality of the products that were being made by the company. Summary The article primarily dealt with the inherent issues when it comes to the concept of change in an organization within the context of participative management. There were two issues that were brought up within the case that the manager wanted to be resolved. The first was the quality issues that were plaguing the company wherein despite the addition of new machines to make the jobs of workers easier, the end result was actually a decline in the quality of what was produced. The second issue was related to the vacation schedules of the workers and the desire of the manager to create a greater level of inclusion wherein workers would be able to decide the summer vacation schedules for themselves. While the case of the Alvis Corporation showed the desire for the manager to shift towards the participative management model in order to incite positive change within the company, the end result was that workers were unable to manifest the desired changes that the manager was after (i.e. resolving the issues involving production standards as well as vacation schedules). The end result revealed the quality issue was primarily connected to the low base pay rate of the workers and the vacation issue remained unresolved due to group dissent. Key Learning Points The first learning point from the article is the fact that participative management does not simply entail having workers be part of the decision making process within the company, rather, it also involves a considerable degree of active participation on the part of managers in order to properly guide employees when it comes to decision making. As it was seen in the latter half of the article, the decision of the manager to simply leave the employees alone resulted in nothing really being accomplished when it came to the vacation schedule. Based on the work of Wei-Ping
EES 110 Ashford University Module 5 Ecology and the Biosphere Questions.

Module 4: Biosphere Post-Instruction Assignment Questions Please answer the following questions as you complete each lesson within the Module. Which areas of the world are predicted to receive increased precipitation, and which are expected to receive less precipitation? When considered together with warming temperatures, where will freshwater resources most likely become stressed with these predictions? Draw a diagram indicating the flux of molecules through the carbon and water cycles.Explain how humans interact with the nitrogen cycle.Name three types of biodiversity on Earth. Provide examples of species biodiversity in your neighborhood.List three ecosystem services that benefit humans; then consider how modern humans are affecting them.List the factors that are contributing to the loss of biodiversity in the Gulf of Mexico.Explain how soil profiles develop. Module 5: Ecology and the Biosphere Post-Instruction Assignment Questions Please answer the following questions as you complete each lesson within the Module. Name all five levels of ecological research and the role of each in ecology. How do the biotic and abiotic elements of the environment interact? What are the roles of biotic and abiotic components of the environment? Why do we study the geographic distribution of living things and the abiotic factors that affect their distribution?Which abiotic factors are more important for plant growth and distribution, and which are more important for animal growth and distribution?Name one characteristic unique to each major terrestrial biome. Which abiotic and biotic factors are important in distinguishing the different regions of the ocean?How do freshwater biomes differ from saltwater biomes?Make a list of abiotic factors influencing aquatic biomes. How many also affect terrestrial biomes?How have humans changed the climate and what can we do to prevent further climate changes?Describe how human activity has affected levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Make a list of greenhouse gases and their effects on the climate.
EES 110 Ashford University Module 5 Ecology and the Biosphere Questions

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), Ethics and Risk Management Study.

The purpose of this assignment is to analyze and select an appropriate method of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) for a business dispute, to examine unethical business behavior, and to develop risk management procedures to avoid or reduce claims and litigation. Read the following scenario: Dazzling Dough Co. sells pizza dough to local pizza restaurants. Most of the restaurants buy at least 150 pounds of pizza dough from Dazzling Dough Co. in each order. Jerry’s Pizza contacted Dazzling Dough Co. to purchase 200 pounds of pizza dough, along with some other items. Dazzling Dough Co. sent Jerry’s Pizza a written contract, prepared by Dazzling Dough Co.’s lawyer, stating that “Jerry’s Pizza agrees to purchase 200 pounds of pizza dough, pizza toppings, desserts and soft drinks for $30,000.” Jerry’s Pizza signed and returned the contract. A few days later, Dazzling Dough Co. sent Jerry’s Pizza 125 pounds of pizza dough and 75 pounds of pizza toppings, desserts, and soft drinks. Jerry’s Pizza contacted Dazzling Dough Co. about the error in the contract and demanded an extra 75 pounds of pizza dough. Dazzling Dough Co. said there was no error, that Jerry’s Pizza signed the contract so they agreed to the terms, and it was not sending the extra pizza dough. After several attempts to resolve the dispute and a pressing need for dough, Jerry’s Pizza terminated the contract and sent Dazzling Dough Co. a check for $15,000 for the 125 pounds of pizza dough, pizza toppings, desserts and soft drinks. Jerry’s Pizza immediately purchased 75 pounds of pizza dough from another company for $12,000. Both parties are threatening to sue each other for breach of contract. They prefer to resolve the dispute out of court because the contract contains a clause that awards reimbursement of attorney’s fees to the winning party. The board of directors of Jerry’s Pizza scheduled a meeting with you and other senior management at the company to discuss the dispute. You’ll need to prepare a strategic plan overview (an abbreviated strategic plan, not a full plan) for the board that explains why there is a dispute, suggests various settlement proposals, and provides recommendations on how Jerry’s Pizza can avoid this kind of dispute in the future. Prepare a 525- to 875-word strategic plan overview to resolve the legal dispute for the board (use the bullet point headings provided below to format your overview) addressing the following: Summary of Dispute Identify the source of the dispute.Identify each party’s interpretation of the contract language.Identify whether each party’s interpretation is reasonable.Identify any missing facts that would be helpful to know in order to resolve the dispute.Proposed Revisions to Contract LanguageRecommend specific revisions to the contract’s language so that it is clear what Jerry’s Pizza expected to buy and what Dazzling Dough Co. is required to deliver.Ethical Considerations Explain the ethical considerations for a company to enforce specific terms of a contract against another company if the other company is mistaken about what was agreed to. Discuss the factors that should be considered.RecommendationsTwo to three possible settlement options (e.g., pay for the disputed dough, reduce the amount of dough to be purchased, split the difference, refuse to pay, etc.)Two to three methods of dispute resolution (e.g., negotiation, mediation, arbitration, litigation, etc.) that Jerry’s Pizza can propose to Dazzling Dough Co. Create a one-page visualization to represent the information you provide in this assignment. Use the Table, SmartArt, or Chart visual representation options available in Microsoft® Word by clicking on the Insert tab located on the ribbon at the top of the window. Locate the Word Help function in the version of Microsoft® Word that is installed on your computer for assistance.
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), Ethics and Risk Management Study

Community Efforts and Managing Public Relations (PR) – Discussion

Community Efforts and Managing Public Relations (PR) – Discussion.

“Community Efforts and Managing Public Relations (PR)” Please respond to the following:You are a new PR intern at Apple. Apple is donating 200 iPads to a local inner-city school to promote technology in education. As a PR intern, you need to get the word out about this event. In your discussion post, compose a tweet (a tweet is 140 characters or less) and a Facebook post (200-250 words) creating awareness for the event.Here’s an example:Facebook:Apple is coming together with Marietta area schools. Join us Saturday, 03/10/2018 at downtown Historic Marietta Square, located at 4 Depot St. NE, Marietta, Ga 30060. Community members, students, and parents are invited to attend. The department of education members will attend the event to handouts the devices equally among the schools. We will also have raffles and giveaways, for everyone. Several food trucks will be at the event too. For more information, please log on to Twitter:Come check out what @Apple is promoting inner-city schools technology in education. (link to FB post)
Community Efforts and Managing Public Relations (PR) – Discussion

Abstract / General Discussion

nursing essay writing service Abstract / General Discussion.

The psychological purpose
behind Paper V is to present your final paper. Essentially this paper will be similar
to any article you would find in an academic journal. It will include a Title
Page, Abstract, Literature Review (study one), Method Section (study one), Results
Section (study one), Brief Discussion Section (study one), Literature Review
(study two), Method Section (study two), Results Section (study two), Brief
Discussion Section (study two), General Discussion Section, References, and Appendices.
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Two new components for Paper V include the Abstract and a General Discussion
Abstract / General Discussion

University of the Incarnate Principle of Marketing and Target Market Discussion

University of the Incarnate Principle of Marketing and Target Market Discussion.

This is how you need to write and submit your answer for section #1aFor example:PROMOTIONAnswer:For example: (THIS IS A HYPOTHETICAL AND NOT ACTIONABLE EXAMPLE – DO NOT USE THIS EXAMPLE) My three recommendations to improve the sales of UIW face covering are:Free sample.Free samples are……. (DEFINITION). They will help customers to become aware of ………. The free sample strategy also creates……….. (RATIONALE). In addition, the risk theory suggests that it will …….. (MARKETING THEORY#1).The second promotion strategy is YYY pricing strategy. EXPLAINThe third promotion strategy is ZZZ pricing strategy. EXPLAINThis is how you need to write and submit your answer for section #1bFor example:PROMOTION SCHEDULEAnswer:For example: (THIS IS A HYPOTHETICAL AND NOT ACTIONABLE EXAMPLE – DO NOT USE THIS EXAMPLE)Our textbook discusses three different advertising schedules: X pulse, flighting and continuous. In order to improve the sales of UIW face covering, I would like to suggest the X schedule. The X schedule refers to ……. According to promotion theory (MARKETING THEORY#1), this schedule will help …….. Below is the schedule plan: PROMOTION SCHEDULEJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecPromo 1*Promo 2*Promo 3**These promotion strategies are your recommended promotion strategiesPlease note, these examples are provided to stimulate your thinking process – please do not copy them!You should write up to 1 page in your promotion section.This is how you need to write and submit your answer for section #2aFor example: Place strategyDIRECT or INDIRECT DISTRIBUTIONAnswer:For example: (THIS IS A HYPOTHETICAL AND NOT ACTIONABLE EXAMPLE – DO NOT USE THIS EXAMPLE)Face covering is a necessity product that people use every day. Because of the nature of this product, I recommend UIW face covering should employ direct, indirect or both distribution channels (you need to decide and define). This will help UIW face covering become more available to our target market…. (RATIONALE). In addition, Klein et al. (2009) suggest……..Place theory (MARKETING THEORY #1) means that our selected distribution channel…… This is how you need to write and submit your answer for section #2bFor example:INTENSIVE, EXTENSIVE AND EXCLUSIVEAnswer:For example: (THIS IS A HYPOTHETICAL AND NOT ACTIONABLE EXAMPLE – DO NOT USE THIS EXAMPLE)Intensive distribution refers as… (DEFINITION). Because of the nature of this strategy, an, intensive channel will help … (RATIONALE). Place theory (MARKETING THEORY #1) suggests that an intensive channel distribution is…… This will help UIW face covering become more available to our target market…. In addition, Klein et al. (2009) suggest……..Please note: The above examples are not complete, and you need to write more. Please remember you have 2 pages to write up, so you need to use more than one marketing theory. Use external sources and convince me that your ideas are important.Please remember, you need to follow the assignment instruction.Please use APA style for in-text citations and references.Please provide at least 3 external sources. Refer to You will lose points if you do not include correct citations.Please read the grading matrix and ensure you understand what I am looking for.Please use business or marketing terminology. DO NOT use casual words.
University of the Incarnate Principle of Marketing and Target Market Discussion

Texas Teachers Lesson Plans

Texas Teachers Lesson Plans. I’m stuck on a Subject Major question and need an explanation.

Plans can be of any subject at any grade level. There must be 3 different plans for 3 different classes. Must be completed in the plan template provided. Rubrics and example plan provided for guide.
This project evaluates your knowledge and skills in the following areas:
Using the state standard to write learning objectives
Aligning the rigor of the state standard to the rigor of the learning objective
Developing a performance measure that is aligned to the state standard and is included in the learning objective
Recognizing the basic elements of lesson planning
Be sure your learning objective includes the assessment. You must include how you will measure student learning in the learning objective. People fail this project because they do not include this in their learning objective.
Instructional strategies
The inclusion of effective literacy strategies
The inclusion of effective student use of technology (Every lesson must include the active use of student technology. Without this, you will not pass this project.)
The extent to which you have differentiated each lesson (This is evaluated through the reteach activities and extension activities. Extension activities are for students who already know the content you will be teaching. You must include activities for both students who don’t understand the content, and those who already do and need to extend their learning.)
Questioning strategies and feedback – Be sure you identify the level of Bloom’s taxonomy for each question.
Accommodations and modifications – You must have at least one of each. Do not write “follow the IEP”
Assessing learning
The overall plan
Texas Teachers Lesson Plans