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The Name of the Rose: Heresy, Inquisition, and Interrogation Representation Analytical Essay

The Name of the Rose is one of the most fascinating novels about an Italian monastery and the mysteries of a murder described by Umberto Eco. This story begins with a kind of preface to the book under consideration. The narrator, Umberto Eco himself, finds a book in 1968, where the events of the 14th century take place. He introduces a story of Adso of Melk, an elderly Benedictine monk and the narrator, and William of Baskerville, a Franciscan friar, the main protagonist of the story. This novel remains a critical success and one of the bestsellers created by Eco. With the help of this book, he gained recognition as a good scholar and historian, who raised such important for the church issues as heresy, inquisition, and interrogation. These issues are represented by many other writers, like Ronald Surtz, and can be found in various sources, like The Fourth Lateran Council; such wide usage and explanation of these ideas proves their urgency and necessity. In the story The Name of the Rose, the Benedictine monks get to know that knowledge can be rather a dangerous thing. The point is that the truth that is dictated by the leading authority can be considerably different from the real truth, however, not every person can find enough powers to prove it. This is why such awareness may become one of the major reasons for different rebellions and even revolutions, which will certainly destroy the power of the leading authority. Of course, one of the simplest and quickest ways for the authorities to calm down the rebels is to proclaim the existence of heresy and provide inquisition with powers to control the society. Eco is one of those authors, who usually focus on the reader’s participation in the story. He uses the reader’s experience as one of the means to solve the murder and find out the guilty. This author tries to unite several religious conflicts such as absolute truth and personal interpretation of this truth, or the idea of predestination and free will, or the necessity of spirituality and religion. Eco represents these heresies and conflict with the help of numerous political terms and modern context in order to provide the reader with an opportunity to the necessary conclusion independently and grasp the clear meaning of the novel. The philosophy of Aristotle and millenarist heresies, both attract the attention of many readers, who want to find out how heresy was used. “Italy was invaded by these Fraticelli or Friars of the Poor Life, whom many considered dangerous. At this point it was difficult to distinguish the spiritual masters, who maintained contact with the ecclesiastical authorities.” (Eco 53) Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to find out and comprehend the issues of heresy, inquisition, and interrogation, it is necessary to clear up what each of them means in general and analyze the ways of how the author may represent them in the novel. Heresy is a kind of change within a certain system of beliefs that may conflict with the later established rules. The inquisition is one of the organizations, which aim to eliminate all possible threats to the stability set by the ruling authorities. As a rule, inquisitors represent as powerful and intelligent people, who have enough abilities to control the situation and be ready to take certain steps rather quickly in order not to destroy the existed regime. Interrogation, in its turn, is a kind of questioning that is arranged by the police or any other authority to find out the necessary answers, clear up the situation, and get rid of the possible dangers. Because of their nature, these three notions are closely connected to each other. Heresy is one of the means to disturb the already existed rules and the system, lots of people live in. Inquisition should use any types of interrogations in order to find out the roots of heresy and dispose of them. “This is evil that heresy inflicts on the Christian people, obfuscating ideas and inciting all to become inquisitors to their personal benefit.” (Eco 52) Libraries, where people can find any source on any topic are not available for everyone. It is necessary to admit that librarians only have the right to analyze the works of different authors, representatives of pagan, Arab, and even Jewish literature, and decide which ones can be viewed as strong evidences for all existed heresies. Due to such strict selection of the allowed books and forbidden, it is rather difficult to judge the guilty or prove people’s innocence. The case of Remigio of Varagine may serve as one of the brightest examples of interrogation for a crime of heresy and underline its predictability. “The interrogation is over. The accused, guilty by his own confession” has to wait for the final decision and be ready to the worst. (Eco 391) The scene, when Remigio is asked by Bernard Gui, creates an atmosphere that is so inherent to interrogations of the 14th century. Bernard knows how to make his victims to feel fear. At the beginning, he usually keeps silence in order to prepare the victim and allow him/her to think over the questions and the speech. He may stare at the person in order demonstrate his hypocritical indulgence, icy irony, and merciless severity. Without any doubts, The Name of the Rose is the story, where the characters come alive with the help of author’s ability to concentrate on their physical and emotional description. The major character of the story and its narrator are sent to investigate how different charges of heresy to find out the guilty of the murders, which take place in the abbey. We will write a custom Essay on The Name of the Rose: Heresy, Inquisition, and Interrogation Representation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They truly believed that all those murders are connected to heretical philosophies and religious orders, which any monk has to follow. Such interesting medieval framework as the presence of heresy or Franciscan order’s predicament makes the reader feel of how strict the system can be and how each rebel may be treated. The trials connected to heresy represent the every day struggle for power and the desire to solve all religious and philosophical conflicts using the same idea presented by the ruling authority. One of the most important events that happed to decide the issues of heresy and the importance of inquisition was the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215. The major purpose of this council was to solve all church doctrine’s matters, which have remained unsolved during a certain period. Pope Innocent III was the leader of that congregation, and his motivation was rather clear: the rising of heresy leaders and people’s desire to follow the new rules was quite dangerous to the church authority and the doctrine itself. With the help of the canons, presented at the Fourth Lateran Council, it was easier to control the actions of each department of the church. There were more than 70 canons, which helped to unify the church and the actions of its representatives. Each of the canons played a very significant role in the history of church and its impact on society. People did not have the right to choose. Any ideas, which did not contradict the already existed rules were blamed in heresy, this is why the essence of the Third Canon proclaimed during the Fourth Lateran Council turned out to be crucially important. The Third Canon was all about the regulation of procedures, which had to be taken against heretics and their followers. To my mind, one of the peculiar features of the interrogation that happed according to the Third Canon and the ones described by Umberto Eco lies in the fact that the former aimed at providing the guilty with an opportunity to think over his/her sins and come back to the “necessary truth”. The first sentence of the Third Canon states that the representatives of the church authority “excommunicate and anathematize every heresy that raises against the holy, orthodox and Catholic faith which we have above explained; condemning all heretics under whatever names they may be known.” (Canon 3, 1215) The representatives of the church tries to explain the guilty how wrong his/her thought were, and what actions had to be taken to find the necessary way and follow it. According to Innocent III and Eco, a heresy is considered to be a terrible crime. Heretic people have to pass certain procedures to be punished in accordance to all the necessary juridical elements even such as contumacy. Innocent children and heretic supporters and followers have also to be present during the procedures in order to stop the crimes of such nature and be ready to any kinds of consequences. In Eco’s The Name of the Rose, the cases of interrogations took place privately, without taking into account the public opinion and society’s interests. According to The Third Canon, even if public may not influence the decision of the inquisitors, it participates in the interrogations and learn something. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Name of the Rose: Heresy, Inquisition, and Interrogation Representation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of such public inquisitorial trials was the case of Ines Lopez. At the age of 30, she was arrested. On October 22, 1495, she confessed, “I, Ines Lopez… appear before Your Reverences with the greatest contrition and repentance for my sins of which I am capable, and I beg Our Lord Jesus Christ for His pardon and mercy.” (Surtz, 333) With time, there were several additions to the same confessions. The question was whether she decided to present the information by parts or these parts were added with the help of force that was so inherent to the inquisitors. Their interrogations were of different types. People could not be sure what kind of tortures was used to find out the truth or just the information that was obligatory till that period of time. After all, Ines Lopez was imprisoned, and the church authority confiscated all her property. With the help of one more sources, Memorandum for John Rizzo: Acting General Counsel of the Central Intelligence Agency, I have one more chance to learn another interesting information about possible way of interrogation and its impact. Of course, in order to find out the desired truth, lots of different methods may be used. Unfortunately, people try to demonstrate their power and abilities to control the lives of other people in different ways. For example, the case of Abu Zubaydah, one of the members of a terroristic organization is one of the events, which demonstrate how people may torture the others in order to get the answers and provide society with piece and safe. One of the possible techniques, presented in this source, is sleep deprivation. With the help of such technique, a person is deprived of the opportunity “to think on his feet, and through the discomfort associated with lack of sleep, to motivate him to cooperate.” (Memorandum for John Rizzo, 3) This kind of interrogation is rather popular among the organizations, which aim to find out the truth. The effectiveness of such tortures will be noticeable in two or three sleepless nights. Another technique that may also be used is called “waterbroad”. Its essence lies in bounding to an inclined bench, where person’s feet can be elevated. The eyes and forehead should be under some cloth, and water should be applied at certain intervals. When the cloth closes person’s nose and mouth, it turns out to be rather difficult to breath, and the increase of blood pressure happens. Within some period, the person under this torture will be ready to speak. Of course, truth is an integral part of our life. However, is it obligatory to use such terrible methods of interrogation to find it out? In The Name of the Rose, the author concentrates on the reasons why such interrogations happen. With the help of The Third Canon of the Fourth Lateran Council, we get to know about the allowed punishment. And, from the Memorandum, we learn the possible means of torture that people can use. In fact, any torture is evil, and we should try to live according to the rules in order not to become another victim of tortures. Works Cited Eco, Umberto. The Name of the Rose: Including the Author’s Postscript. Harvest Books, 1994. Fourth Lateran Council. Canon 3. 1215. Surtz, Robert. “Heresy and Inquisition.” Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources by Remie, Olivia. University of Pennsylvania Pr, 1997.
Fat Intake and Risk of Skin Cancer In US Adults Discussion.

I want you to take some time and find a news article that presents some sort of data (it can be about anything, though I’d recommend you take the topic you’re interested in and use that). Post a link to that article and share with your classmates the specific data point they present and post about the following: In this data they present, do they give you much information on where they got it? Did they explain anything in terms of the data collection strategy or the data analysis?Do you trust this data, why or why not? This is the most important aspect. Really use this reflect upon the points above and the provided links because this is a really big component of our work as consumers of data.
Fat Intake and Risk of Skin Cancer In US Adults Discussion

Ethnographic Methods in Qualitative Research

Ethnographic Methods in Qualitative Research. Firstly, this essay outlines a definition of both qualitative and ethnography methods. It will then explain how four articles of qualitative research have used the ethnographic method. It will discuss each article then compare and contrast them. Finally, the essay will look at a critical analysis of ethnography by linking the articles to the data written. They are as follows: Impact of financial incentives on clinical autonomy and internal motivation in primary care: ethnographic study is article one; Assessing the promise of user involvement in health service development: ethnographic study is article two; Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study is article three; and Role of ethnographic research for assessing behavior of employees during cleaning and sanitation in food preparation areas is article four. And finally, it will look at different perspectives on ethnography such as feminist and postmodernist. Qualitative research collects data that usually diary accounts, open-ended questionnaires, unstructured interviews and unstructured observations (Jamshed, 2004). This kind of research is hard to measure. It includes things such as eye colour or characteristics of something that are obtained by in-depth research through collecting rich data. Therefore, qualitative research can be described, rather than measurable data (quantitative) (Patton and Cochran, 2002). Ethnography is used to represent the study of realism through knowledge and experiences, and the understanding of human behaviour, and in addition It consists of debates on the emergence of today’s society. Max Weber definition embraces the explanation and understanding by using the interpretive understanding of social action, where interpretivism is subjective meaning to social action. Schutz (1962) suggest it is observation on the experiences of everyday lives (Schutz, 1962, p. 59 cited in Bryman, 2008, p.16). Ethnography is a study of observation and interviews, and developing an understanding of the society and individuals’ behaviour. According to Sarsby (1984) “every field is different and it is being at the right place at the right time” (Bryman, 2008, p. 401) and building a relationship with partcipants. Article one is a study that was done using observations and interviews. The research explores the attitudes and patterns of behaviour of the staff. The researchers had interviews that were both formal and informal conversations with most of the staff. To get the details it was requested that the partcipants described their job roles. They were asked what their views were on how it affected their jobs with new contracts (MacDonald, 2007). The methods they used were interviews and observations of involvement within the practice. They stated that the data of these methods helped to compare the behaviour of the staff (MacDonald, 2007). With the interviews, they transcribed and coded to recognise the developing areas. They conversed with the research team frequently to assess expectations and also to categorise ways for more study (MacDonald, 2007). There are limitations to this study, as the researchers conducted insignificant samples and there were no views from the staff within the practices. Besides that, they found that they could not observe the motivation of the staff. This is because it might delay observations of their behaviour and the writing up of their findings (MacDonald, 2007). The research shows the early stages and there is a need for further research (MacDonald, 2007). The outline of the study where the structural deviations linked with the implementation of the quality and outcomes has shown the ways that doctors and staff relate to each other. In addition, it shows the difficulty in predicting “the long-term costs” of the changes (MacDonald, 2007). Article two used participants’ observations and interviews, and collections of documentary evidence. It was led by professionals that determined the areas that needed improvement where partcipants users could take part (Fudge, 2008). It was hard to identify the effect on the services. Indeed, the study highlighted there was further knowledge of the personal gains for the staff who were involved (Fudge, 2008). By doing this research it gave increased knowledge about strokes and the services available for patients and specialists, and administrative staff (Fudge, 2008). There was not much evidence of direct user involvement of improving quality of services. In addition, there a lack of skilled staff was noticed (Fudge, 2008). The study has limitations because the programme is not directly generalisable to modernisation. Another limitation was that the study was only carried out two years of the three years that was predicted. It only provided part of the study where the user involvement continues to progress (Fudge, 2008). One strength of this research is that, by using the ethnography method, they are able to include participant observations. They can see what the staff actually do instead of what they say (Fudge, 2008). The objective of the research in article three was to describe, explore and to compare organisational routines for repeat prescriptions in doctors’ surgeries. (Swinglehurst, 2011). The investigation involved mapping the prescribing service by building on a rich description of the organisational doctors’ surgeries, and also connecting them through combination reports on the repeat prescriptions (Swinglehurst, 2011). The research showed that the receptionists and administrative staff regarded themselves responsible to the patients when repeating prescriptions. It requires a “high degree” of modifying and the decision of receptionists where there is a need for an updated study for patient protection (Swinglehurst, 2011). It was found by researchers that the doctors were oblivious of the input of their receptionists and administrative staff, indeed, within the article there was no information in the policy documents and previous research. However, the staff were occasionally criticised for not getting work done and their indirect ways of safeguarding patients (Swinglehurst, 2011). The research discovered the relationship and pressures of the work they do daily, and to find ways of the issues within the surgeries, and to find a better way for the procedure of repeat prescriptions. They found their research was bigger than any other UK practice. Furthermore, the willingness of the staff being observed could have replicated features of the practice. This is common when observing, as using electronic patient records are combined with pharmacy systems (Swinglehurst, 2011). Article four is a study that observes and undertakes interviews in the workplace. This is to see how they understand and explore practices of food handling and provide measures for the effectiveness of workplace training. The research shows that the results help to identify areas of improvement, by allowing the progress of training with the right tools. This is where the training is inputted from “primary production through to food handling by the consumer” (Crandell et al., 2015). This study used an ethnography method to collect the data of employees who did the cleaning and sanitation jobs (Crandell et al., 2015). Many tasks were identified while doing an observation interview procedure (Crandell et al., 2015). The study showed that there was a need for improvement and “to provide training and materials”, and also to regulate “whether the SOP and SSOP procedures were being followed as written and if not, why not?” (Crandell et al., 2015). The research found that there is a need for new and modified work flow, and with new tools and training (Crandell et al., 2015). The researchers used interviews with open-ended questions to fill the gaps that observations cannot pick up. However, there are limitations with open-ended questions that can give diverse information; the answer could be irrelevant to the research, and also the question can be too complex and the interviewee could lose their way in the interview. Another problem is that the person who is being interviewed could be intimidated by the questions. It can be time consuming and the interviews take a long time to transcribe and code. Strengths of open-ended questions interviews include that they can allow for unlimited possible answers and can be answered in detail. Some findings could be gained that the interviewer had not thought of using before. This essay will now use critical analysis of the ethnography method, and it will discuss the findings within the study. An example of ethnography is the Chicago School of Social Research. Robert Park encouraged students to study and observe the continuous changes of social occurrences of Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s. The research was extensive in areas such as “crime and deviance, race relations and urbanism” (May, 2001, p.147; Bulmer, 1984a; Kurtz, 1984). It is claimed that the researcher was part of the study in order to get an understanding of changes by participating and recording their experiences (May, 2001, p.148). However, it can be argued that individuals act on principles from their environments. This is because they can understand the actions of individuals who occupy and produce cultures, defined as symbolic and learned aspects of human behaviour. Becker (1979) states that there is a need to recognise the difficulties and concepts in order to determine the information within the study (May, 2001, p148). Ethnography leads to an empathetic understanding of a social setting. Glaser and Strauss (1967) state that it should be related to the behaviour of the study. As the researcher is exposed to each social setting it acts as a control on reaching rushed conclusions (May, 2001, pp. 150-151). It is possible that researchers will omit a whole range of data in order to confirm their own pre-established beliefs, leaving the method open to the charge of bias. Furthermore, the observation of small-scale setting leaves it open to the charge that its findings are local, specific and not generalisable. It therefore lacks external validity. This may be challenged by arguing that the observed social setting is “typical”, by adopting the perspective of realism and examining the generative mechanisms of human interaction (May, 2001, pp. 170 – 171, Porter, 1993), or using a variety of data sources (May, 2001, p.171). This essay will now compare the four articles. All articles used an ethnography method with interviews and observations. Article one and two did a small amount of research. It is clear if the study was done over a longer term it would have been more accurate. This is because the researchers would have rich and more detailed data. Article two is an example of this statement. It was smaller than the researchers predicted ― they only researched for two years instead of the three years they predicted. Article one had no mention of the views from the staff and in article three the doctors were unaware of what administrative staff do within the practice. However, they were often asked what they have done within the day. Article four used open-ended questions to fill in the gaps that observation could not identify. However, it can be argued that the questions can be complex and all the answers are not recorded. The first research only used a small group of researchers; the study does not show the views and the outcomes of observation in the study. There were many consequences and it was difficult to recognise the impact of the services. The research found that there is a lack of technical knowledge. However, other studies have shown it helps with the running of the surgery. The third undertook an investigation by charting the services to build a rich description. It showed it is essential for quality and services on repeat prescriptions. Also, it highlights the work that the receptionists and administrative staff do in the background. Indeed, teamwork is essential for patient safety. Finally, the fourth study identifies areas of improvement and training with the right tools. The study evaluates the cleaning process of working with food. Documents were observed and identified the need for improvements in employee training with the right tools, and training for improvement. This kind of research has proved to be first-rate and it seems to be an ideal way to study. Even though there are differences among areas of study, it has delivered an in-depth collection of data. It also often determines more research that needs to done. There are limitations too; time is an issue for ethnographic studies and there are costs with doing full in-depth research. Another example would be funding ― to do an in-depth research will cost money to do. It will be cheaper to do a survey then an investigation over a long time. However, the main challenge would be acceptance from the people they are studying. They need to be accepted in the area of a study to get the best results. The progress is important to find out the key informants to conduct this kind of research. This is because they would undertake regular reviews and the researchers need to have a good rapport with them. When conducting research participant observation involves looking and listening. The objective is to see individuals in their usual background; the investigator should not interrupt the setting. Blending into the background is usually recommended. However, it can be impossible, for example, when observing in a classroom will be out of place. This can result in an artificial setting (Taylor et al., 1995, p621). However, it can be difficult to observe sometimes a participant observer and interviewers are unclear because researchers usually write up the day’s finding on the day while they are still fresh in their minds. However, even doing it on the same day information can be left out due to the fact that the researcher cannot remember everything that has be spoken in the interview. Feminist approach suggests that issues concerning women are often overlooked. Looking through the feminist lens they believe that it is how we think, such as what is the truth and what is false, (epistemology) and it is the reflection of the researcher understanding of what is fact(ontology). According to Marcus (1992) “realist ethnographers believe in coherence, community, historical determination and structure” (Skeggs, Nd, p.431). In addition, “there is a reality out there which can be discovered and identified.”(Skeggs,Nd, p.431). Marcus also suggest that it is “the question of who or what controls and defines the identity of individuals, social groups, nations and cultures (Skeggs, Nd, p.431). Postmodernists ethnographers focuses on the pressures of issues of globalisation, and the movement of people, and the everyday relations of the world (Weiss and Wesley, Nd). Therefore, different perspectives see ethnography in a different way, and also do their study in various differences of their research. They argue that the “nature of knowledge has changed to a new radical” theories. The theory of knowledge (epistemology) claims that the truth can be discovered by the use of the correct techniques. In addition, it used to evaluate what is true and what is not, however, postmodernist believe it is possible to rule out the knowledge as being untrue (harEthnographic Methods in Qualitative Research

NR 442 Chamberlian University Benefits of Trauma Certified Registered Nurse Certification PPT

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I’m working on a nursing discussion question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

You are missing a few things here. This is not PDF. I will look at the pptx, however I also see no footer citations/references on the cert slides or scholarly areas, nor do I see how, if a nurse has a deficit it could manifest as an improvement.Hello Alberta,
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NR 442 Chamberlian University Benefits of Trauma Certified Registered Nurse Certification PPT

MGT 201 Saudi Electronic University Marketing Management of Coca Coca Inc Questions

MGT 201 Saudi Electronic University Marketing Management of Coca Coca Inc Questions.

I’m working on a marketing multi-part question and need support to help me understand better.

1.Think about the various soft drinks that you know from the local market and chose any 3 out of that (e.g. Coca-Cola, Pepsi, 7-Up, Mirinda Citrus, Saudi Champagne, Shaani, Sun Top & Sun Cola, Lemontia, Rani Pulp Drinks etc.). Critically Examine how do these various brands position themselves in the Saudi market? (Minimum 250 Words)2.Suppose you wants to open a new restaurant of your choice in the local market. Based on the chapter concepts, critically Examine the following questions.a.What are some secondary sources of information that you might use to conduct the research on potential new locations? Describe how these sources might be used?b.Describe one method that you may use to gather primary research on prospective locations.c.As per your understanding which kind of research you should make first? Why? ( Minimum 350 Words)Note-1.Your Examples should be relevant to the local Market of Saudi Arabia.2.Validate your Answers with Minimum 2 References (Research Article/Book Chapters/Reviewed Journals etc.) for each question.3.Read Carefully the above general Guidelines before submitting your Assignment.4. The answers should be Clear and well presented using APA style.5. Use the attached to add the answers.
MGT 201 Saudi Electronic University Marketing Management of Coca Coca Inc Questions

Public Awareness of Stroke Risk Factors and Warning Signs

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Introduction Stroke is defined as a sudden neurological deficit caused by impairment in perfusion to the brain (M. Bornstein, N 2009). The WHO estimates that by year 2030, 80% of all strokes will occur in low and middle income countries and high quality of health statistics are essential for planning and implementing health policy in all countries. Of all neurological diseases, stroke is the most preventable. The need to increase public awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs has been identified as critical to addressing the large gaps in knowledge. An important aspect of improving understanding of stroke was to prevent strokes from occurring in the first place, by increasing public awareness of the risk factors (Britain, G 2009). Act F.A.S.T(face, arm, speech, time) campaign was laughed and organized by MOH in most of the countries and which has been effective in improving the public’s recognition of the symptoms of stroke . There are a lot of researches had been done to know the effectiveness of campaign and programs. This paper will review two articles to test the stroke awareness and risk factors in general population. Methods Two articles were chosen from Bio Med Central, using key words of stroke, awareness, risk factors, warning signs. The criteria were established with articles of data collection strategies, identification of the main study, full text and up to date published in between 2007 to 2008. Abstract The abstract is a brief description of the study placed at the beginning of the article about 100 to 150 words and it allows readers to assess whether to read the full articles of the report (POLIT, D. F.,