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The 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre was the bloodiest hostage taking the world had yet seen. It was a devastating situation which no one was expecting, let alone prepared for. The Munich massacre will be remembered as the beginning of the new age of international terrorism. The terrorist hostage situation took place at the Olympics in Munich, Germany in 1972. This was to be the first time Germany will host the Olympic Games since World War II.

At the time, Germany was attempting to show that they were a “new” Germany, one that was peaceful, or in other words, a Germany without Hitler. Unfortunately, because of this image that Germany was trying to present, the security was very loose, which led to an easy infiltration. The Germans had a fairly accurate idea of what would happen if there were to be a terrorist attack, but the concept was dismissed because it didn’t fit into the scenario of the “happy games”. This was their greatest mistake. After the hostages were taken, the Germans made many mistakes.

The most known are the three attempts at rescuing the hostages. First, they decided to use force. In broad daylight, the German police were given track suits, some running up the steps to the apartments, and others climbing down the walls and running down the stairs to the room where the hostages were being kept. Unfortunately the first plan had a great flaw; the entire media was watching and broadcasting the police action live on television. After realizing this fact, the operation was aborted before it even begun.

The next attempt was to attack the terrorists as they passed through the underground garage on helicopters that will take them to an air field from which they will fly back to their country. During the trial run that the terrorists requested, it was announced in a large voice that it was only a trial run and that the police, who were already in position, were “not to shoot”. This resulted in the second attempt to also be aborted. The third attempt turned in to an all-out shoot out at the air field, resulting in 3 terrorists surviving, one German police man, and all of the hostages killed.

The Munich Massacre was the start of the new age of international terrorism. One quote that struck me was something that was said by Ulrich Pabst, a spokesman for the Munich Olympics. He said “The world was no longer what it had once been. Germany had changed. A need for security had changed. It was a brutal awakening, for all of us. ” The massacre at the Munich Olympics proved that a forceful way of protection was now needed. What had affected me the most was to learn that even though in 2004, many years after the event, compensated the victims’ families, but they are still waiting for an official apology.

According to the article what was the message about the position of Japan in the global hierarchy as envisioned by the organizers of the exposition?

According to the article what was the message about the position of Japan in the global hierarchy as envisioned by the organizers of the exposition?.

Week 4 Discussion 1: Japan Facing West Discussion Topic The article by Judith Snodgrass (“Japan Faces the West…”) describes Japan’s exhibit at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The exposition included exhibits from countries around the globe, and is described as intending to demonstrate a sort of evolution or hierarchy of civilizations. Discuss evidence of this ranking, as well as Japan’s response to it, in your answers to the following 2 questions. 1) According to the article, what was the message about the position of Japan in the global hierarchy as envisioned by the organizers of the exposition? Give at least one example from the article. 2) How might Japan’s exhibit at the exposition seem to challenge Western views of Japan at the time? Give specific examples from the article in your answer. Week 4 Discussion 2: The Western gaze in Japan Discussion Topic In contrast to the Snodgrass article, which showed Japan going to the West––of sending a representation of itself to an Expo in 1893, our reading from Lafcadio Hearn, circa 1894, is representative of Westerners looking at Japan in Japan. Taking both the excerpts from Hearn and from Donald Richie as a basis, what can we say about this enterprise of foreigners putting Japan under the microscope, in a manner of speaking? The scope of possible answers is meant to be broad, and can include the early 19th century as well as contemporary times, and can include reflections on those doing the looking as well as those being examined. You may also use information from other course materials in addition to the Hearn and Richie excerpts.

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