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The Minoans And Mycenaeans History Essay

During the Bronze Age, the Mycenaeans and Minoans became two of the most powerful and culturally unique groups the world had ever seen. Because they resided so close to each other, they had an undeniable influence on each other and this resulted in the two groups sharing a lot of the same characteristics. Despite having a similar set of characteristics, both civilizations had several noticeable and distinct differences, most notably in the areas of architecture, arts, and languages. These differences can be understood best when examining the fact that Minoans were more trade and nature oriented, while the Mycenaeans focused more on war and strengthening their military. The Minoans and Mycenaean civilizations both resided in present-day Greece, while the Minoans based their civilization on the island of Crete, and the Mycenaeans on mainland Greece. The Minoans, who were known particularly for their extensive trade and dominance of the sea, existed from about 27th century B.C. to 14th century B.C. until the Mycenaeans defeated them and took over (Biers, 1980, 27). On the other hand, the Mycenaeans were more war and military oriented than the Minoans, as seen by their victory over the Minoans and their material culture, which will be looked at later. As far as language is concerned, Mycenaeans appeared to use a language called Linear B, which consisted of 87 different signs and several ideograms, or graphic symbols that represents an idea or concept. There has been a large amount of evidence found in the palaces of the Mycenaean civilization in the form of clay tablets. The Minoans used a system called Linear A, a mostly syllabic script that contains 75 signs and several ideograms; unfortunately, archaeologists still haven’t completely deciphered all of the symbols (Burkert, 1985, 20). We do know however, that Linear A tablets contained accounting transactions, which supports the idea that Minoans were more trade oriented (Biers, 1980, 26). Both civilizations were very complex and advanced with complex social hierarchies; this complexity is best seen by examining the archaeological remains of each civilization’s architecture and different types of art pieces including paintings, sculptures, and pottery. Although the Minoan and Mycenaean styles of architecture were very similar, there were still several structural differences due to their trade and military backgrounds. Mycenaeans were especially talented at working “with large blocks of stone” (Biers, 1980, 67), a technique called megalithic architecture, which made it possible for Mycenaeans to construct enormous, heavily fortified walls that surrounded their palaces. This was in stark contrast to Minoan palaces as they probably felt that fortifications around palaces may have been superfluous due to their isolation location and strong navy. Minoans also used a post and lintel system, or in other words, “verticals and horizontals” (Biers, 1980, 29), as opposed to the Mycenaean megalithic structure. A distinct feature of the Mycenaean style of architecture is the “relieving triangle above a lintel block”, an architectural element best displayed on the Lion Gate at Mycenae (Preziosi and Hitchcock, 1999, 176). Both civilizations had palaces with intricate and detailed floor plans that covered a vast amount of land and had a central area upon which the rest of the palace would be built around. Typically, in Minoan palaces such as Knossos, the central area would be a large courtyard which was the “focus of everyday life and served as the site for religious rituals and other ceremonial functions” (Biers, 1980, 29). On the other hand, the central area of a Mycenaean palace was called a megaron. Typically, Mycenaean palaces such as Pylos, were highly decorated; this included the “walls and the floor” and even the hearth, which had “spiral and flame patterns” painted several times (Biers, 1980, 71). Another aspect of the Mycenaean culture that showed they had a military sense was their utilization of advanced hydraulic engineering. Not only did they have great fortification walls, but they had carefully maintained roads that served as an important network connector to their various major centers (Biers, 1980, 74). While it is reasonable to conclude that both civilizations had impressive pieces of architectural work, the Mycenaeans tended to have a greater abundance of military architecture in its world. Based on an abundant amount of archaeological evidence, it is apparent that the Minoans were more interested in nature oriented art while Mycenaeans were more interested in warlike paintings. The Minoans loved to paint frescoes with bright, vibrant colors such as terra cotta red and used these colors to depict beautiful scenes of nature (Biers, 1980, 29). Minoan also liked to use a vivid red paint to paint the floor as a “blanket of color” and not just for frescoes (Hirsch, 1980, 453). There were also many enormous bull-vaulting scenes, present in Minoan palaces. In these paintings, the bulls were typically painted brown and white while the men were painted red and then women were painted white (Biers, 1980, 46). When examining Mycenaean art it is clear that they were strongly influenced by the Minoans because you can see several Minoan themes in their paintings and frescoes. An example of this is the “procession fresco” and the “bull-vaulting scene” (Biers, 1980, 80). Despite this obvious correlation, Mycenaean art usually had a lesser emphasis on nature, which was only used as a backdrop for scenes, and a greater emphasis on warlike scenes (Biers, 1980, 82). Both societies also made terra cotta figurines but Minoans features “household goddesses” with “flaring skirts” and “raised hands” (Biers, 1980, 55) while the Mycenaean figurines were larger in scale and were primarily categorized into three types: Phi, women with no arms, Psi, women whose arms made a crescent shape, and Tau (Biers, 1980, 89). While both cultures were masterful in painting sculptures and other forms of art, the Minoans concentrated more on being detailed and nature oriented while the Mycenaeans were more plain and focused more on warlike sculptures. Perhaps the archaeological find with the most abundant amount of evidence that backs up the idea that Minoans were more nature oriented than their counter part, the Mycenaeans, is pottery. Minoan pottery is considered to be far more decorative than that of the Mycenaeans and their pottery “attained a very high standard in both fabric and decoration” (Biers, 1980, 52). Since pottery was actually also used to determine chronology, Minoan pottery actually provided a foundation for dividing the different Minoan eras. Late Minoan IA style featured spirals with details added in white and floral motifs (Biers, 1980, 54), while Late Minoan IB style, the Marine style, featured several nature-like qualities such as the depictions of sea creatures, particularly octopus (Biers, 1980, 54). Unlike Minoan pottery, Mycenaean pottery was simple and “dull in its decoration” (Biers, 1980, 85). Mycenaean pottery was designed with a “dull black-to-brown glaze” while the Late Helladic IIIB pottery featured shapes such as a kylix, and the Late Helladic IIIC period featured “simple linear patterns” and warrior scenes (Biers, 1980, 85 and 86). The Mycenaeans and Minoans had very different tastes in pottery as the Mycenaeans went for a more simple, plain, and at times, warrior style, while the Minoans went for a more colorful, and nature like style. Like most material culture, the religion and burial practices of the Minoans and Mycenaeans shared many similarities and had many differences. Minoan religion featured several female goddesses, prompting Arthur Evans to claim that their religion was a “Mother goddess-centered religion” (Olsen, 1998, 382). Additionally, animals and “the death and rebirth of vegetation…serve as the basis of Minoan religion” (Biers, 1980, 27). A big difference between Minoan and Mycenaean religious practices was that Mycenaean cult buildings were independent structures which avoided the Minoan practice of building multiple shrines within their settlement (Burkert, 1985, 89). Grave Circle A and Grave Circle B are two of the most significant shaft grave archaeological finds for pottery and metalwork that have ever taken place (Biers, 1980, 75). The typical burial method was “internment in chamber tombs and, for the royal family, in tholos tombs” (Biers, 1980, 76). It is quite evident that both civilizations did have particular burial practices and practiced religion, although in Mycenaean civilization burial practices took on a larger scale. There is no doubt that the similarities between the Minoans and Mycenaeans are extensive, mostly because of their close proximity that allowed the Minoans to influence the Mycenaeans so much. While they were very similar, they also had several fundamental differences, most notably the Minoans being more trade and nature oriented while the Mycenaeans were more warlike. These differences are best understood by analyzing the different archaeological, artistic, and language aspects because they tell a story about the development of two of the greatest ancient civilizations during the Bronze Age.

UOP Complexities of Client Privacy Confidentiality & Privileged Communication Analysis

UOP Complexities of Client Privacy Confidentiality & Privileged Communication Analysis.

As a case manager at the local Housing Authority office, you are responsible for helping low-income families gain access to safe, affordable, and when eligible, subsidized housing. Judy is a 30-year-old single mother of two who has been on welfare assistance for three years. For two years, Judy and her family drifted in and out of homelessness when her unstable housing arrangements fell apart. You have been working with Judy in finding her housing for 18 months. After Judy was on the waiting list for public housing for a full year, you were able to help her secure a two-bedroom apartment in a public housing unit designated for young families that is located in a safe neighborhood. Judy and her family have been in their new apartment for six months, and for the first time in their young lives, her children are experiencing what it means to have a stable home. This afternoon, you received a call from the local police informing you that Judy has been arrested for drug trafficking in her apartment. The Housing Authority’s policy forbids the use or selling of drugs in public housing units and requires that residents who violate this rule be evicted immediately. 1. As a case manager with the local Housing Authority, what empowering options can you create for your client, Judy? 2. Do you see any value conflicts between the agency’s drug policy and social work values? If so, what are they? 3. When you go to the jail to visit Judy, what will you say to her? 4. How would you feel about this case if Judy’s children were not involved?Case Example Two (25 points)You are a caseworker at a Family Service Center where you have worked for one month since receiving your degree. Richard is a 48-year-old construction worker whom you have been seeing weekly since your first week at the agency. Richard came to your agency seeking assistance after unexpectedly losing his job following a back injury that left him permanently limited in his abilities to lift or carry more than 20 pounds or to climb or do twisting motions. Richard is a devoted husband and father and is feeling that he has let his family down because he has not been able to provide for them financially in recent months. With your help, Richard has been able to enter an eight-week reemployment-training program where he is being trained as a tax preparer for a local firm. He has done well in his classes but has become depressed and frustrated in the past two weeks as his family’s financial situation has worsened. Today, you notice that Richard seems more agitated and restless. When you asked him what is on his mind, he explains that the previous night he had been out at the local tavern having a few beers and on the way home was stopped for speeding and was given a DUI when he failed to pass the breathalyzer test. The ordeal resulted in Richard being held in jail overnight, causing him to miss his tax preparer’s class the following morning. He is feeling unjustly persecuted by the police, and fears he will not be permitted to complete the class. As Richard is telling you of the events of the previous evening, he becomes enraged at the unfortunate hand that fate has dealt him and blurts out, ” I feel like walking into the police station and shooting these bastards!”1. How will you handle the issues of confidentiality in your relationship with Richard?2. How do you determine whether Richard is serious about his threat or just venting his anger? 3. What actions would you take? 4. How would you address this with Richard, given confidentiality and issues of trust?5. What safety issues do you need to consider for yourself, for Richard, and the staff in your agency?
UOP Complexities of Client Privacy Confidentiality & Privileged Communication Analysis

Gender Studies homework help

best essay writers Gender Studies homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the Value-based care and its impact on your profession or organization. The paper also provides additional information to use in this assignment.,Value-based care and its impact on your profession or organization,Value-based care has emerged as an alternative for fee-for-service reimbursement and is based on quality rather than quantity. Also, value-based care is a form of reimbursement that ties payments for care delivery to the quality of care provided and rewards providers for both efficiency and effectiveness. In order to transform how health care providers are reimbursed for services rendered, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has introduced an array of value-based care models. Likewise, private payers have adopted similar models of accountable, value-based care. Value-based care aims to advance the triple aim of providing better care for individuals, improving population health management strategies, and reducing health care costs. Everyone who works in health care will be impacted by this policy and regulation.,Prepare a five- to eight-page paper which discusses the topic of value-based care and its impact on your profession or organization. There is a lot of information to cover, but your paper should be no more than 8 pages. (not including title or reference pages). Your completed assignment should include: A detailed explanation of value-based care models (ACO, bundled payments, ,patient centered medical homes,). A discussion of why value-based care models are important. A discussion of value-based payments (MACRA, MIPS, APMs). Selection of one value-based care model that predominately affects your profession or organization.,Thoroughly discuss how your selected value-based care model has impacted the health care industry and society as a whole and will continue to impact it in the future. Provide an opinion on its impact or anticipated impact on your profession or organization. Provide an opinion on its impact or anticipated impact on your profession or organization under the Trump Administration.,.Gender Studies homework help

Causes of the First Crusade 1095 and 1099 Case Study

Table of Contents Introduction West’s reasons for launching the crusade Middle East response to the crusades Lasting effects on relations References Introduction There were at least eight crusades in all but four of them were the major ones. The crusades started in the year 1095 with the appeal of Pope Urban II to the European Christians and ended in the year 1291 with the downfall of Acre. Pope Urban II appealed to the people of France to invade Jerusalem and set it free from the clutches of the Muslims (Phillips, 2009). The crusades are portrayed as being wars that had religious intentions but there were several other reasons such as political and economic that led to the crusades. This paper will discuss the first crusade that was fought between 1095 and 1099. West’s reasons for launching the crusade Jerusalem was controlled by Muslims since centuries but they never interfered with the Christian pilgrims due to the reason that they gave them business. The problem crept in when the Turks conquered the holy city (in addition to the adjacent areas) in 1971. The Turks were also Muslims but they ill-treated the Christian pilgrims without knowing the economic benefits that were being reaped due to them. The Turks also invaded Europe many times and even intimidated the Byzantine Empire (Keko, 2010). Considering the grave threat, Pope Urban II appealed to the European Christian community to rise against the invaders and free Jerusalem from the Muslim rule. The profound enthusiasm induced by Pope Urban II served to rouse the exceptional conclusion of the First Crusade. The objectives of the crusade were to recover Jerusalem, support the Byzantine East, and to bring all of Europe under one roof for a respectable cause. The initial Crusades were able to bring together Western Europe for a united cause. The Western society was influenced with the Eastern contemplation and as a result, fresh trade opportunities were perceived between Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In any case the Crusades eventually ended up being a paradigm of an intellectual nature that faced deceit from personal temperament. Ensuing campaigns were controlled by aristocrats (engaged in wars), knights, and priests who battled for control, territory, and wealth. These crusades, especially the fourth one, demonstrated devastating results. One intriguing point is that, while the documentation of incidents for the initial three Crusades were moderately unswerving all around the literature, numerous contradictory descriptions can be found for the fourth and the subsequent Crusades. Is it possible that the historians were not interested any more in the crusades or did the crusades prove to be some dejected episodes? The continuous and vigorous crusades could bring in only interim success. This statement is proved by the fact that the crusades lasted for almost 195 years but Christians were able to establish their authority over Jerusalem for just 88 years. Middle East response to the crusades Muslims of the Middle East were probably enticed to participate in the crusade by the religious sermon of the chief Qazi of Damascus. The Qazi tried to include emotional aspects in his sermon by informing the listeners that their brothers in Syria had no homes left (Irwin, 1997). The listeners included refugees from Syria and Palestine. The Muslim reaction to the advent of Crusaders at the close of the eleventh century was established by the disarray of the Muslim world during that period. We will write a custom Case Study on Causes of the First Crusade 1095 and 1099 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There was an element of jihad (Islamic religious war) in the proposed reaction of Muslims. There were certain diplomatic reasons as well for the Muslims’ response to the crusades. The economic inferences cannot be ruled out as one of the reasons. The idea of jihad (during the crusades) can be considered as a perfect example of amalgamation of religious thoughts and political ambitions. Jihad is actually an appeal (mentioned in Quran) that urges all Muslims to safeguard the interests of all Muslims. But the rulers (Caliphs) used it as a disguise to expand their territories. But anyhow, the Muslims did respond to the call for jihad and got involved in the crusade wars. But it seems that the Syrian leaders paid no heed to the call for jihad by some Ulaimas (religious leaders of Islam) such as Al-Sulami and the concept of jihad was buried in their thoughts. In Islamic philosophy and law jihad had never been a static idea but, on the contrary, it became the idea of the Ulaimas who had control over the policies of the Muslim world. During the period from 1099 to 1291, the military responses were influenced by the preaching of such Ulaimas. The starting Muslim reaction to the Crusaders was signified by apathy. The absence of a coordinated military reaction by the Muslims to the attacks could be clarified by the environment that greeted the crusaders. The Crusaders couldn’t have a better opportunity to invade. The area was in chaos and disorder because of the demise of Malikshah (Seljuk’s sultan). The sultan’s two sons were engaged in a war of succession. This instability of the region was probably one of the main reasons for the success of the first Crusade. Nur-Al-Din’s reign witnessed a resurgence in the people’s views that can be considered being communal as well as religious. The views of the people were obviously anti-Christian and against the Crusaders. The significance of this was that jihad started being considered as a way of fortifying Islam’s popularity rather than defending Islam. This particular concept suggests that there was a close affiliation between the Ulaimas and the rulers. It was in this setting that Saladin’s reactions to the Crusaders ought to be assessed. Not sure if you can write a paper on Causes of the First Crusade 1095 and 1099 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Among all the people who were considered to be war heroes during the crusades, Saladin is probably the most significant whose legacy is still remembered by the Muslims. The purpose behind this legacy is a direct result of incredible victory Saladin had as both an extraordinary disseminator and an incredible executioner of jihad. When Saladin had attained Muslim solidarity and his energy base in Egypt was secure, Jerusalem was retaken in the name of Islam. The Muslims viewed this victory of Jerusalem as huge because it related to various battles that were fought in the past (in the name of jihad). Saladin’s victories were being specifically connected to the most regarded and revered time of Islamic history, to the heroics of Khalid ibn Walid. Assuming that we take the proof of Muslim researchers and disseminators to be reflective of the Umma (followers of Mohammed PBUH) in general, the Muslim reaction to the happening of the Crusades might be seen as stirring the memory of the incredible Arab successes for Muslims. Lasting effects on relations Both Christians and Muslims became against each other due to the Crusades. The combative Turkish Ottoman Empire, which once controlled the territory starting from the Balkans all around the Middle East, also acted as a catalyst for the straining of the relations between Christians and Muslims. Later, the Battle of Lepanto (1571) proved to be detrimental for the Turk’s aggression into Europe. The Christians living in the Middle East started migrating to America due to harassment by Muslims; this happened during the Syrian Civil War (1860). Jerusalem was governed by the Ottomans between 1516 and 1917. In 1917, towards the end of World War I, General Edmund Allenby invaded Jerusalem and freed it from the Ottoman rule. This mission of General Edmund Allenby is termed as the Last Crusade. This particular mission concurred with the Balfour Declaration. The divergence between Christians and Muslims is prevalent even today. The current global scenario seems to be very relevant when compared to the situation during the crusades. It might be predictable about the times to come. In recent times, Jerusalem has witnessed only flimsy peaceful atmosphere. The current strained relations between Israel and Palestine suggest that both the countries are still gripped with the feelings of the crusades. Both the countries are engaged in astringent and never-ending efforts to ascertain their respective boundaries. On the other hand, American troops can still be seen interfering in the internal affairs of Iraq and Afghanistan. The global community is trying its best to reduce the tensions and ill-feelings created by the crusades. It is a point to ponder whether war is the only solution to problems and differences among nations. Also, can wars be termed as being just? The relation between Christians and Muslims has been an issue since the advent and expansion of Islam; it has been more than fourteen hundred years. Since the start of the strained relations, there have been two different dimensions to the problem. The first relates to the people of the two religions living together and the second relates to the religious beliefs of both the sides. Such dimensions also include questions about self-dignity and freedom of speech with regard to Islam and at the same time appreciating the importance of the preaching. All such issues have haunted Christians through the ages. The relation between Christians and Muslims has always been affected by competition, enmity, and jealousy. But unfortunately, people from both the sects forget that there were times when people of both the religions once lived together happily (before the crusades). Even today, people forget the importance and significance of mutual cooperation and usefulness of living together. One of the bitter experiences of history has been the overshadowing of the pleasant memories by the sourness of wars. All such situations are further aggravated by the theological polemics who suppress the good things that happened between the two sects (World Council of Churches, 1992). The last couple of decades have witnessed constructive efforts towards normalizing the relations between Christians and Muslims but unfortunately, the political (and otherwise) ambitions of a couple of people might prove disastrous that may aggravate the tensions. So it’s high time that the world community should rise and falter the efforts of such people. Our thoughts and actions should be built on the past experiences. We should concentrate on the long-term benefits of having good relations (understanding and trust) with each other rather than pondering over petty issues. Previous experiences prove that unless we have the intention, mere dialogues cannot improve the relation between people of the two religions. References Irwin, R. (1997). Muslim responses to the crusades. Web. Keko, D. (2010). Causes of the first crusade. Web. Phillips, J. (2009). The call of the crusades. Web. World Council of Churches (1992). Issues in Christian-Muslim relations: Ecumenical considerations. Web.

Marymount University Social and Political Environment of Societies Today Essay

Marymount University Social and Political Environment of Societies Today Essay.

Important: I need 2 paragraph for each topic above. 4 paragraphs in total. 1. Directions: After reading Machiavellis’ The Prince (selections), answer the following questions in 1-2 full paragraph(s):1) What are some of the attributes successful princes (or leaders) of city-states should have? 2) Do you think these qualities are applicable today? Why or why not?3) Are there any examples of modern-day princes like the ones described in The Prince in societies today? Give specific examples and explain your response.Outcome: This assignment will help you understand how political thinkers understood the social and political environment of late Renaissance cities (15th – 16th centuries).In the 14th century, the Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio wrote The Decameron, which is a collection of 100 stories told over a span of 10 days by 10 young men and women from Florence. These 10 young people were self-isolated in the countryside during the pandemic of the Black Death (See Lecture 2) and decided to pass the time by telling 10 stories each (since there was no internet!). The Decameron is considered one of the most famous literary works from the Early Renaissance. 2. Directions: Read the assigned short stories in The Decameron (selections) by Boccaccio.pdf and answer the following questions in 1 -2 full paragraph OR a video submission:1. What was your first reaction after reading all the stories?2. What was your favorite and why? (or least favorite!?)3. Do you think some of these stories are funny? What do you think made Renaissance people laugh? 4. Do you think some of these stories are tragic or sad? What do you think Renaissance people considered tragic or sad?5. How does this type of entertainment compare to the type of entertainment we are using today during our Covid-19 quarantine? *Use specific examples of stories in your answers*Outcome: This activity will help you identify the themes, elements, and genres that make up the Decameron and what kept Renaissance audiences/readers entertained. This will help you think about your Writing Assignment #1 (“Story Writing During Quarantine”)Important: I need 2 paragraph for each topic above. 4 paragraphs in total.
Marymount University Social and Political Environment of Societies Today Essay