I’m working on a article writing writing question and need an explanation to help me learn.
For this assignment You will complete the special education case assessment. The 10 questions and 1 discussion are related to special education cases and special education laws. You must get all 10 questions correct,and you must answer the discussion question and respond with 350 words. The 10 questions are fill in the blanks Put your answers on the attached form. Please bid only if you are familiar with research and case laws. Your paper should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Please include the references. Select the main word from each citation to fill in the blank in each sentence
ARUCC Special Education Case Assessment Process of Law & Student Presence Discussion
After reading Buehler Chapter 14, what would be your approach in working with a couple struggling with infertility? After reading Buehler Chapter 15, with specific focus upon the effects of cancer upon human sexuality, what are some best practices you have identified that will help you in your future practice treat clients with similar circumstances?Cite your source(s).Cite your source(s).Reference #1 for 1st Question: Buehler, S. (2017). What every mental health professional needs to know about sex. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved from the EBSCO eBooks database in the Touro library. Reference #2 for 2nd Question: After reading Buehler Chapter 15, with specific focus upon the effects of cancer upon human sexuality, what are some best practices you have identified that will help you in your future practice treat clients with similar circumstances?
MFT 620 Touro University California Human Sexuality Discussion
I’m working on a writing question and need guidance to help me study.
Read Chapter 2 and watch Week 3 Lectures. Choose a contemporary moral issue in our society (week 3 folder) and apply the ethical principle of Utilitarianism to approve this moral issue. You must pick a moral issue that you strongly support and apply the utilitarian claims (week 3 folder) to back up your arguments. The paper must be done in MLA/APA format with a minimum of 500 words (quotes are not included in the word count).*You must apply the Four major points of Utilitarianism (week 3 Lecture) apply Bentham’s Felicific Calculus 9 (week 3 folder) and apply the utilitarian claims (week 3 folder).Ethics 5 Utilitarianism – YouTubeI want the title to be Abortion which I’m in favorAbortion (as a result of rape, incest, or mother/baby health at risk)
American University of PR The Ethical Principle of Utilitarianism Discussion
Ethical Judgment: what would you do?
Ethical Judgment: what would you do?.
Imagine that you are writing a report in a criminal justice agency; everyone is scrutinizing your work. You are to respond to each question in the narrative format. I do not want lists; I want this in essay form. Do not copy from the text and do not use the powerpoint presentations in your responses. Avoid using contractions, texting language, and ensure that words are used properly. Edit your work. For this assignment, you will attach a MicroSoft Word document in the dropbox within this folder; no other form of word processing is acceptable. For each response, a minimum of a paragraph due; a paragraph is considered at least five solid sentences. I would certainly use more that five sentences to make a complete response. The paper is Times-New Roman, 12-font, double spaced. If you do not have Word on your personal computer, the school computers have this program. Drop your midterm in the dropbox contained in this folder. You are afforded some leeway because this is what YOU would do in a given situation. DO NOT USE THE SAME MORAL PRINCIPLES OR ETHICAL SYSTEMS IN EVERY SITUATION.1. You are serving on a jury for a murder trial. The evidence presented at trial was largely circumstantial and, in your mind, equivocal. During closing, the prosecutor argued that you must find the defendant guilty because he confessed to the crime. The defense attorney immediately objected and the judge sternly instructed you to disregard the prosecutor’s statement. While you do not know exactly what happened, you suspect that the confession was excluded because of some procedural error. Would you be able to ignore the prosecutor’s statement in your deliberations? Should you? Would you tell the judge if the jury members discussed the statement and appeared to be influenced by it? Based on your readings for this ethical question, state your:Ethical Judgment: what would you do?The moral rules.The ethical system that you would use (formalism, utilitarianism, egoism, etc.)2. You are a police officer testifying about a particular crime. It is a case where you honestly don’t know whether or not the suspect is guilty. While on the witness stand, you answer all the prosecutor’s and defense attorney’s questions. You complete your testimony and exit the courtroom, knowing that you have specific knowledge that may help the defense attorney’s case. You have answered all questions truthfully, but the specific question needed to help the defense was not asked. What should you do? Based on your readings for this ethical question, state your:Ethical Judgment: what would you do?The moral rules.The ethical system(s) that support the moral rules (formalism, utilitarianism, egoism, etc.)3. You are a rookie police officer on your first patrol. The older, experience officer tells you that the restaurant on the corner likes to have you guys around, so they always give free meals. Your partner orders steak, potatoes, and all the trimmings. What are you going to do? What if it were just coffee at a convenience store? What if the owner refused to take your money at the register? Based on your readings for this ethical question, state your:Ethical Judgment: what would you do?The moral rules.The ethical system(s) that support the moral rules (formalism, utilitarianism, egoism, etc.)4. You are a manager of a retail store. You are given permission by the owner of the store to hire a fellow classmate to help out. One day you see the classmate take some clothing from the store. When confronted by you, the peer laughs it off and says the owner is insured, no one is hurt, and it was under $100. “Beside,” says your acquaintance, “friends stick together, right?” What would you do? Based on your readings for this ethical question, state your:Judgement: what would you do?The moral rules.The ethical system that you would use (formalism, utilitarianism, egoism, etc.)
Ethical Judgment: what would you do?
Self Reflection on Communication Skills | Essay
nursing essay writing service Introduction: The desire to have an understanding of the methods to use in improving relationships has led to the emergence of interpersonal communication. People normally assume that to effectively understand the process of interpersonal communication, they have to give an explanation of how relationships emerge and grow, factors that lead to their deterioration, and what makes these relationships to become static (Webster, 2002). Ever since scholars managed to demonstrate that people are able to grow relationally or personally through communication, information experts are sensitive on the importance of interpersonal interaction. It is virtually impossible to understand this process of interpersonal communication, without understanding the various theories and principles formed to explain the concept of interpersonal communication (Cherniss, 2001). Most of these theoretical frameworks normally address a wide range of topics, and some of themes they address include, social conflict, quality of relationship, interaction, communication competence and planning, accuracy required for people to understand one another. Therefore, the intention of this assignment is to compare two theoretical frameworks that are within the scope of interpersonal communication. These theories are, social penetration theory, and uncertainty reduction theory (Ellis, 2002)s. This paper is divided into five sections. The first section is the introduction, the second section highlights the concepts and philosophies of these theories, the third section identifies the similarities of these two theoretical frameworks, the fourth section highlights their differences, and the fifth section is a conclusion. The conclusion is a summary of the major points highlighted in this paper. Uncertainty Reduction Theory and Social Penetration Theory: Uncertainty reduction is a theoretical framework that seeks to understand the manner which people are able to reduce any uncertainty that occurs between them, during the early stages of interaction. This is always based on a sense of self-disclosure. Furthermore, this theoretical framework seeks to explain the different communication techniques that can be used for purposes of reducing uncertainty amongst two people, or a group of people, who have just met (Cherniss, 2001). The developers of this theoretical framework denoted that uncertainty is always unpleasant feeling that people normally want to avoid. For purposes of reducing this unpleasant feeling, people would try to look for information that seeks to address this uncertain feeling, hence create a more comfortable feeling. On the other hand, social penetration theory normally involves the development of a deeper intimacy, between the communicating parties, through a mutual self-disclosure. This theoretical framework has four major assumptions, and they include (Goleman and Boyatzis, 2004), The progress of relationships normally moves from non-intimate level, to the stage of intimacy. Development of relationships is systematic and predictable. The aspect of self-disclosure forms an integral part, in developing relationships. The development of relationships normally includes depenetration and dissolution. It is important to explain that the closeness between individuals under the social penetration theory is normally achieved through a sense of self disclosure. Without this aspect, it is virtually impossible for any relationship to occur. This is also one of the methods advocated by the uncertainty reduction theory, aimed at reducing uncertainties, and a feeling of uneasiness. Similarities: One of the major similarities between these two theoretical frameworks is that they deal with the creation of a relationship between individuals or people. For example, the social penetration theory explains that developing a close relationship with people, is achieved in an orderly and gradual manner, leading from a less intimate, to a more intimate relationship. On the other hand, uncertainty reduction theory explains that relationships are built through effective communication, between the parties involved (Blundel and Blundel, 2011). This means that the two theoretical frameworks are concerned with the creation and sustenance of relationships. Another similarity is that both theoretical frameworks advocate for a systematic and gradual process of building relationships. This means that a relationship is built through a systematic process that involves efficiency in the use of language tools and standards. For example, the two theories denote that it is possible to achieve and develop a close relationship through the process of self-disclosure (McLuhan and McLuhan, 2011). Differences: One major difference that exists between these two theoretical frameworks is on the process they use, to achieve their objectives. Under the uncertainty reduction theory, there are a series of steps and processes that an individual should use, for purposes of acquiring information. It seeks to acquire this information, by creating seven basic assumptions (Childre and Rozman, 2005). Some of these assumptions are, experience of uncertainty on personal issues, uncertainty is normally an aversive state, and it has the capability of generating cognitive stress, etc. On the other hand, under the social penetration theory, a relationship is created by disclosing information about an individual. Tools to use in improving my performance: For purposes of improving my communication performance, in a work related situation, there is a need of using the following tools of communication, Memos. Computer systems and technology, i.e. communicating through emails. Mobile phones and gadgets. Face to face communication. Conclusion: Interpersonal theories play an important role, in explaining the most efficient methods that an individual should use while communicating with other people. The social penetration theory and the uncertainty reduction theory are effective in explaining the most efficient methods of creating a personal, social, and work related relationships. Reflection Paper: This paper contains a reflection on my strengths and weaknesses in relation to how I communicate, and relate with my friends, family members, and colleagues. As an individual, I have come to appreciate the importance of developing and coming up with strong and good communication skills. This is because they would play an important role in determining whether I would sustain, create or develop a relationship. One of my major strengths lies in my ability to maintain a face to face conversation, through eye contacts (Worth, 2004). This is an important strength, mainly because I have the capability of gazing into the eyes of an individual that I communicate with, and hence instilling a sense of confidence, and creating some trusts. For efficient communication to occur, the parties to the communication must show some elements of confidence, and trust, amongst one another. Eye contact is one of the major methods that can be used to create a sense of confidence, amongst the parties to the communication. It is important to explain that most people are always reluctant and unable to maintain some eye contacts. This is because they do not feel confidence about themselves, or some of them, are telling lies. Based on this fact, it is always difficult for an individual to maintain a relationship that is full of trust, if he or she finds it difficult to communicate while maintaining some eye contacts. It is also important to understand that, in most interviews, one of the characteristics that they look in an individual is his or her ability to maintain some elements of confidence (Worth, 2004). They are always concerned, if an individual can communicate without maintaining some eye contact. This means that the person under consideration is either telling lies, or is not confidence of him. Based on this fact, the candidate may fail an interview. Therefore, I would gladly say, that this trait, is one of my stronger points. Another major strength, that I have, is the capability of efficiently using the modern gadgets of technology to communicate (Worth, 2004). This includes, computers, mobile phones, tablets, etc. It is important to explain that these digital tools of communication are important in facilitating efficient communication between parties involved. Take for example the computers. Through the computers, an individual manages to get the capability of accessing the internet. The internet facilitates communication, mainly because it makes it possible for people to use the social media, as an avenue of meeting friends and communicating (Worth, 2004). As an individual, I have a heavy presence in the social media, and I am a member of virtually every social media platforms that exists. This includes twitter, Google , Face book, Instagram, Linkedin, etc. These social media platforms normally help me to express myself, and to also create a network of friends. It is through these platforms, that I managed to learn on the importance of having efficient and good communication skills. However, it is important to explain that some of the relationships created through the social media platform are not necessary, and cannot last long (Stein, 2007). This is because of different personalities, and tastes that people would always have. Another major strength that I possess is my outgoing personality. I am an individual who likes to make friends, and sustain the friends under consideration. Because of this personality, I managed to develop some communication skills that involved better listening, and following up on any communication issue or problems that may occur between my friends and I. Through this personality, I have managed to create a number of friends, whom we understand each other. In conclusion, where strengths exist, weaknesses are also depicted. I have two weaknesses. One of my major weaknesses is my anger. I am an individual who is easily aroused to anger, and this is a very negative inter-personal communication skill. This is because; it has the capability of scaring my friends. This could result to inefficient communication between me, and my friends. Another major weakness is my talking habit. I am fast talkers, and it is always difficult for me to keep quiet, when I am with people. This normally compromises my ability to keep secrets, or confidential information. Despite these weaknesses, I normally make some efforts, aimed at concentrating on my strengths, while minimizing my weaknesses. Bibliography: Blundel, R.,
Information Systems Acquisition Development And Maintenance Information Technology Essay
The ISO 27002 standard is the new name of the ISO 17799 standard. It is code of practice for information security. It basically outlines hundreds of potential controls and control mechanisms, which may be implemented. The standard which is to be “established guidelines and general principles for initiating, implementing, maintaining, and improving information security management inside an organization”. The actual controls listed in the standard are proposed to address the specific requirements identified via a formal risk assessment. The standard is also intended to provide a guide for the development of “organizational security standards and effective security management practices and it is also helpful in building confidence in inter-organizational activities” ISO’s future plans for this standard are focused largely around the development and publication of industry specific versions. One of the content of the ISO 27002 is information system acquisition, development, and maintenance, the details of which are as follows:- Information Systems Acquisition, Development, and Maintenance (ISO 27002) Table of Contents Overview Standards Security Requirements of the information systems Correct processing of the information Cryptographic control Security of the system files Security in development and support processes Technical vulnerability Management Overview Information security must be taken into account in the Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC) processes for specifying, building/acquiring, testing, implementing and maintaining IT systems. Automated and manual security control requirements should be analyzed and fully identified during the requirements stage of the systems development or acquisition process, and incorporated into business cases. Purchased software should be formally tested for security, and any issues risk-assessed. The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), or Software Development Life Cycle in systems and software engineering, is the process of creating or altering systems, and the models and methodologies that people use to develop these systems. The concept generally refers to computer or information systems. Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process used by a systems analyst to develop an information system, including requirements, validation, training, and user (stakeholder) ownership. Any SDLC should result in a high quality system that meets or exceeds customer expectations, reaches completion within time and cost estimates, works effectively and efficiently in the current and planned Information Technology infrastructure, and is inexpensive to maintain and cost-effective to enhance Standards ISO 27002: Information Security Management Clause 12: Information Systems Acquisition, Development, and Maintenance Security Requirements of the information systems Security can be integrated into information systems acquisition, development and maintenance by implementing effective security practices in the following areas. Security requirements for information systems Correct processing in applications Cryptographic controls Security of system files Security in development and support processes Technical vulnerability management Information systems security begins with incorporating security into the requirements process for any new application or system enhancement. Security should be designed into the system from the beginning. Security requirements are presented to the vendor during the requirements phase of a product purchase. Formal testing should be done to determine whether the product meets the required security specifications prior to purchasing the product Security requirements are established to ensure as an integral part of the development or performance of an information systems. The acquisition of a system or application often includes a Request for Proposals (RFP), which is a formal procurement process. During this process, security requirements need to be identified. Indiana University includes both a security review and a security questionnaire as part of the RFP process. Learn more about this effective practice. The main objective of this category is to ensure that security is an integral part of the organization’s information systems, and of the business processes associated with those systems. Correct processing of the information This category aims to prevent errors, loss, unauthorized modification or misuse of information in applications. Application design includes controls such as those to validate input/output data, internal processing, and message integrity, in order to prevent erros and preserve data integrity. Input data validation Data input in applications should be validated to ensure that the data is correct and appropriate. Control includes use of both automatic and manual methods of data verification and cross-checking, as appropriate and defined responsibilities and processes for responding to detected errors. Control of internal processing Validation checks should be incorporated into applications to detect the corruption of information through processing errors or deliberate acts. Control includes use of both automatic and manual methods of data verification and cross-checking, as appropriate and defined responsibilities and processes for responding to detected errors. Message integrity Requirements for ensuring authenticity and protecting message integrity in applications should be identified, and appropriate controls identified and implemented. Output data validation Data output from applications should be validated to ensure that the processing of stored information is correct and appropriate to the circumstances. Control includes use of both automatic and manual methods of data verification and cross-checking, as appropriate and defined responsibilities and processes for responding to detected errors. Cryptographic control Objective of cryptographic is to describe considerations for an encryption policy in order to protect information confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity. A cryptography policy should be defined, covering roles and responsibilities, digital signatures, non-repudiation, management of keys and digital certificates etc. Certain data, by their nature, require particular confidentiality protection. Additionally, there may be contractual or other legal penalties for failure to maintain proper confidentiality – when Social Security Numbers are involved, for example. Parties who may acquire unauthorized access to the data but who do not have access to the encryption key – the “password” that encrypted the data – cannot feasibly decipher the data. Data exist in one of three states: at rest in transit or undergoing processing. Data are particularly vulnerable to unauthorized access when in transit or at rest. Portable computers (holding data at rest) are a common target for physical theft, and data in transit over a network may be intercepted. Unauthorized access may also occur while data are being processed, but here the security system may rely on the processing application to control, and report on, such access attempts. This category aims to protect the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of information by cryptographic means. Policy on the use of cryptographic controls. Policies on the use of cryptographic controls for protection of information should be developed and implemented. Control includes Statement of general principles and management approach to the use of cryptographic controls Specifications based on a thorough risk assessment, that considers appropriate algorithm selections, key management and other core features of cryptographic implementations. Consideration of legal restrictions on technology deployments. Application, as appropriate, to data at rest and fixed-location devices, data transported by mobile/removable media and embedded in mobile devices, and data transmitted over communications links and specification of roles and responsibilities for implementation of and the monitoring of compliance with the policy key management. Key management policies and processes should be implemented to support an organization’s use of cryptographic techniques. Control includes procedures for distributing, storing, archiving and changing/updating keys recovering, revoking/destroying and dealing with compromised keys; and logging all transactions associated with keys. Security of the system files The main objective is to ensure the security of system files. Security requirements should be identified and agreed prior to the development or acquisition of information systems. Security requirements analysis and specification An analysis of the requirements for security controls should be carried out at the requirements analysis stage of each project. Control of operational software. Procedures should be implemented to control the installation of software on operational systems, to minimize the risk of interruptions in or corruption of information services. Control includes: updating performed only with appropriate management authorization; updating performed only by appropriately trained personnel; only appropriately tested and certified software deployed to operational systems; appropriate change management and configuration control processes for all stages of updating; appropriate documentation of the nature of the change and the processes used to implement it; a rollback strategy in place, including retention of prior versions as a contingency measure; and Appropriate audit logs maintained to track changes. Access to system files (both executable programs and source code) and test data should be controlled. To ensure that system files and sensitive data in testing environments are protected against unauthorized access, and that secure code management systems and processes are in place for configurations, software, and source code. Documented procedures and revision control systems should be utilized to control software implementation for both applications and operating systems. New York University described their approach in the presentation. Protection of system test data â€¢ Test data should be selected carefully and appropriately logged, protected and controlled. Access control for program source code â€¢ Access to program source code should be restricted. Control includes: appropriate physical and technical safeguards for program source libraries, documentation, designs, specifications, verification and validation plans; and maintenance and copying of these materials subject to strict change management and other controls. Security in development and support processes This category aims to maintain the security of application system software and information. Change control procedures The implementation of changes should be controlled by the use of formal change control procedures. Control includes: a formal process of documentation, specification, testing, quality control and managed implementation; a risk assessment, analysis of actual and potential impacts of changes, and specification of any security controls required; a budgetary or other financial analysis to assess adequacy of resources; formal agreement to and approval of changes by appropriate management; and appropriate notification of all affected parties prior to implementation, on the nature, timing and likely impacts of the changes; Scheduling of changes to minimize the adverse impact on business processes. Information leakage Opportunities for information leakage should be appropriately minimized or prevented. Control includes: risk assessment of the probable and possible mechanisms for information leakage, and consideration of appropriate countermeasures; regular monitoring of likely information leak mechanisms and sources; and End-user awareness and training on preventive strategies (e.g., to remove meta-data in transferred files). Application system managers should be responsible for controlling access to [development] project and support environments. Formal change control processes should be applied, including technical reviews. Packaged applications should ideally not be modified. Checks should be made for information leakage for example via covert channels and Trojans if these are a concern. A number of supervisory and monitoring controls are outlined for outsourced development. One of the security layers that can expose serious vulnerabilities is the application layer. Inventorying and securing all applications, software interfaces, or integration points that “touch” sensitive data is crucial in any organization that handles personal identity data, HIPAA, PCI, or any data that can lead to identifying confidential information. Unfortunately, this layer is subject to extensive variations and stretches across many technologies, human competencies, and organizational controls, practices, and standards. As such, it is difficult to secure and sustain, usually requiring departments to re-evaluate much of their software development, acquisition, and production control organization, staffing, and practices. Moreover, since applications are enhanced to adapt to changing business needs relatively often, even while the technology they depend on may also be changing, a consistent and “routinized” approach to maintaining their security must be adopted. Fortunately, there are many excellent resources to help organizations get started. a formal process of documentation, specification, testing, quality control and managed implementation; a risk assessment, analysis of actual and potential impacts of changes, and specification of any security controls required; a budgetary or other financial analysis to assess adequacy of resources; formal agreement to and approval of changes by appropriate management; and appropriate notification of all affected parties prior to implementation, on the nature, timing and likely impacts of the changes; scheduling of changes to minimize the adverse impact on business processes Technical vulnerablility Management Technical vulnerabilities in systems and applications should be controlled by monitoring for the announcement of relevant security vulnerabilities, and risk-assessing and applying relevant security patches promptly. To ensure that procedures are implemented to mitigate and/or patch technical vulnerabilities in systems and applications. Control of internal processing Validation checks should be incorporated into applications to detect the corruption of of information through processing errors or deliberate acts. Control includes: use of both automatic and manual methods of data verification and cross-checking, as appropriate; and defined responsibilities and processes for responding to detected errors. This category aims to reduce risks resulting from exploitation of published technical vulnerabilities. Control of technical vulnerabilities Timely information about technical vulnerabilities of information systems used by the organization should be obtained, evaluated in terms of organizational exposure and risk, and appropriate countermeasures taken. Control includes: A complete inventory of information assets sufficient to identify systems put at risk by a particular technical vulnerability; Procedures to allow timely response to identification of technical vulnerabilities that present a risk to any of the organization’s information assets, including a timeline based on the level of risk; Defined roles and responsibilities for implementation of countermeasures and other mitigation procedures. Conclusion Sadly it is not a perfect world and when breaches of security do occur, for whatever reason, it is important to contain the result by reporting the incident and responding to it as quickly as possible. To whom should an incident be reported? What information will that person need to know? What precautions should one take to limit the organization’s exposure to the security breach? It is essential that all staff know what comprises an information security incident and also a security weakness and to whom they report it. At the same time it is essential that all management know how to respond if they are on the escalation process for information security incident management reporting or escalation. It may be that there will be little or no time to organise a response to the incident, in which case the more thinking which has gone into the response procedure the better placed the organisation will be to deal with it. Documented and practices information security incident management procedures should be developed and practiced. Whilst information security incidents are not a desired outcome for any organisation, they must learn, and their staff must learn, from them to prevent them occurring again. A process of learning from such incidents by use of induction training, ongoing awareness training or other means should be undertaken and all staff, contractors and third parties should be undertaken. Remember that if the response is likely to include formal disciplinary action then the full process should be formally described and approved by the organisational management to remove the possibility of dispute after the event. If evidence is to be collected it should be done by competent staff and with due regard for rules of evidence for the jurisdiction.
Annotated Bibliography on Tacrine
Annotated Bibliography on Tacrine. Sathyan G et al (1995) studied the effect of solvents such as water, propylene glycol and ethanol and their mixtures for transdermal drug delivery on in vitro permeation of tacrine through rat and human skin. Largest flux and permeability were observed from ethanol-propylene glycol and water-ethanol binary mixtures, respectively. Excellent correlation between the rat and human skin data was observed. The formulations were found to be devoid of skin irritancy property. Ethanol-propylene glycol (1:1) mixture with a flux of 98 µg/cm2 through rat skin was found to be a promising solvent system for the transdermal delivery of Tacrine. Yanq Q et al (2001) formulated microparticles of tacrine using poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) by solvent evaporation technique. Effect of formulation variables on Encapsulation efficiency and release was studied. Results showed an increase in encapsulation efficiency by 10 times and decrease in rate of release when molecular weight of polymer was changed from 8,000to 59,000 and 155,000 The study indicated that tacrine microparticles have a strong potential for long term treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Kankkunen T et al (2002) investigated the iontophoretic delivery of Tacrine on 10 healthy adult volunteers by comparing a commercial LOGEL electrode with an ion exchange fibre formulation. Clinically significant plasma concentrations 21.3 5.9 ng/ml was achieved by commercial system whereas 14.9 2.6 ng/ml was achieved through ion exchange fibre system. The study showed that iontophoretic delivery of Tacrine is safe .Serum alanine transferase levels <50 U/l indicated that transdermal delivery resulted in reduction in hepatotoxic effect. Iontophoresis combination with ion-exchange fibers gave better controlled release and fairly constant drug levels than commercially available system. Jogani VV et al (2008) prepared and characterized mucoadhesive microemulsion of tacrine by the titration method for brain targeting for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Selective nose to brain transport was confirmed by lower Tmax values (60 min) with intranasal administration than 120 min with intravenous administration. The brain bioavailability of tacrine after giving optimized formulation was 2 times more than obtained with intranasal tacrine solution Scintigraphy study in rabbits showed more uptake of Tacrine in brain after intranasal administration. The results indicated better, quicker transport of tacrine in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice brain and rapid regain of memory loss after intranasal administration. Hence, results suggested that intranasal tacrine delivery hold promising in treating Alzheimer’s disease. Wilson B et al (2010) prepared Tacrine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles by spontaneous emulsification method. The particles were characterized for size, zeta potential, drug-loading capacity and in vitro release. Mean particle size for drug-to-polymer ratio 1:1 was found to be 41 ± 7 nm with average zeta potential of 34.7 ± 1.5 mV. The release of tacrine from nanoparticles ranged from 83.04% ± 1.41% to 94.64% ± 0.84% for 12 hours depending on the drug-to-polymer ratio. In vitro release studies showed an initial burst of 30 minutes followed by continuous and slow release of the drug. The release of drug from nanoparticles was diffusion-controlled, following Fickian mechanism. Controlled release characteristics suggested prolonged residence time which could improve the bioavailability of tacrine in the brain. Luppi B et al (2011) prepared albumin nanoparticles of Tacrine hydrochloride with beta cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin and sulphobutylether beta cyclodextrin using coacervation method and thermal cross-linking. Prepared nanoparticles were then soaked in solutions of tacrine hydrochloride and lyophilized for effective drug loading. Evaluation results showed that nanoparticles had a spherical shape with negative charge and mean size < 300 nm with polydispersity of 0.33 nm. Further the study indicated that use of beta cyclodextrins in the polymeric network could be related to drug loading and affected mucoadhesiveness and permeation behavior of drug. The study showed that delivery of Tacrine hydrochloride by nasal route has strong potential in future for the treating Alzheimer’s patients. .Dixit S et al (2013) formulated mouth dissolving tablets of Tacrine hydrochloride by direct compression using different superdisintegrants. Results indicated that mouth dissolving tablets showed acceptable hardness, friability, mechanical strength and weight uniformity. The optimized formulation disintegrated in less than 1 minute in mouth and released >98% of Tacrine within 14 minutes. The study reflected the potential of mouth dissolving tablet of Tacrine for quick absorption, improvement in bioavailability, increased patient compliance especially in patients with difficulty in swallowing. Corace G et al (2014) developed liposomes delivery of tacrine hydrochloride by nasal route using cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, a-tocopherol and/or Omega3 fatty acids by reverse phase evaporation technique followed by membrane filter extrusion. Results reflected that prepare d liposome formulations had a mean diameter varying from 175nm to 219nm with polydispersity index <0.22 and excellent encapsulation efficiency. Liposomes exhibited good mucoadhesive properties and increased tacrine permeability across phospholipid vesicle-based barrier as well as sheep nasal mucosa. Furthermore, a-tocopherol was found to enhance the neuroprotective activity and antioxidant properties of the formulation. Haughey DB et al(1994) developed a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method(RPHPLC) with fluorescence detection for the analysis of Tacrine and 1-hydroxy-, 2-hydroxy-, and 4-hydroxytacrine (metabolites of Tacrine) in human plasma. The alkalinized samples of human plasma were extracted with a mixture of 90:10%v/v of chloroform and l-propanol. Calibration curves were constructed for clinically significant concentrations(5 to 30 ng/ml) for all the analytes. The method was found to be precise and accurate. The developed method was sensitive enough for the determination of tacrine and its metabolites after Cognex (40 mg single dose) was administered orally to normal volunteers. Hansen LL et al (1998) developed and validated a method for simultaneous estimation of tacrine and its metabolites, 1-hydroxytacrine , 2-hydroxytacrine and 4-hydroxytacrine in human plasma and urine .The method involved one-step liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Determination was done by isocratic, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using fluorescence detection (excitation: 330 nm and emission: 365 nm).The developed method demonstrated simplicity , precision, accuracy and sensitivity with limit of detection as 0.5 nM for 2-hydroxytacrine and 4-hydroxytacrine, 2 nM for 1-hydroxytacrine and tacrine in plasma. Mean recovery ranged from 84 to 105% for tacrine and its metabolites in plasma. Aparico I et al (1998) developed a spectrofluorimetric method to estimate tacrine in human serum and pharmaceuticals. The fluorimetric method allowed the determination of Tacrine in the range of 1–70 ng /ml in aqueous solutions of acetic acid–sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.6) with (excitation wavelength of 242 nm and emission wavelength of 362 nm. Chollet DF et al (2000) developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method for therapeutic monitoring of Tacrine. The method was based on simple protein precipitation by acetonitrile or cold methanol followed by isocratic separation on a CN column eluted in reversed-phase mode. Developed method was found to be precise, robust, accurate and suitable which was demonstrated by analyzing more than 1,000 plasma samples from patients with Alzheimer disease . Ortuño JA et al (2007) developed a flow-injection pulse amperometric method for estimation of Tacrine on the basis of ion transfer through a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane using a four-electrode potentiostat with ohmic drop compensation. Lnear relationship between peak height and concentration of tacrine was found up to 4×10-5M .Limit of detection was found to be 1×10-7M. The method was found to be linear, reproducible, specific and repeatable. Qian S et al (2012) developed an assay for simultaneous determination of Tacrine and its metabolites in rat plasma and brain tissue. The analytes along with internal standard were extracted from plasma of rat or tissue homogenate of brain by liquid-liquid extraction with the help of ethyl acetate. The separation was done on Thermo Hypersil BDS C18 column using mobile phase of acetonitrile and ammonium formate-triethylamine (pH 4.0) with fluorescence detection. Percentage recovery varied from 82.1% to 93.2% in h rat plasmas and brain tissue. The developed method was found to be simple, sensitive and reproducible procedure for the estimation of Tacrine and its metabolites in rats after oral administration. Annotated Bibliography on Tacrine