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The Landscape Reader Exploratory Essay

The Landscape Reader Exploratory Essay. Landscape is the skill or art of organizing horizontal surfaces. It has emerged as a model for urbanization in the past few years. The architect behind this concept of urban model was James Corner. It is worth noting that this concept has greatly benefited from the intellectual and cultural revitalization. It has also become the most pertinent discipline in structural and city designs as well as planning. The basis of landscape urbanism can be drawn from postmodern critics of modernist architecture and planning. They observed that modernism could not possibly come out with meaningful and livable public realm. Hence, postmodern architectural scenographic’s approach did not tackle the structural settings of developed modernity which seems to focus much on urbanism. However some designers argue out that landscaping is not just a formal model for urbanism today. However, it is also a model used in the process of urbanization. In this case, landscape is a medium which is capable of reacting in response to temporal change, transformation and any form of adjustment. Interestingly, the first schemes to disclose the prospective for landscape to function as a model for modern process were not produced in North America but in Europe. The 1982 Competition for parc de la Villette was among the first projects. During the wake of la Villette’s influence, the architectural culture was part and parcel of landscape’s role as a practicable framework for the contemporary city. Landscape urbanism does not merely present strategies for designs. It also grants a cultural category. This acts as a lens through which designers are able to see and explain the features of a contemporary city. Some of the advantages of landscape urbanism include conflation, integration and fluid exchange between environmental and infrastructural systems. The discipline of landscape architecture observes its historical and theoretical underpinnings while the general public is concerned with environmental issues. One can argue from the implication that landscape urbanism is a remediating practice. It brings solutions for the hurts of the industrial age. This fact is evidenced through the work of many contemporary landscape architects. Another major strategy of landscape urbanism is incorporation of transportation of infrastructure into public space. It provides public parks and highways. According to West 8 Landscape Architects, one of the multiple roles of landscape urbanism deals with reordering the relationships between ecology and infrastructure. Some of the international design competitions for industrial sites in North American cities have used landscape as their key medium. Downsview Parks and Fresh Kills are critical examples. These two projects illustrate viable works of landscape urbanism. They are also remarkable for the company of landscape architects on interdisciplinary panels of consultants while the la Villette competitions named a single lead architect to oversee the whole project. These projects and the work of their competitors should be taken collectively in order to see the point of transformations that are underway. In addition, these transformations are changing the disciplinary and professional suppositions following the design of built environment. My thoughts concerning this reading are mainly on the fact that landscape urbanism is indeed an important undertaking which may not have received the much needed recognition in the field of architecture. This reading had laid down some of the most important issues concerning landscape urbanism as a medium to modern cities. In addition, it is imperative to note that it may not be advisable for architects to ignore thorough consultations from other fields. Secondly, landscape discipline needs to be combined with professionalism in order to come up with trustworthy projects that put environmental issues into consideration. Lastly, it is essential to consider new projects that can transform landscape urbanism for the benefit of the public. The Landscape Reader Exploratory Essay
In today’s work culture and dynamic environment educational institutions and organizations require students and employees to work together in groups at certain tolerant and coordinative levels, thus proving “experience of working in group or teams” (Blease, 2006 cited Kelly, and P.2007). The students are asked to work in groups as it allows students to learn interactively. Moreover the researchers report that, regardless of the subject matter; students working in small groups tend to learn more of what is taught and retain it longer than when the same content is presented in other instructional formats (Barbara Gross Davis, Tools for teaching). There are number of possible reasons why students are asked to work in small groups. Some of them are as follows: Generating a broad array of possible alternative points of view or solution to a problem Giving students a chance to work on a project that is too large or complex for an individual Allowing students with different background to bring their special knowledge, experience , or skills to a project , and to explain their orientation to others Giving students a chance to teach others Giving students a structured experience so they can practice kills applicable to professional situations There are numbers of benefits for students working in groups for short period of time or large projects such as: Students who have difficulty talking in class may speak in a small group. More students, overall, have a chance to participate in class. Talking in groups can help overcome the anonymity and passivity of a large class or a class meeting in a properly designed room. Students who expect to participate actively prepare for class. Students get prepared for their professional future. Our group was formed to complete an assignment on a case study “Merged School Business”. The assignment was to critically analyse the case study and to find out the problems in the merger and then provide recommendations on strategies and practices to management. The purpose of this report is to reflect my experience on our group assignment. In this report I will discuss my experience in relation to formation of our group, organization of work and how did we manage our group work. Group Formation This is the initial stage. This is the time when the group members and the tasks of the group will be decided. Students can form their own groups or either they can be assigned. Our case falls in first category teacher gave us some time to form our group so we selected our group members and formed a group of five. We were familiar to each other faces as we all were class mates; but at that time everyone introduce himself/herself to others. We decided to select a leader to make communication smooth and clear, than we took contact numbers from each other. We also discuss a bit about our group assignment that what needs to be done. Everyone shared their ideas on the project. Organization of Work The first challenge faced after group formation was how to organise the work to complete the task on time. At first stage we divided the task in to smaller pieces and assign these parts to each team member. Developing a time line is the best way to complete the task on time, so we decided for each task when it should be completed. Now all team members know who will do what, in what format and by when. We made our Gantt chart like this: Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 *Analyse case Background reading…….. *Identify All possible Issues *Highlight three major issues *Discuss Solutions Write Report *Finalise report Submit *Denotes task for meeting Understanding and Managing Group Processes In order to perform effectively in a group it is important to understand and manage group processes properly. Some suggestions in this regard are as under: Group work best if everyone has a chance to make strong contributions to the group project and to the discussion at meetings. At the beginning of each meeting, decide what you except to have accomplished by the end of meeting. Select someone from group to write ideas to record all meetings and group’s decisions. Allocate responsibility for group process; in order to do that a group leader can be selected. Save some time towards the end of the first meeting and periodically as the group continues; to check in with each other on how the process is working. By following the mentioned group process we proceeded with our group assignment as follows: Including Everyone and Their Ideas: We gave a chance to everyone to contribute their ideas about assignment. Our goal was to produce as many ideas as possible. We listened all the ideas carefully and then we mentioned all the ideas sheet so we don’t forget them or they don’t get lost. By using this approach we improved our group work a lot and did some creative modifications as well. Group Leadership Group leadership helps to work group more effectively, so we chosen a group leader. The group leadership helped us in number of ways such as: Group leader was responsible to monitor that the work is organized to get it done. He was also responsible for understanding and managing group interactions to keep the positive atmosphere. The leader also encouraged every one’s contributions with an eye to accomplish the work. In order to do this, he observed our group work process to check is the group moving quickly, leaving some people behind? Is it time to shift focus to another aspects of the task? He also encouraged group interactions and maintained a positive atmosphere. He also anticipated what information, material or other resources the group needs as it works. He was also responsible for beginning and ending on time. So he planed work accordingly. Focusing on Direction After we gathered a large numbers of ideas we categorize and examine them. Then we choose some ideas among all of them. Then we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. We also ask group members to vote for ideas that helped us to eliminate some of them. Moreover based on this voting we rank the ideas in priority order and then finalized them. Making a Decision After everyone’s views are heard and all the points of agreement and disagreement are identified, the group tried to arrive at an agreement that makes sense to everyone. Decisions are an important for group. So we were quiet careful in deciding. Our group made all the decisions based on all members’s input. Problems Here are some problems which we encountered during our group project: 1. Floundering: While we were figuring out the work and were trying to decide everyone’s role in the group, the group work got a bit delayed and some work got postponed. 2. Dominating or Reluctant Participants: Some of the group members were taking more share of the discussion by talking too often by telling lengthy stories and by not letting others finish. While others were speaking rarely as they were having difficulty to get in the conversation. 3. Digressions and Tangents: As some group members were telling many interesting side stories it was acting as an obstacle in group progress and we were lagging behind out timeline. 4. Getting Stuck: After giving the case background and highlighting some issues we got stuck at solutions or possible strategic solutions. This problem was moving our group progress down than expected. Recommendations/Solutions In order to improve the group project and get better results we can give some recommendations to mentioned problems such as: To avoid delays in work at initial level some sentences can really help such as: Here’s my understanding of what we are trying to accomplish. Do you all agree? What would help us move forward: data? Resource? Let’s take a few minutes to hear everyone’s suggestions about how this process might work better and what we should do next. In order to discourage dominating people humour can be used. For the people who do not speak non verbal actions such as looking at them can be used to include them in discussion. Moreover asking quiet participant about their thoughts outside the group may lead their participation within group. In order to stick with main theme of discussion, try to summarize where discussion was before digression. When a group feels that it is not making a progress they should look on the things which are preventing them from progression. Conclusion At the end of the project, what matters the most is what we have learned from our group work experiences. During the tenure of working together, situations cropped up and tested us on the scales of making the decisions and handling the pressures and exceptions. As per Belbin (1993), “Team performance is influenced by the kinds of people making up a group, and testing indicates that certain combinations of personality-types perform more successfully than others” but the key to its implementation is how the team analyzes its performance and then adapts the situation so as the result can be achieved. Team work was definitely one of the most important aspects of our project. We would have been unable to accomplish anything if we had not worked together. Even though the design process was broken up into individual pieces, we often consulted with one another when we ran into difficulties with our work. Team work was definitely one of the most important aspects of this project. We would have been unable to accomplish anything if we had not worked together. Even though the design process was broken up into individual pieces, we often consulted with one another when we ran into difficulties with our work. As a result we managed to achieve a strong outcome thus enhancing our knowledge, competencies and empowering group as a whole. References Ellen Sarkisian, Derek Bok Center., 2007. “Working in Groups” Derek Bok Center for teaching and Learning,Harvard University J. Sketchley, A. Mejia, I. Aitken et al., Work Improvement in Health Services. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1986 Moon J.(2004), A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning, London, Routledge Falmer Experience of working in groups or teams, Human Resource management,
ITEC 2070 Walden University Human Computer Interaction & Web Design Report.

I’m working on a Computer Science multi-part question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Produce the complete and finished interactive HCI encyclopedia. Recall from week one that the following parameters wereset:Provide more information upon user request.Provide hierarchical navigation. The user must be able to navigate from one page to another without using the browser’s Back button. The hierarchy should show the page the user has come from and the current page.Allow the user to return to the Main Page or use Help at any time.Present at a minimum the Main page using accessibility features.Provide an explanation, supported with sources, that supports each of the main decisions you made for the site including design patterns models, frameworks, accessibility, and ergonomics.Provide the summary of what a usability test might produce as results.The submission should include all three aspects and make each aspect complete with a heading that identifies each aspect. Please provide the GUI and the code for each of the pages of the encyclopedia. Your report should conform to APA style.
ITEC 2070 Walden University Human Computer Interaction & Web Design Report

Education in Afghanistan Before the Taliban Cause and Effect Essay

Education in Afghanistan is one of the most frequently discussed problems that require certain time and investigations. Many sources admit that the policies of the Taliban were so horrible and strict that any girl could not get a chance to study and enlarge own level of knowledge on the same level with boys. The point is that many female students just could not continue their education, because the chosen programs were too horrible and war-oriented that females did not find it helpful and necessary to visit schools. The impact of the Taliban on boys and girls’ education in Afghanistan was really great: different educative strategies and concentration on war affairs deprived girls of the opportunity to get education on the same level as boys could do it; this is why the fall of that movement led to positive changes in the sphere of education and promoted girls’ desire to study just like it was described in Seierstad’s The Bookseller of Kabul. Contrary to popular belief, the Taliban never officially banned the education for females. Girls under the ages of nine were allowed to attend school and share a classroom with boys of the same age. However, once a girl reached the age of ten, she lost the right to attend the school. The Taliban put a suspension on female education until a segregated education system could be completely organized and implemented. Abdul Hai Muthmahien, the Taliban chief spokesman, admitted that their movement was going to spend more then $ 1 million in order to build schools and provide students with the necessary equipment “Taliban are not against education” (Baker para.2), and even girls should have a chance to study. The students, who were fortunate enough to attend the schools that remained open, were taught a curriculum, centered on violence and religion. At the first grade, children, who were six years old, learned the alphabet not by animals, fruits, or joys, like it was inherent to the vast majority of schools all over the world, but by means of religious and war-like terminology: “’J’ was for Jihad, ‘M’ was for Muhjahed, and ‘T’ was for Talib” (Fassihi para.1). First graders were also taught simple arithmetic like counting bullets. The fourth grade of education turned out to be crucial for many students, because they got a chance to teach more complex math word problems. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These tasks involve the following: “If a bullet travels 800 meters per second, and the distance between a Russian and a muhjahed is 3,200 meters, then how many seconds will it take for the bullet to hit the Russian between the eyes?” (Fassihi para. 5) Each year, a student could advance to a new grade, texts, lessons, and homework became even more graphic; the seventh grade promotes students to study the “jihad manual”, the manual that was laden with instructions for bomb making, gun and weapon descriptions and diagrams, and even how-to’s for killing Islam’s enemies (Fassihi para. 6). Students were subjected to this style of learning until the Taliban fell after a five year reign. “Belqisa could even continue her education if she wanted…Now it was allowed, but she forbade herself” (Seierstad 175-181). So, a child of any sex could get education, the question is whether the child wants to get such education. In November 2001, since the fall of the Taliban, Afghanistan faced numerous troubles because of the period of reconstruction and its demands (UNESCO 137). The sphere of education underwent certain challenges and changes as well: schools all across the country held registrations for both males and females. In Jalalabad, the new minister of education, Abdul Ghani Hidayat, hoped for the turnout at registration and believed that nearly eighty percent of the city’s eligible male and females would register. Despite the lack of text books, furniture, and writing utensils and supplies, Mr. Hidayat was eager to commence the planning and implementation of a new curriculum for the children in order to present them an opportunity to enlarge their level of knowledge and have the same rights as other people on the world have (Witter para. 8). In spite of Mr. Hidayat’s enthusiasm and desire to support children and their families, it was not enough to make children return to the schools and continue education. The Taliban’s conditions were so strict and repressive that even their leaving did not help to return female students. The development of innovative computing technologies, the status of English as an international level, and other changes in curriculums require considerable work in the sphere of education (Moreno 398). Wars, which take place in Afghanistan, have serious effect on education in this country: many teachers are killed in actions, many children prefer to go for a war but not to spend time at schools, and many schools have been already destroyed. We will write a custom Essay on Education in Afghanistan Before the Taliban specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All this damage, created as a result of the war, influences education indicators considerably and increases brain drain. Teachers do not find it effective to stay in the country and train children under such terrible conditions. Those, who decide to stay and protect own native land, face such problems like lack of knowledge or experience. Some teachers do not even have any pedagogic practice, and make use of every day problems to create new tasks and train students. Lack of education leads to wrong perception of information and interpretation of numerous psychological, social, and philosophical concepts. Even if the fall of the Taliban promotes the development of the educational sphere in Afghanistan, students still face numerous problems and do not have chances to cope with them. Nowadays, education is available for any citizen of Afghanistan. It does not matter whether you are a boy or a girl. The point is that the attitude to education may be different in each family, and the head of one family cannot accept the idea that his women should spend much time alongside men (Seierstad 262), and the head of the other family is eager to help his women to study new material and be smart. In general, education for boys and girls in Afghanistan sees considerable changes before and after the reign of the Taliban. The sources prove that in fact the Taliban movement did not prevent education for girls; certain conditions may cause some restrictions, but as a whole, girls got the right to visit schools and enlarge their knowledge. Of course, war conditions deprive a lot of boys and girls of the opportunity to study, this is why numerous school reforms and additional help should be provided day by day. Maybe, this lack of education and attention to social norms and attitude to this life serve as a serious reason of the war. It is high time to think about the ways of how to educate the Afghan people and explain them how wrong and horrible their comprehension of this life can be. Works Cited Fassihi, Farnaz. “2 Bullets 2 Bullets =?: That Was Math in the Textbooks Used in Taliban-Era Schools.” Newhouse News Service. Moreno, Juan, M. “Secondary Education in Afghanistan: A Portray of Post-Conflict Education Reconstruction.” Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada 11 (2005): 381-406. Seierstad, Asne. The Bookseller of Kabul. London: Virago Press Ltd., 2004. Print. Not sure if you can write a paper on Education in Afghanistan Before the Taliban by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More UNESCO. Education for all by 2015: Will We Make It? New York: Oxford University Press US, 2008. Print. Witter, Willis. “Afghan Girls Giddy over Return to School.” The Washington Times. (21 Nov. 2001).

PSY 8350 Capella University Ethics in Forensic Evaluations Report Paper

order essay cheap PSY 8350 Capella University Ethics in Forensic Evaluations Report Paper. psychological evaluations are different from clinical psychological evaluations. The results of a forensic evaluation may or may not be immediately helpful to the evaluee, but the goal of such an evaluation is to collect and convey information about how the evaluee is functioning psychologically to a court or other agency requesting the evaluation. As such, confidentiality operates differently than in a clinical psychological evaluation, and ethical professional conduct requires that this be made clear to the evaluee.InstructionsFor this assignment, you will first invent a mock client that you will evaluate in later assignments. You will then create an informed consent form and a release of information form that you would submit to this fictional evaluee. Finally, you will analyze how these forms would function differently in a clinical (non-forensic) setting. Your assignment will include the following as a single document:Informed ConsentThis form should include (at a minimum) the purpose of the evaluation, which information will be released and to whom, which information will be included in the written report, rights of your mock evaluee during the process, and any other limitations to confidentiality.Release of InformationThis form should include (at a minimum) identifying information about your mock evaluee, where the information should be sent, what specific information about the evaluated person will be obtained or released, how the release of information may be revoked, and how long the release of information is valid.Differences Between These Documents in Forensic and Non-Forensic SettingsIn this third section, you should describe how these forms would differ if you were practicing in a non-forensic (for example, a clinical) setting.Note: Both the informed consent form and the release of information form should adhere to the American Psychological Association’s Code of Conduct and the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists (linked in Resources).ObjectivesYour assignment should fulfill the following objectives:Create an informed consent form that adheres to the American Psychological Association’s Code of Conduct and the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists.Create a release of information form that adheres to the American Psychological Association’s Code of Conduct and the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists.Distinguish how the informed consent and release of information forms would function differently in a non-forensic (such as a clinical) setting.Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of the psychological professions.Additional RequirementsIn addition to the above objectives, your assignment should meet the following requirements:Written communications are free of errors that detract from the overall message.Formatting: current edition APA style and format.Length of informed consent form: 1 page.Length of release of information form: 1 page.Length of third section: 1–2 pages.Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 points.
PSY 8350 Capella University Ethics in Forensic Evaluations Report Paper

Utilitarian and Retributivist theories of punishment Essay

Table of Contents Theories of punishment Utilitarian theory of punishment Retributivist theory of punishment Merits of Utilitarian Theory Merits of retributivist theory Utilitarian versus Retributivist Effectiveness of the Approaches References The aim of the philosophy of punishment is to understand the reason behind administration of punishment and the procedure used in determining the suitable punishment. Punishment refers to authoritative deprivation of people’s freedoms and rights or inflicting pain to an individual or group of people because of engaging in activities against the laws of the society or some group of people. Punishments are administered informally within the society for instance within a family set up or formally through the system of justice in the country. The main aim of punishing wrong doers is to correct them so that they do not go back to the same crime. Punishments are also administered to prevent the victim from influencing other innocent citizens and shy off some who may be intending to commit the same crime (Corlett, 2006). Theories of punishment Governments apply several theories to support the use of punishment so that the society maintains law and order. A society without punishment would be disorderly because the rate of crimes will be very high. Crimes like rape, theft, kidnapping, robbery, murder among others would be on increase. This would end the society into a dangerous state. Punishments are used as control measures to people’s behaviors. Involvement in crimes is minimized by punishments because people are aware of the strict measures to be taken against them. Utilitarian and retributivist are the two major theories used in support of punishments (Corlett, 2006). Utilitarian theory of punishment This theory is based on the assumption that offenders are punished to prevent and discourage them from engaging in crimes in future. According to this theory, maximization of laws contributes to society’s happiness. Law enforcement minimizes crimes and punishments and therefore people lead happy and comfortable lives. The proponents of the theory agree that a society free of crimes does not exist but try as much as possible to punish offenders to deter them from committing crimes in future (Murphy, 2007). Murphy (2007) argues that utilitarian theory is naturally consequential. This means that the effects of punishment are felt by individual offenders as well as the larger society. They therefore believe that the benefits of the punishments should outweigh the disadvantages it has to both parties. The theory requires that laws are specifically designed to prevent individual criminals from future destructive activities as well as effects on other members in the society. There are two basic levels of deterrence, general and specific levels of deterrence. General deterrence means that punishment administered to a criminal prevents other people from committing crimes. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The punishment is meant to help others understand that criminal behavior is punishable and therefore the person serves as an example to other people. Specific or individual deterrence means that the punishment is meant to prevent its bearer from committing further crimes. One way of punishing offenders is confining them in a jail where they are under exposure of unfavorable conditions. The experiences in jail discourage them from repeating the crime. Another argument put forward by utilitarians is that punishment changes the moral values of the offender. Punishments make wrong doers realize their mistakes and change for the better so that similar mistakes are not repeated again. In addition, they believe that punishment involves isolation of the offender from the rest of the society members. Society members are now secure because the person cannot cause any more harm to them. For instance when criminals are confined in jails, their movements is closely monitored within the institution. They also believe that punishments should both be administered to offenders and innocent people if the society is to benefit from the act (Murphy, 2007). According to Murphy (2007), rehabilitation measures are useful methods of instilling punishment to offenders. Offenders are taken to rehabilitation centers under the control of law where necessary steps are taken to help them out of criminal activities. Treatments of pain like chronic violent behavior and mental disorders are some of the applicable rehabilitation measures taken on criminals. Educational programs are also offered in rehabilitation centers which equip them with knowledge and skills in various courses. This enables them to earn a living. Retributivist theory of punishment The theory puts its major emphasis on the crime.Its proponents believe that criminals deserve punishments because they committed certain crimes. The reason for being punished is because they deserve it. People should be responsible for their deeds and actions and therefore should bear the consequences of such actions. Proponents argue the guilty and not innocent should be subjected to punishment. The theory is based on violation of laws (transgression) as the reason for administering punishment (Murphy, 2007). We will write a custom Essay on Utilitarian and Retributivist theories of punishment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Retributivist theorists argue that people have free will and can make rational decisions. The thinking capacity of normal human beings is high and it makes it possible for people to differentiate between the right and wrong. They should make sound decisions before acting. If an act affects other people negatively, it should be avoided. People with mental disorders like madness should not be subjected to punishments because they may not be aware of their actions (Murphy, 2007). According to this theory, punishment is a form of revenge. Punishment is meant to let offenders suffer like they caused suffering to other people. The theory is based on the same principle applied in the Christian Bible during the Old Testament. The bible encourages revenge by using phrases such as “tooth for tooth”, “fracture for fracture” and “eye for eye”. The bible in the Old Testament encourages peoples to cause as much pain as they caused them. In addition, the theorists argue that individual and societies legitimate rights are protected in effect with the punishment. Through the punishment, the offender pays the debt to the society after which the offender joins the community back without any guilty. It’s a kind of respect to the offender because other society members do not discriminate against them. According to this theory, the main determinant of the punishment is the level of crime. Judging how much one is to be punished is the problem (Murphy, 2007). Merits of Utilitarian Theory Murphy (2007) argues that utilitarian theory of punishment has several advantages. For example, it helps in changing the morals of the person. Immoral people change to responsible citizens after they have been subjected to punishment. Offenders realize that what they are doing is not accepted by the society and adopt acceptable values. The standard in which societies maintain law and order is high because the effects of punishment will be felt by the whole society. Society members try as much as possible to avoid engaging in crimes which may lead to them being punished. In many cases, offenders are triggered by a particular issue to engage in crimes like theft. Rehabilitation centers are of great help to such people because they come out of the centers with knowledge and skills which they can depend on to earning a living. Incarceration acts as a way of preventing further crimes in the society by isolating criminals. Sufferings caused by criminals are reduced too minimum. Harsh and severe punishments in jail help in molding criminals into useful citizens. Not sure if you can write a paper on Utilitarian and Retributivist theories of punishment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Merits of retributivist theory The theory discourages people from engaging in crimes because they will be held accountable for their actions. Offenders receive back what they do to other people. The punishment that an individual receives is equivalent to the crime committed. Application of the theory enhances justices because there is no way in which all crimes will be judged equally. There are those crimes which cause severe and long lasting suffering to the victim like rape. Individuals convicted with such crimes should receive a different judging from that of another person who stole minor items if justice is to be maintained. The theory encourages fair judgment. Unlike Utilitarian, the theory does not allow innocent people to suffer for actions they did not participate in or things may not be aware of. If the laws of a society allow innocent people to suffer on the basis that the results will be overall gain to the society, this is fair (Yadav, 1993) Yadav (1993) states that mentally unfit persons should not be subjected to punishments. Such people commit crimes out of their knowledge and should not be held responsible for them. In some cases, they also engage in activities which endanger their own lives. Instead of punishing them, they should be taken to rehabilitation centers where necessary treatments are administered. Finally, proponents of this theory believe that people are punished because they went against the laid down instructions. After, the punishment, the offender is welcomed back to the society. Utilitarian versus Retributivist It is difficult to determine which of the two theories is superior because they are all based on strong arguments. The aim of the utilitarian theory is to prevent the offender from committing crimes in future while retributivists strongly believe that offenders must pay back to the community their bad deeds. These are all valuable arguments. It is difficult for societies to perfectly follow the theories but they act as general guidelines to them (Yadav, 1993). According to me, utilitarian theory of punishment is superior to retributivist theory. This is because some of its arguments are subject to criticism. For instance, it is difficult to estimate appropriate punishments for crimes. How will a judge determine the punishment for rape and murder cases which are equally serious crimes? Secondly, there is a likelihood of offenders getting used to punishments because they are sure they will be absorbed back to the society comfortably after completing their punishment. Some criminals may change it into habit. Some people may pretend to be mentally unfit in order to evade the punishment. Out of ignorance, some people may get involved in crimes. Finally, making criminals suffer like they did to other people is not solution to the problem. They will continue engaging in crimes (Zaibert, 2006). Effectiveness of the Approaches Both approaches are not effective because the kinds of punishments imposed on criminals in the modern world do not effectively rehabilitate criminals. For instance, criminals who are fined do not feel the pinch of what they do to other people. Such forms prevent crime for some period of time. If criminals are to change, they should be exposed to financial, emotional and physical suffering. Although it is difficult for a society free of crime to exist, societies should have laid down instruction to help them in maintaining law and order (Zaibert, 2006). References Corlett, A. (2006). Responsibility and punishment. New York, NY: Springer. Murphy, C. (2007). Philosophy of law: the fundamentals. New York, NY: Blackwell Pub. Yadav, D. (1993). Law of crime and self-defence. New York, NY: Mittal Publications. Zaibert, L. (2006). Punishment and retribution. London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Weber State University Wk 12 Health Promotion and Health Maintenance Discussion

Weber State University Wk 12 Health Promotion and Health Maintenance Discussion.

4100 Week 12 Discussion Questions (DQ) -Unit D – GeneticsDiscussion Concepts: GeneticsUnit Outcomes:Discuss the role of genetic concepts in health promotion and health maintenance.Examine and implement evidence-based nursing interventions for managing the care of chronically ill patients who suffer from genetic disorders.Analyze the significance of recent advances in human genetics and the effect on healthcare delivery.Discussion Description/Directions:The purpose of this discussion is to further your understanding of the role of genetics and the influence epigenetics play upon chronically ill individuals.A. Each student within the group must choose a different question to answer. Your answer will be supported with references to demonstrate your understanding of the topic. Your posting should be at least 3-4 paragraphs in order to demonstrate your brief expertise of the topic.B. Include one peer-reviewed reference to support your information.****Describe what epigenetics is and how was it discovered. Why is the discovery of epigenetics an important finding? Choose one of the chronic health conditions such as obesity, hypertension or diabetes and determine how epigenetics play a role in acquiring these conditions. What interventions can be implemented to provide the best possible outcomes for these chronic health conditions?
Weber State University Wk 12 Health Promotion and Health Maintenance Discussion

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