The purpose of this assignment is to go beyond the usual social network(s) and realm of understanding in order to build a bridge of understanding about another person from his/her perception about his/her own life experiences in the workplace and or helping professions.Interview two adults: one adult of a different ethnicity/race than yourself and one adult who is at least 10 years older and/or younger than you. You must choose one person from each category, not the same person. Ask him/her the following questions and document the answers for each interview.Document if the person you interviewed is male or female.What is your ethnicity/race or age? (Make sure the person is ok with sharing his/her age.)What is your level of education?What is your occupation?Have you ever experienced discrimination in the workplace? How did you feel? How did you react? Please explain what happened.During your lifetime, what significant current event have you experienced? (e.g., 911)How has this significant event shaped your experiences with others?After you have the aforementioned interview questions answered, please provide the following regarding your findings:Compare and/or contrast the experiences of the person you interviewed to your own. Provide one example. Write an explanation at least two paragraphs in length for each interview. Be sure to address the following questions, along with any additional information your wish to include and/or share:What conclusions can you draw from the commonalities?How could some of these situations be mediated or resolved (e.g., by the person experiencing the discrimination, by institutions employing those who are discriminating others or dealing with clients/customers who are discriminating against employees).Please be sure to inform the people you are interviewing in informed his or her responses will be kept confidential and anonymous and thank him or her for the time spent interviewing with you.Writing Requirements (APA format)Length: 3-4 pages (not including title page or references page)1-inch marginsDouble spaced12-point Times New Roman fontTitle pageReferences page (as needed)Interview Grading Rubric – 150 ptsInterview Grading Rubric – 150 ptsCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLength5.0 ptsMeets length requirement0.0 ptsDoes not meet length requirement5.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeInterview Details30.0 ptsThe interview responses reflect a thorough interaction with the interviewee that delves into experiences of and reactions to discrimination.15.0 ptsThe interview responses are missing many details that suggest a more thorough interaction with the interviewee could have revealed more reflection and analysis regarding experiences of and reactions to discrimination0.0 ptsNo effort30.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeComparison25.0 ptsThe findings show depth of critical thought with a detailed comparison of experiences.21.25 ptsThe findings show critical thought that compares experiences but may lack some detail that could better support the points.18.75 ptsThe findings compare some aspects of experiences but some gaps in comparison exist.15.0 ptsThe comparison of experiences is shallow or unclear.0.0 ptsNo effort25.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis25.0 ptsThe analysis shows depth of critical thought by proposing ways to deal with barriers to communication effectively and by thoroughly examining the value of diversity.21.25 ptsThe analysis considers ways to deal with barriers to communication and examines the value of diversity but may lack details for a thorough analysis.18.75 ptsThe analysis needs more depth to explore communication barriers and the value of diversity as a consideration for a more inclusive and functional professional environment.15.0 ptsThe writing lacks critical thought. The analysis does not consider the barriers to communication or the value of diversity suggesting an insufficient understanding of the environment necessary in the profession setting.0.0 ptsNo effort25.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOrganization30.0 ptsPaper is clear and cohesive. Introduction and conclusion support the overall flow of the paper.25.25 ptsPaper is basically clear and well-organized with a minimum of non-related material present.22.5 ptsPaper has some issues with clarity, flow, and cohesion. Paper lacks organization.18.0 ptsPaper lacks organization and has difficulty staying on track. Central themes are difficult to identify.0.0 ptsNo effort30.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting: Mechanics & Usage15.0 ptsThe writing is free of major errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation that would detract from a clear reading of the paper.12.75 ptsThe writing contains a few major errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation, but the errors do not detract from a clear reading of the text.11.25 ptsThe writing contains some major errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation that need to be addressed for a clearer reading of the paper.9.0 ptsThe writing contains several major errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation that impede a clear reading of the paper.0.0 ptsNo effort15.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeClarity & Flow10.0 ptsThe writing contains strong word choice that clarifies ideas and masterful sentence variety aids with the flow of ideas.8.5 ptsThe writing contains varied word choice and sentence structures that clarify ideas and aid with the flow of ideas.7.5 ptsThe writing contains word choice and sentence structures that can be revised for better clarification of ideas and flow of ideas.6.0 ptsThe writing contains wording and sentence structures that are awkward and/or unclear, impeding the clarity and flow of ideas.0.0 ptsNo effort10.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA Format10.0 ptsIf used, all sources are properly integrated and cited in the text and references page demonstrating a mastery of integrating resources and APA format. Paper is properly formatted in APA style, including title page, running headers, page numbers, double-spacing, and Times New Roman 12-point font with no errors.8.5 ptsIf used, most sources are integrated and cited in the text and references page. Some minor errors may exist in integration and/or citation, but it does not interfere with understanding the source of the information. Paper is properly formatted in APA style, including title page, running headers, page numbers, double-spacing, and Times New Roman 12-point font with no major errors but possible some minor errors.7.5 ptsIf used, most sources are integrated and cited in the text and references page. Some errors may exist in integration and/or citation that need to be addressed to clarify the source of information. Paper is formatted in APA style, including title page, running headers, page numbers, double-spacing, and Times New Roman 12-point font with some major errors.6.0 ptsIf used, sources are not properly integrated/cited in the text/references page. Formatting contains several errors that suggest a lack of understanding of the integration of resources and APA format. Paper is not properly formatted in APA style and/or contains several major errors.0.0 ptsNo effort10.0 ptsTotal Points: 150.0PreviousNext
Discrimination in The Workplace Case Discussion
Locate the Lands’ End Case 7-1 on page 455 of your text. Be sure to submit thoughtful and substantial answers to the questions following each case.
Locate the Lands’ End Case 7-1 on page 455 of your text. Be sure to submit thoughtful and substantial answers to the questions following each case..
Unit 5 Assignment: Lands’ End Case 7-1
In this Assignment, you will be assessed based on the following outcome:
MT482-3: Analyze cash flow measures for insight into all business activities.
In this Assignment, you will clearly see the connection between cash flow and the actual operation of
a business. You will better understand the impact of cash management and develop the skills to
understand its importance.
Locate the Lands’ End Case 7-1 on page 455 of your text. Be sure to submit thoughtful and
substantial answers to the questions following each case.
This is a challenging activity. You should prepare to spend substantial time working on your
Directions for Submitting Your Assignment
Compose your Assignment in a Microsoft Word document and save it as Username- MT482
Assignment-Unit 5.docx (Example: TAllen- MT482 Assignment Unit 5.docx). Submit your file
by selecting the Unit 5 Assignment Dropbox by the end of the unit.
Unit 5 Assignment: Lands’ End Case 7-1 Points
Content, Analysis, and Effective Writing Skills
Year that Lands’ End strategy was implemented and summary for
how the strategy is reflected in the information that is contained in
the statement of cash flows.
Explanation for how the four items listed below reconcile net
income to net cash flows from operating activities:
Reserve for returns, and calculates free cash flows for each year
Calculation of free cash flows for each year. 10
Analysis of how Lands’ End uses its free cash flow statement and
whether this reflects good financial strategy.
Sentences are clear, concise, and direct; tone is appropriate.
Grammatical skills are strong with almost no errors per page. 9
Total Points 45
Locate the Lands’ End Case 7-1 on page 455 of your text. Be sure to submit thoughtful and substantial answers to the questions following each case.
Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction And Loyalty Business Essay
write my term paper Customer loyalty is an emotional rather than a rational thing. It is typically based on customer interest in maintaining a relationship with one organization. Often, customer interest is created and maintained through one or more positive experiences which lead to a relationship. Relationship is built on trust the most important thing to remember about trust is that without it, one have no relationship. This applies to all human situations, not just the customer service environment, for customers to continue long business with one and ones organization, trust has to be earned, and it does not happen overnight. Only through continued positive efforts on the part of everyone in organization can anyone demonstrate to customers that one can be worthy of their trust and thereby positively affect customer retention. Through actions and deeds, one must deliver quality products, services, and information that satisfy the needs of one’s customers. Even when one wins trust, it is very fragile. And inappropriate one, a missed appointment, failure to follow through on a promise, a lie, of misleading statements to a customer are just some of the ways one can destroy trust quickly. (Robert W. Lucas, 2005, p.318) Customer satisfaction In general, satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing product’s perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. If the performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied, if the performance matches the expectations, the customer is satisfied, if the performance exceeds expectations, and the customer is highly satisfied or delighted. Relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty The link between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is not proportional suppose customer satisfaction is rated on a scale from one to five, at a very low level of customer satisfaction (level one), customers are likely to abandon the company and even bad mouth it. At levels two to four, customers are fairly satisfied but still find it easy to switch when a better offer comes along, at level five, the customer is very likely to repurchase and even spread good work of mouth about the company. High satisfaction or delight creates an emotional bond with the brand of company, not just a rational preference. For example, Xerox’s senor management found out that its completely satisfied customers are six times more likely to repurchase Xerox products over the following 18 months than its very satisfied customers. (Philip Kotler, Keven Lane Keller, 2003 p.60) Up to Level four there is a chance of customer to leave the brand but from level five customer satisfactions is proportional to the customer loyalty The disloyalty at current rates would stunt the corporate performance by 25 to 50 percent, and sometimes even more, by contrast, the business enterprises that concentrate on finding and retaining good customers, productive employees and supportive investors still continue to generate superior results the loyalty factor remains one of the day elements in the success of a business enterprise. In fact, the principles of loyalty and business strategy. Loyalty Effect In simple terms, loyalty is best defined as a state of mind, a set of attitude, beliefs, and desires. Most of the companies benefit from the customer’s loyal behavior, which is an end-result of the positive state of mind shown by the business enterprises in serving their customers. To make customer loyal to the product company should focus on some significant things. Consumers can be divided into steps of a ladder. More marketing effort should be given for the people on the top step of the ladder. These kinds of peoples are who are more likely to spend huge money for the product. (Shahjahan, 2004, p.125) Profitability of the Loyal Customer Several reasons could be pointed out to show why the loyal customers repurchase a high proportion of their needs from the same source are much more profitable. Lower costs of service The loyal customers are easier and cheaper to service. Since they are familiar with the products and services, because they would not have as many questions are less likely to make mistakes, and would have adjusted their behaviour to simplify their relations with the supplier. Increased purchases: The loyal customer tend to buy more as the time progresses, either because they learn about part of the product line of they give a higher proportion of their spending to the favoured source. Less price Sensitivity: They tend to become fewer prices sensitive and may pay a premium. Al the relationship strengthens over time, they are less susceptible to the competitors appeal, and since they are satisfied by what they are receiving from the enterprise, they are prepared to pay more. Favorable word of mouth: Finally, the loyal buyers are more likely to pass on favourable recommendations to others who also tend to be higher quality prospects. This helps in reducing the high costs of new customer acquisition. Sustainable Advantages: Another reason for the rising interest in the market relationship is the durability factor involved in a committed relationship. In fact the proper chemistry of positive relationship is hard to understand copy or displace, this is a persuasive argument, in cases where the product-based advantages are short-lived and new competitors are posing challenges on all sides. Furthermore, with network technologies that could enable the addressability, interactivity and demand chain coordination, business firms are currently better equipped with both the motive and means for moving closer to their customers. (Shahjahan, 2004, p.126) Degree of Loyalty The degree of customer loyalty varies among three levels (Shahjahan, 2004) Overview of Nestlé company Nestlé is the world’s largest food and beverage company, founded and headed puartered in vevey, Switzerland. It employs in excess of 250,000 has almost 500 factories situated in around 90 countries and its products are on sale everywhere. It has contract with many co-manufactures, some of whom wouk exclusively for Nestlé. In recent years, Nestlé has focused on becoming a nutrition, health and wellness company through its existing brands and knew acquisitions. The Nestlé brand portfolio covers practically all food and beverage categories, milk and dairy products, nutrition (infant, healthcare, perfomadnce and weigaht management), ice cream, breakfast cereals, coffee and beverage, culinary products (prepare dishes, cooking aids, sauces, etc.) chocolate, confectionery, pet care, and bottled water. Many brands have category leadership, both globally and in local markets. The best known global brands include Nescafe, Nesta Maggi,Buitoni Purina, and, of course Nestlé itself. In 2007, Nestlé’s revenues exceeded 107 billion Swiss France (about 100 billion USD at prevailing exchange rates) Nestlé is run as a decentralized group of companies which foster and rely on organizational learning within the Group. Headquarters provides leadership, guidance, and consultancy to the regional and local organizations. Central competence units identify opportunities within market and Business and assist local management in improving business performance. Supply chain management Organization Corporate operation- Supply Chain is one of the corporate functional units hosted at Headquarters and is responsible for Global Supply Chain Strategy Governance Best Practices Compliance Market Assistance and Guidance, and Reporting Standards and Guidance, and Reporting Standards and Guidance (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=L8nLFFt5G1MC
Role of Internal Communications to Increase Employee Engagement at a Time of Organisational Change
Management Proposal Introduction This management proposal aims to analyse the role of using internal communications to increase employee engagement at a time of organisational change and put forward recommendations to Wolseley UK. Wolseley UK is a FTSE 100 organisation with approximately nine thousand employees who aim to be the world’s leading supplier of plumbing and heating products to the trade. Wolseley UK is currently going through a transformation programme. A big part of this programme is restructuring the business, closing and consolidating branches and relocating the head office. Throughout the transformation programme employee engagement has dropped, and employee morale is very low. This is partly due to the lack of communication between senior managers and those on the front line. This has had an impact on sales and customer service, and the NPS score has significantly dropped. Although the two-year transformation programme was due to end in July 2018, due to the fall in sales, employee engagement and customer satisfaction, the programme was put on hold, and the new MD is looking at how best to restart the programme whilst attempting to increase sales, employee engagement and customer satisfaction. The aim is to go back to basics, fix the health and safety issues, fix the services issues, use these to grow sales and then focus on growing margin and trading profit. Definitions Internal communication is defined as “the strategic management of interactions and relationships between stakeholders within organisations across a number of interrelated dimensions including, internal line manager communication, internal team peer communication, internal project communication and internal corporate communication”[i]. Employee engagement has many definitions but for this report employee engagement is defined as “a positive attitude held by the employee towards the organisation and its values”[ii] The Engage for Success reports states that employee engagement enables an adult, two-way relationship between leaders and managers, and employees, where challenges can be met, and goals achieved, whether it be improved patient care, higher quality production or more satisfied customers. [iii] Change management is defined as the leadership of the process of organisational transformation, especially about overcoming resistance to change[iv]. Employee voice Employee voice is described as a process of continuous dialogue between employees and managers, whereby employees are given regular opportunities to express views, concerns, ideas and practical suggestions about the organisation to all levels of management in an environment where such communication is genuinely welcomed, taken seriously, considered and honest responses provided[v]. Importance of internal communications during a time of organisational change Internal communication at a time of organisational change is often blamed when a large-scale project/programme fails. It is suggested that if internal communication can be a contributor to change failure, it can also play a vital role in delivering successful change programmes [vi]. Importance of employee engagement during a time of organisational change Employers want engaged employees because, as well as being happier, healthier and more fulfilled, they are more motivated and deliver improved business performance. Positive relationships are evidenced by profit, revenue growth, customer satisfaction, productivity, innovation, staff retention, efficiency and health and safety performance. Conversely, having a disengaged workforce brings huge risks. As well as losses in performance, employers may lose talented people if they feel demotivated ordisengaged. They may also face greater difficulties when embedding organisational change if employees are not on board, so wider alignment with strategy and engagement with the organisation is also important[vii]. Evaluation of the role of internal communications to increase employee engagement at a time of organisational change at Wolseley UK. Transformation programme In October 2016 after two years of a decrease in trading profits, it was decided that Wolseley UK needed to embark on a two-year transformation programme. As a part of this programme, Wolseley UK would receive £100 million from their parent group Ferguson, and Wolseley UK would then raise another £100 million by exiting out stock (£80 million) and then an additional £20 million by exiting leases in property. On September 27 2016, an announcement was made to the city: John Martin, Wolseley’s chief executive, said the company would redeploy some staff elsewhere, although he did not rule out further job losses while the firm’s restructuring programme is completed. “This process is going to take two to three years to get to a conclusion, and the purpose is to build the best service available for our customers in the marketplace,” he said. “We need to exit these [branches] now and it will take a long time to exit.” The closure of 80 branches and one distribution centre is expected to save up to £30m a year, and Wolseley estimated that the restructuring will cost around £100m, of which £70m is cash funded by working capital efficiencies and proceeds from disposals. “We’ve made the decision to close those branches because… we believe we can service those areas with less real estate,” Mr Martin added. As part of the changes, Wolseley’s Pipe Center, Drain Center and Plumb Center brands will be run as a single network, and it will look to achieve quicker deliveries with changes to its systems. The firm is also overhauling its Nordics business, although it is yet to announce the outcome of the review. Wolseley’s UK trading profit was £74m for the year to July 31, down £16m from the previous 12 months. It attributed the loss to a decline in its core repair, maintenance and improvement markets. Total pre-tax profits jumped 43pc from £508m to £727m, following healthy growth in Ferguson, its US business. The American arm generates more than 80pc of the company’s trading profit, compared to 8pc in the UK. “Residential and commercial markets, which make up three-quarters of that 80pc, have continued to grow very well so we’re very pleased with that,” Mr Martin said. Wolseley’s revenue rose by 8pc to £14.4bn while the company increased its dividend by 10.2pc to 100p a share. “We have experienced general weakness in the UK market, although the headwinds we’re experiencing will go away in the future and there remains a decent outlook.” Mr Martin said that the company would continue to target acquisitions, having spent £300m buying other businesses during the year. “Ferguson continues to be the main priority for organic expansion and bolt-on acquisitions,” he said. Wolseley’s shares tumbled 3.49pc to £41.45 in morning trade[viii]. Although the announcement had some positive comments, the overall impact on the UK was huge. In the opinion of the staff involved, this was handled very badly. The announcement was released to the City at 7.30am, and the first any employees were made aware via a conference at 8.30am, by which time they had all read the information available on the intranet and on BBC news. This was the first error that caused a lot of turmoil with employees, the feeling was that the senior executive team did not trust employees to give them the information in advance, or even earlier in the morning. Radical programmes such as the one announced by Wolseley UK can lead to turmoil [ix]. With research backing up the way in which the employees were feeling, it makes you think whether the senior executive had completed any research on transformational change before initiating the change. A point to note is that the new Head of Communication started three days prior to the change being communicated, therefore they cannot be held accountable for the errors that took place. They were not in the role long enough for them to effect any change to the way in which the initial communications were handled. It is also worth noting that all the internal and external communications were outsourced to a communication agency (due to not having a Head of Communication in post), who did not know enough about the organisation or the employees. This clearly came through in the communications that were sent out, and the way in which the timings were handled. The issues only got worse, with employees being promised regular communication and this not being delivered. A pulse survey (employee engagement survey) was carried out in May 2016 with the next one due in November 2016, but to date this has not been carried out. The reason for not completing the survey in November was that the survey costs too much, and due to cost saving activities it was not practical. However, the employees felt that this was because the senior management team did not want to hear the truth about the way in which they felt. Employees felt that they had been cheated out of the opportunity of giving the senior executive team anonymous views of how they felt. The employees felt as though they had no voice and had no place to express views, concerns and ideas[x]. The results from May 2016 show that employee engagement was already on the decrease, and issues were present from then. Verbatim comments from the May 2016 survey: “We are not valued” “It’s us against management” “There is a lack of direction on where we are going” “We need more staff in branches” Thus, cancelling the employee engagement survey for future months continued to have a negative impact on employees. The programme has not only impacted employees but also customers. The £80 million of stock which needs to be exited from the business has meant that the availability of stock has decreased, and a new range has been rolled out into branches. This has led to customers not having access to products as they did previously. This means that they often must wait for the product to arrive into branch the next day for them to then collect, where previously this would have been available. This impact on customers has been demonstrated by a decrease in the Net Promoter Score (NPS) for Wolseley UK. Prior to the transformation the NPS score was on an upward trajectory, however since the lack of products in branches and issues with the number of staff in branches, the NPS has decreased to levels below that are unacceptable (figure 1). Figure 1: Chart showing the NPS score for Wolseley UK from May 2016 – August 2018. The chart shows a clear path of the NPS score for Wolseley UK showing a downward trajectory, with no scope of recovering until something is done about the change programme. Although this could have nothing to do with internal communication, Wolseley UK can provide internal communication to employees in branches so that they can provide customers with updates on any issues that they are facing with the levels/availability of stock. Informed customers may not react so badly and will probably forgive the branches for the lack of stock availability. Wolseley UK did not give any tools to employees to help the inform customers of the changes to Wolseley UK. All of this has impacted sales, which are also on a decrease, with profits falling (figure 2) Figure 2: Trading profits at Wolseley UK. The transformation programme was supposed to increase the trading profit of the company however from what has been announced to the City and to employees this is not the case. The decrease in sales can be attributed to low employee engagement. As previously mentioned the CIPD have suggested low employee engagement can lead to a decrease in sales, this rings true for Wolseley UK and is clearly shown in figures 1 and 2. Communication challenges faced by Wolseley UK There are number of features of change projects that can create a challenging environment for communicators of change, table 1 breaks these down and aligns them to the challenges faced by Wolseley UK. Challenge Wolseley UK Starting at the right time It is clear from the way that the timing of the communication was handled, that Wolseley UK picked the wrong time to inform staff. Employees should have been informed prior to the news being made available to the press which in turn got the rumour mill going within head office and the branches. Having the right resources and practices in place It appears that Wolseley UK were in some type of rush to make the announcement to the city about the changes it was proposing to its business. However, if they had waited for the new Head of Communications to be embedded into the business, to familiarise themselves with the organisation, the communication may have been handled better. But in fact, the communication team were not up to daily fitness[xi]. Coping without a firm implementation plan With the messaging being so finite, closure of a distribution centre, loss of 800 jobs, there was no room for the communication team to communicate a range of possibilities. They had to go with the information that had been communicated to the press, but without the ability to provide any more information. There was a plan of where the 800 jobs were being lost from, but this was not shared. When it was shared, it was shared in small chunks, which led to further rumours, and with employees not having the full facts. Taking different staff groups through the change journey Taking different staff groups through the change journey was one of the biggest challenges faced by the communication team. There were those employees who were not impacted by the change that would need to be kept informed, and then there were those employees who were heavily impacted by the change. These employees needed the right amount of information at the right time, with regular updates. This was not provided by Wolseley UK, communication was not delivered when it was agreed, and this caused a lot of angry employees, along with a lot of rumours. Getting the communication content right The content of the communication that was shared with employees was one of the things that Wolseley UK got correct. It was concise, to the point and relevant for the audience group. Table 1: What are the challenges of communicating change adapted from Harrison 2015. Communication Channels When communicating the change to employees, Wolseley UK used four distinct channels: Emails Conference calls Face to face meetings UK Press Emails The emails sent out by the communication team were impersonal quite vague, and a repeat of the message already sent to the UK press. Employees were not give any more information nor were they given a timeline of when they can expect more information. Conference calls Senior Managers held conference calls with the direct reports, due to the disparity of the business, in which they were provided a script. Unfortunately, the script was the same as the email that the employees had already received (and the messaging in the UK Press) so once again the information provided was very vague, and employees were not given the option to ask any questions. Face to face meetings The employees at head office were given the opportunity to attend a face to face meeting with the MD. Employees assumed that they would be given more information, however this was incorrect. Once again all employees were treated to was the same messaging they had heard throughout the day already, UK press Employees felt that they had come second to the UK press as the press were the first to know about the changes, with employees finding out after the fact. This caused a lot of anger and frustration, which was the last thing the senior management team needed. Recommendations The evidence in this document supports the need for Wolseley UK to manage change communication better to ensure that employees are engaged throughout the change programme. Create regular meetings and touchpoints to discuss points and reinforce collaborative behaviour Set up an employee forum Restart the employee engagement survey Develop managers to give them the tools to communicate change in an engaging way Develop senior leaders’ communication capabilities Review the internal communications that have been used in recent years, gathering data on what colleagues find most useful in the way of updating them on company information Advise senior leaders not to make promises that they cannot adhere to – i.e. communicate when they have said they would Review of Proposal for Change Overview of secondary research Research Philosophy Mixed methods research is defined as being a methodology by which research is carried out using qualitative and quantitative data in a single study[xii]. Mixed methods research offers a potentially valuable alternative for researchers interested in undertaking multi-dimensional research[xiii]. As with all research philosophies, mixed methods research has its strengths as well as weaknesses. One of the biggest strengths of this type of research is that it allows researchers to explore different themes and aspects of a single research project. The biggest criticism of mixed methods research is that due to the multidimensional levels that can be explored the research can be very time consuming and complex. In this project, the researcher has used primary and secondary data sources. The primary research consisted of an employee engagement survey and provided quantitative data, the secondary research consisted of literature-based research provided qualitative data. Epistemological and Ontological Stance Epistemology is defined as being the theory of knowledge, with regard to its methods, validity and scope, and the distinction between justified belief and opinion[xiv]. Epistemology can also be described as a path to how we come to know what distinguishes what is true from false and how researchers understand the conditions under which such distinction is possible and meaningful[xv]. Ontology is described as a method by which the world can be organised[xvi]. Ontology is also described as what constitutes reality and how researchers can understand existence[xvii]. The researcher collected both qualitative and quantitative data; therefore, the researcher has taken a pragmatic approach to data collection. Pragmatism is presented as an alternative methodological position for both positivism and anti-positivism[xviii]. It is argued that through an epistemology where human purposes are highlighted, it can better incorporate practical relevance into organisational research[xix]. It is posited that the central tenet of pragmatism is the idea that knowledge is not about representing the world but coping with it[xx]. In light of Watson’s argument, the researcher analysed the quantitative data to provide scientific evidence but also used the qualitative literature to substantiate what the evidence stated. Questionnaires Researchers from many disciplines are starting to see the benefits of collecting data using the Internet[xxi]. Questionnaires have few open questions, have easy to follow designs, and can be shorter than interviews and so can reduce respondent fatigue. Questionnaires are cheap and quick to administer, have the absence of the researcher having influence over the respondent, thus reducing bias[xxii]. The limitations of using questionnaires are that there is no room to ask probing questions, should something interesting be revealed, there is a risk of missing data and often the questionnaires are not appropriate for all types of respondents[xxiii]. Secondary Research Literature-based research is defined as being a scientific tool which is used to communicate the results of unmanageable quantities. Literature-based research uses an inductive approach as it enables the analysis of relevant theoretical perspectives to analyse data and support the findings from interviews and questionnaires. It is helpful to break down the process of conducting a review of the literature into several stages and to examine each one in turn (table 2). Table 2: The Systematic Literature Review Process [xxiv] This research used a prescribed deductive method to critically evaluate the theoretical perspectives found in literature and applies them practically to the project, whilst at the same time highlighting the literature’s strengths and limitations. To eliminate irrelevant sources the researcher used the prescribed method to provide structure, and a process. The literature review for the project consisted of the analysis of academic research, on change management importance of communication at a time of change and employee engagement, which were gathered by searching databases of Emerald Insights, Science Direct and by browsing the Internet using Google Scholar. The limitations of using a prescribed systematic review method include (but are not restricted to): Failure to evaluate the quality of studies Failure to exclude poorly designed studies An inadequate search of the literature[xxv] Validity and Reliability of Research Methods Reliability is defined as the degree of stability exhibited when a measurement is repeated under identical conditions. The validity of a research method is determined by how well the research method concludes what it set out to conclude.[xxvi] The reliability and validity of the primary research were measured by obtaining employee engagement survey results from the HR department because engagement surveys are quite emotive, it is not always possible to replicate the results. Using peer-reviewed journals found from Google Scholar and the PR Academy library ensured the reliability and validity of the secondary research. Mitigating Strategies The issues and challenges that the project might have encountered due to the pragmatist approach are listed as follows: Making bias conclusions as the researcher is also impacted by the change Amount of literature available for change management importance of communication at a time of change and employee engagement in the construction/merchant industry To mitigate these risks, the employee engagement survey results were obtained from the HR department. To refrain from making biased conclusions the researcher used the data presented to summarise the project. To mitigate the risk of the amount of literature being available which is relevant to the industry, the researcher has tried to use research, which is for large organisations rather than small organisations to ensure the research is relevant. Frameworks and models To improve employee engagement at a time of change at Wolseley UK recommendations were made based on the following frameworks or models. Conceptual Model The conceptual model (figure 3) illustrate the impact of communication on employee engagement at an organisational level. The model positions aspects of leadership communication from senior managers in relation to employee engagement[xxvii]. This model clearly describes what is needed at Wolseley UK to increase employee engagement. The lack of communication, or the lack of communication when promised has caused employee engagement to drop dramatically at Wolseley UK. The idea that the staff feel its “them against us” shows that there is a lack of commitment. Commitment is often associated and affected by leadership communication. Figure 3: the employee engagement concept and internal corporate communication: conceptual model The model depicts innovation, competitiveness and organisational effectiveness as organisational outcomes of employee engagement promoted by effective internal corporate communicationxx. Work and Organisational Engagement Table 3 describes the difference between work and organisational engagement. Table 2: Work and organisational engagement Engagement can also be defined as being positively present during the performance of work by willingly contributing intellectual effort. This definition does not have connections to the organisation, a broad set of drivers were identified: Meaningfulness of work – created through regular communication Voice – feeding your views upward Senior management communication and vision Supportive work environment Person-job fit Line management style[xxviii] Of these drivers they state that meaningfulness and voice are the most important factors. Both factors were forgotten at Wolseley UK. There was lack of regular communication and the engagement surveys were cancelled, which meant that employees could not feed their views upwards. Having a voice is important for employees to feel engaged. So, for Wolseley UK to scrap the survey caused even more damaged to the engagement of employees. Communication Themes At a time of change employees expect a certain amount of communication, and without this they struggle to complete the journey of the change with the senior management team. Table 4 shows a number of these alongside the researchers who suggested them. Studies have been conducted whereby these themes where tested with a group of individuals who understand change management. It was found that the individuals agreed that communication is required based on these themes, when taking employees through a period of change. This supports the recommendations made that Wolseley UK need to provide more regular senior management communication to keep employees informed during a period of change. Table 4: Communication themes[xxix] Ethical considerations The ethics of internal communication are rarely discussed in literature and codes of ethical considerations or practices specific to internal communication is very limited. An ethical internal communicator: Ensures that employees receive important organisational information at the right time for them Ensures that employees have a say about what goes on in the organisation and that what is said is treated seriously Ensures that senior managers communicate regularly with employees, providing them with important organisational information, listening to their opinions and suggestions and responding to them Challenges senior managers when important information is not forthcoming Challenges senior managers when employee voice is not in place across the organisation[xxx] In terms of the research, the researcher took into consideration the following ethical implications: ensured that the quality of the research is not compromised by using valid sources ensured to reference all material/literature accurately to ensure the integrity of the project is not compromised This gives the research a solid foundation to be taken seriously. With the help of the recommendations made in the management proposal, Wolseley UK should be able to improve employee engagement by providing regular internal communication during a period of change. The improvement in employee engagement and provision of an employee voice will increase sales and hopefully increase customer NPS. [i] Welch, M. and Jackson,P.R. (2007) Rethinking internal communication: A stakeholder approach. Corporate Communications: An International Journal.12(2), 177-198 [ii] Robinson, D., Perryman, S. and Hayday, S. (2004) The Drivers of Employee Engagement Report 408, Institute for Employment Studies, UK. [iii] MacLeod, D. and Clarke. N. (2009) Engaging for success: enhancing performance through employee engagement. A report to Government, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, www.bis.gov.uk [iv] Fincham, R. and Rhodes, P. (2005) Principles of Organizational Behaviour, 4th Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press [v] Ruck, K. and contributors (2015) Exploring Internal Communication Towards Informed Employee Voice (3rd Ed.), Routledge: Surrey [vi] Harrison, P. (2015) Communicating Change. In: Ruck, K. Exploring Internal Communication Towards Informed Employee voice. 3rd Ed. Surrey: Gower Publishing Limited, pp/ 57-63 [vii] CIPD (2017) Employee Engagement and Motivation, https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/relations/engagement/factsheet [viii] Criddle, C. and Curry, R. (2016) Wolseley to cut 800 jobs and shut 80 branches in the UK https://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2016/09/27/wolseley-to-cut-800-jobs-and-shut-80-branches-in-the-uk/ [ix] Newell, S., Robertson, M. and Swan, J. (2001), “Management fads and fashions”, Organization, Vol. 8, pp. 5-15 [x] Ruck, K. and contributors (2015) Exploring Internal Communication Towards Informed Employee Voice (3rd Ed.), Routledge: Surrey [xi] Harrison, P., in Ruck, K. and contributors (2015) Exploring Internal Communication Towards Informed Employee Voice (3rd Ed.), Routledge: Surrey [xii] Creswell, J.W. (2003) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approach. Sage: California [xiii] Daymon, C. and Holloway, I. (2011) Qualitative Research Methods in Public Relations and Marketing Communications, Routledtge: Abingdon [xiv] Oxford Dictionary (2018) Reliability https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/epistemology [xv] Sieber, R. and Haklay, M. (2015) The Epistemology of volunteered geographic information: A critique http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/geo2.10/full [xvi] Turk, Z. (2006) Construction Informatics: Definition and Ontology. Advanced Engineering Informatics http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474034605000911 [xvii] Raddon, A. (2015) Early Stage Research Training: Epistemology and Ontology in Social Science Research https://www2.le.ac.uk/colleges/ssah/documents/research-training-presentations/EpistFeb10.pdf [xviii] Powell, T. (2001) Competitive Advantage: Logical and philosophical considerations. Strategic Management Journal. 22, 875 – 888 [xix] Wicks, A. and Freeman, R. (1998) Organisation studies and the new pragamatism: Positivism, anti-positivism and the search for ethics. Organisation Science. 9, 123-140 [xx] Watson, T.J. (2009) Work and the social imagination. The Need for Continuity and Change in the Study of Continuity and Change. British Sociological Association. 43(5) 861-877 [xxi] Schyler, T. and Forrest. J. (2000) Methods for the design and administration of web-based surveys. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 7, 416-425 [xxii] Bryman, A. (2012) Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press [xxiii] Bryman, A. (2012) Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press [xxiv] Boaz, A., Solesbury, W. and Sullivan, F. (2004) The practice of research reviewing 1. An assessment of 28 review reports. London: ESRC UK Centre for EBPP [xxv] Univeristy of Georgia (2015) 9.1: Introduction Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses http://ebp.uga.edu/courses/chapter 9 – meta-analysis of%treatment2 – [xxvi] Oxford Dictionary (2018) Reliability https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/reliability [xxvii] Welch, M 2012 Appropriateness and acceptability: Employee perspectives of internal communication Public Relations Review 38(2) 246-254 [xxviii] Ruck, K. and contributors (2015) Exploring Internal Communication Towards Informed Employee Voice (3rd Ed.), Routledge: Surrey p. 39 [xxix] Harrison, P., in Ruck, K. and contributors (2015) Exploring Internal Communication Towards Informed Employee Voice (3rd Ed.), Routledge: Surrey p. 63 [xxx] Ruck, K. and contributors (2015) Exploring Internal Communication Towards Informed Employee Voice (3rd Ed.), Routledge: Surrey p. 89
Capital punishment is morally wrong
Among some of the most controversial issues of our lives today, no question pops up as frequently as the question of the ethics concerning the Death Penalty. Capital punishment according to the website legal-explanations.com is “the death sentence awarded for capital offences like crimes involving planned murder, multiple murders, repeated crimes, rape and murder etc where in the criminal provisions consider such persons as a gross danger to the existence of the society and provide death punishment.” With its origins in Latin ‘capitalis’ meaning ‘regarding the head’, a capital crime was originally punished by severing of the head. The first death penalty laws were established as far back as the Eighteenth Century B.C. in the Code of King Hammurabi of Babylon, which codified the death penalty for 25 different crimes. It was also a part of the 14th century B.C.’s Hittie Code; in the Seventh Century B.C.’s Draconian Code of Athens, which made death the only punishment for all crimes; and in the Fifth Century B.C.’s Roman law of the Twelve Tablets. Death Sentences were carried out by such means as crucifixion, drowning, beating to death, burning alive, and impalement. (Deathpenaltyinfo.org Part I: History of the Death Penalty) There are many arguments both for and against the application of the death penalty. Many people in favor of the death penalty would argue that it serves as a strong deterrent to potential recipients of such a punishment and therefore helps maintain a safer society. While numerous such arguments exist on both sides, I will be discussing why the death penalty is morally, ethically and fundamentally wrong, and try to present counter-arguments to claims made by the advocates of the death penalty. One problem with the death penalty is that it is simply uncivilized. Most of Western Europe no longer retains the death penalty. On top of that, when Turkey recently made an application for admission to the European Union, the Union’s committee made a recommendation against it, citing that “Turkey retains the barbaric practice of capital punishment.“American countries like Mexico and Canada have abandoned the death penalty. The parliament of Europe also passed a resolution ugring the United States to abandon the death penatly. A magazine, now in international circulation says, “Throughout Europe in particular, the death penalty is thought of as simply uncivilized. “That its practice is said to be problematic for a leading nation. German Justice minister Herta Daeubler-Gmelin has argued, “The Americans do not hesitate, proud as they are of their democratic tradition, to reproach other countries over human rights violations.“I think that great cost is desensitizing us to death and to using violence as an instrument for civilized society. Another one of the biggest ethical problems associated with the use of capital punishment is its irreversibility. Death penalty, unlike conventional punishments is absolutely final. When a person, innocent of his charges is awarded the death penalty and after he/she is executed, there is no going back if advances in medical/forensic technology provide solid evidence in favor of the condemned’s innocence. The court or the executioner cannot give back a life, so why should they be able to take it? The researchers Radelet and Bedau (1992) affirm that, “no less than twenty-three people have been executed who did not commit the crime they were accused of” (Focus on the Death Penalty, 2001). The execution of an innocent is not a problem existing solely in the United States; it taints almost every region in the world which still use capital punishment. A death penalty advocate would argue that once a condemned person is deprived of his or her life, he or she is also stripped of the ability to harm or detriment the society further. If a person is deemed to pose threat to society, life in prison also guarantees no future crimes; and in some cases, is even more psychologically effective than the death penalty. Human beings are social creatures and the level of sensory and social deprivation experienced by some prison inmates is often enough to break them and their purpose to commit future crimes. Many would argue that life in prison would cost the tax-payer more than if the death penalty was carried out. Why should the tax-payer waste valuable resources in prolonging the life of an individual if he or she harbors naught but unfavorable wishes against him? Little do they know that in fact, executions cost almost four times as much! An average lifer would cost somewhere around $500,000 to the government (antideathpenalty.org/reasons) while an execution can cost as much as $ 2 million! Most of this money however is not diverted to the actual process of the execution itself; instead it takes the form of free counseling for defense, for appeals, maximum security on a separate death row wing. (antideathpenalty.org/reasons) The application of the death penalty can often have a completely reverse effect among potential lawbreakers-it creates martyrs. Criminals are usually associated with a negative connotation in society. Most people are repulsed by the unconscionable, vile act they commit and are tremendously sympathetic for the victims of heinous crimes such as rape, murder etc. However, sometimes the death penalty can shift popular sympathy aside from the victims of the crime and to the criminals themselves. The 2005 execution of former gang leader “Tookie” Williams, said to have founded the notorious gang of the ‘crips‘, which has an extensive history of assault, robbery and murder (http://www.tookie.com/abtook.html). This man was convicted with overwhelming evidence of the murder of four persons, some of whom he shot and mocked obscenely. A remorseless man, never one to apologize to the victims of afflicted families was, after being executed, idolized and sympathized by the public with events such as Candlelight vigils, websites like savetookie.org, protests and a media circus ensued trying to prevent the execution– which took place 26 years after the crimes were committed(Balancedpolitics.org, sec. 12). This is just one of many cases, which make a mockery of the evil crimes, such degenerates commit. Is there really a need for the Death Penalty in the human society? Like the silver lining on the dark cloud, one can see, in an otherwise hopelessly misguided system, there exist, other viable alternatives. The sheer number of less controversial, more reasonable and efficient methods of dealing with atrocious crimes in our society question the very place and existence of the death penalty. Could it be as a means of channeling our collective hatred, confusion and anger; a central point for the darker side of humanity, which originates from the rigorous conditions of our lives? The victims of these barbaric actions are often made scapegoats for our social troubles; it is they, who are blamed, even if the fault is inherent in our social policies and practices. George Orwell, in his book nineteen eighty four, needed but a single Goldstein to sustain his tyrannicism; while some of the modern governments need millions. Given the overwhelming amount of arguments against death penalty, one can easily see that there is little purpose to it other than vengeance. Yet, looking at the number of nations still applying this barbaric and archaic form of punishment, it is hard not to see that our society has sunk to a level so low, that vengeance is acceptable to most. The State copies every disgusting quality of the heinous act of murder; a murder is often committed in anger and is therefore penalized with an execution carried out in resentment; a premeditated murder committed with satisfaction and pleasure is met with a likewise execution. The final result is the same and the feeling with which it is carried out is the same. There are several qualities of the death penalty which even go beyond the moral repugnance of a criminal act of murder. What then is the difference between a murder and an execution? Is it really possible for one form of murder to be correct while another be wrong? Would the same deed, if carried out by two different persons, be at one time abhorrent and barbaric while the other righteous and divine? Most importantly, how can a morally wrongful deed promote the righteousness, let alone the comfortable survival, of the human society? Mutually assured punishment is simply not the solution. This outdated and barbaric eye-for-an-eye form of justice is a savage and eventually senseless way of going about the problem of societal crime. Why is law-objective and completely free from religious pressures based on such antiquated and savage principles of a God that is more malevolent than divine? Attempting to defeat violence with violence would merely catalyze the proliferation of circumstances, the subsistence of which we claim we are trying to terminate, within our actions and inside our minds. Have thoughtless practices such as these aided humanity in any way by solving any of its problems? What of serenity? Does this have to involve the loss of human life? If only humanity made a collective effort in finding out if we can end the problem instead of delving in delusions of believing that murder is the route to salvation. Such a route to peace does not necessarily have to be paved with blood and that peace bought with the price of murder is naught but an illusion peace, beneath which lies the silence of death. Works Cited Amnesty International. Singapore-The Death Penalty: A hidden toll of executions. January 2004. 18 November 2009 . Cauthan, Kenneth. Capital Punishment. 27 April 2004. 16 December 2008 . Department of Justice. Capital Punishment Statistics. 5 June 1988. 5 12 2008 . McCuen, A B Barbery. Does DNA Technology Warrant a Death Penalty Moratorium. May 2000. Patterson, Aaron. Amnesty.org. November 1998. 18 November 2009 Sorensen et.al “Capital punishment and deterrence: Examining the effect of executions on murder in Texas. ”Crime and Deliquency 1999: 481-493. Sheppard, Joanna. Capital Punishment and Deterrence of Crime. April 2004. 19 November 2009 US .