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The Islam Concept Research Paper

Introduction Islam is among the major religions with many followers around the world. The number of Muslim adherents is about 1.2 billion across the globe. The founder of Islam is Muhammad. He was born in 570. Majority of Muslims attest that Allah (God) gave him the authority as a portent of timely news to mankind. His early influence through teachings made many people in Mecca admires Islam and its practices thus, contributing to its growth and expansion. Islam has continued to hold the traditional practices anchored in the Quran (Islam holy book) and those created by their founders. Significant rituals of Islam include; the sacred time, the five pillars among other rituals and ceremonies which are normally performed in Mosques (Islam place of worship). The rituals and ceremonies have continued to define their faith to date. Also, Islam has continued to increase their faith through their religion beliefs. Beliefs such as the sacred narratives, human nature and ultimate reality and divine being form the basis of Muslim faith. Islam’s assume that most people mistake Jihad as a “holy war”. However, for them, Jihad appoints constant struggles that one is involved in protecting his/her faith and privileges of worship. According to Maqsood, Muslims describes Jihad has having a strong connection in the Quran (85). Thus, it is a network of checks and balances that Allah left them with “to check one people with another. Hence, when a person or a group violates their limits or rights of others, Muslims have the right and duty to control them, so they can adapt to what is right. According to Maqsood Islam does not tolerate unprovoked aggressions from their companion Muslims (77). They are commanded in the Quran not to create hostilities, violet the welfare and rights of other people, associate in acts of aggressions and harm the innocent. Moreover, even destroying or hurting trees or animals is forbidden. However, war is only a last resort waged to defend the Islam faith against oppression and harassment (Maqsood 94). Islam’s classifies Jihad into three distinct groups. These groups are physical, verbal and personal Jihad. Muslims invoke physical Jihad when they are protecting themselves against exploitation and oppression from their perceived enemies and Allah. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They affirm that Allah allows Muslims to embrace peaceful lives and not to offend against anyone. However, when they are oppressed and persecuted, the Quran affirm that they need to migrate to tolerant and peaceful land. On some occasions, when the migration or relocation is not possible, then Allah allows Muslims to protect themselves against themselves by against those who fight them. Verbal Jihad allows Muslims to aim for justice through words rather than threatening activities. Muslims believe that Mohammed encouraged them to ask for justice by pleading the name of Allah. During his life in Makkah (Mecca), he embraced non-violent methods. However, after fixing his leadership in Medinah, by Allah permission, he used armed struggle against his transgressors whenever he thought it was unavoidable”. Muslims believe personal Jihad is the most fundamental form embraced by them. This form of Jihad is called the Jihadun-Nafs. It shows the profound campaign that one is involved in purifying his/her spirit against evil influences. According to Syed Muslims describes different contexts in which the Quran and the Hadith (the sayings of Mohammed) use the word Jihad to refer to personal struggles (124),. Some of the explanation put forward is making Allah a priority rather than wealth, worldly ambitions, loved ones and our own lives (Syed 45).Others include, striving for righteous deeds, spreading the message of Islam and resisting pressures from the society, peers and parents. Islam is believed to have begun in the 7th century C.E when Mohammed received and preached the message of Islam to the people of Arabia. Islam was an Arabic word which means “submission, acceptance, obligation or surrender” (Farah 191). A follower of Islam is called Muslims, literary, those who make peace. Muslims are those people who submit to the will of Allah in all aspects of their lives and enjoy peace with Allah and one another in return (Robinson
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Imagine a situation where you have just been diagnosed with an illness requiring surgery. You have only two options: either to conduct a traditional surgery with large incisions, or laparoscopy which uses small incisions but is only available for simple procedures. However, you now have a viable option to conduct a minimally invasive surgery, many thanks to the advancement of surgical technology. Minimally invasive surgery is a concept existed prior to the inception of robots, referring to surgical procedures that are conducted by avoiding long cuts as surgeons introduce long-handled medical instruments to operate on body tissues via small incisions. The Da Vinci surgical system, also known as a telesurgical system, is currently the pioneer device in the robotic field made by Intuitive Surgical, Inc. A telesurgical system requires the surgeon to maneuver the robot during the procedure instead of allowing it to function from an encoded software. This surgical system is named such as a tribute to Leonardo Da Vinci, whom broke new ground in anatomical accuracy and the epitome of the era of Renaissance. He was highly regarded for his ability to bring life to his architectural drawings of futuristic automations. This particular device is meticulously designed to aid in complex surgery such as cardiac valve repair, prostatectomies and gynecologic surgical procedures by a minimal approach of 1-2cm incisions. Such ultimate breakthrough opens a new platform, beneficiating patients, surgeons, hospitals and the medicine field as a whole. Imagine major surgery performed with minimal incisions on the patient’s body. Imagine a faster treatment, better recovery rate and minimal duration spent in the hospital as well as better clinical outcomes. This is all made possible with the inception of Da Vinci surgical system. Da Vinci reforms surgery. It gives a whole new concept to surgery, omitting the painstaking experiences that patients had to face before its invention. In this proposal, we will be introduced to this bizarre medical equipment that is capable of improving the surgical field, in terms of its history, features, unprecedented benefits, criticisms, the future as well as recommendation of the latest Da Vinci surgical system. History Robot assisted surgical procedure first hit its limelight in 1985 when the PUMA 560 robotic surgical arm was used in a neurosurgical biopsy which is non-laparoscopic. The successful surgery posed greater precision which ultimately lead to the first laparoscopic procedure involving a robotic system, a cholescystecotomy, in 1987. It is then in the following year, the same PUMA system performed a transurethral resection. Consequently in 1990, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved its first robotic surgical system, AESOP system, the brainchild of Computer Motion for its endoscopic surgical procedure. The Da Vinci surgery system became known in 2000 for being the first system approved by the FDA for general laparoscopic surgery. This approval became groundbreaking as the Da Vinci system is all-encompassing of surgical instruments and necessary equipments for surgery. It has been approved in urological surgeries, general laparoscopic surgeries, general non-cardiovascular thoracosopic surgeries and thoracoscopically assisted cardiotomy procedures, applicable to both adults and pediatric procedures. Da Vinci surgical system is a proud creation of Intuitive Surgery, Inc. This company is the global pioneer in robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Initially, the US Army funded Intuitive Surgical to develop a system to perform battlefield surgery. However, they realized the potential of such technology to accelerate the application of a minimally invasive surgery. Intuitive Surgical was then established in 1995 to further develop this technology to a wider range of procedures. The Da Vinci surgical system was launched in January 1999 and it became the first robotic surgical system to gain approval by the FDA for general laparoscopic surgery. Subsequently, the FDA cleared this device for chest surgery, cardiac procedures, urologic and gynecologic procedures. Headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, Intuitive Surgical expanded its force by acquiring its principal competitor, Computer Motion, reinforcing its world monopoly in robotic-assisted surgical systems. It sustains growth excessively by 25% and has successfully expanded to more than 900 academic and community hospital sites. As of today, more than a thousand Da Vinci Systems are installed in hospitals worldwide. Problem Statement In tandem with the advent in science and technology, the field of robotic surgery is mushrooming. Robotic surgery is defined as the use of robot to assist in surgery procedures. The need for robotic surgery is subsequently demanded in the medicine field to overcome problems arise from surgery with traditional approach. Two decades ago, surgeons began developing a concept known as Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) in which microscopic cameras called endoscopes or laparoscopes were slotted into the patient’s body through small ports. However, MIS stumbled upon major roadblocks to advancement as surgeons were operating through standard two-dimensional monitor that lacked visualization while fixed-wrist instruments and poor ergonomic design limited the surgeon’s dexterity. Consequently, MIS was deemed suitable for narrow range of surgical procedures. To counter this problem while maintaining the concept of MIS, robot-assisted surgery was then make-believe. With the inception of Da Vinci surgical system, the medical and surgical fields have revolutionized wherein surgeons and patients both benefit from it. Da Vinci Surgical System – Mechanism Surgeon’s Console This is where the surgeon is seated in a comfortable manner while scrutinizing the body’s interior at a magnified 3D image through highly powered objective lenses. The system’s three-dimensional and high resolution view screen enables the surgeon to observe the incision area in clarity. By manipulating the master controls located beneath the display screen, the surgeon’s hands and wrists are positioned perpendicularly to his or her eyes. The master controls consist of a pair of foot pedals and hand controllers each. The surgery can then be performed as Da Vinci translates the surgeon’s open-surgery hand movements from the master control, which acts like forceps, into a much precise movements of miniaturized instruments at the patient-side cart. The following illustrates a surgeon’s console from the Da Vinci surgical system. Patient-side Cart The patient-side cart includes three or four interactive robotic arms that function to execute the surgeon’s commands from the surgeon’s console. Two or three of the arms are designated to hold medical instruments such as scalpel, scissors and other dissecting materials; while the remaining arm is an endoscopic camera, equipped with a pair of lens, also known as the EndoWrist, provides a stereoscopic vision on the display screen. The laparoscopic arms shaft at the 1-2cm operating ports, omitting the need for using tissue of the incision walls in the patient for leverage, thereby minimizing tissue damage. Such miniaturized operating arms proven a significant advancement from earlier inventions such as the PUMA 560. Apart from that, assisting medical officers will facilitate in incorporating the right instruments for surgery, provide the 1-2cm port in the patient’s body and supervise the situation to eradicate errors as the tools are being utilized. EndoWrist Instruments Patented by Intuitive Surgical, the EndoWrist Instruments are another exclusive feature of the Da Vinci System that allows surgeons to operate with dexterity over a maximum range of motion. Designed after the structure of a human wrist, this device can expand beyond the capabilities of a human hand by providing a plethora of surgical techniques. Internal cables of the EndoWrist Instruments mimic the human tendons, providing specific surgical mission such as clamping, accurate suturing, dissection and tissue manipulation. This state-of-the-art device has extraordinary features, such as 7 degrees of freedom motion, 90 degrees of articulation, intuitive motion, fingertip control, motion scaling and tremor reduction. All these contribute to a smooth running surgery as surgeons operate with ambidexterity and unparalleled precision. This device is also available in a broad range of selection according to the requirement of a particular surgery. The product line includes various forceps, needle drivers, scissors, monopolar and bipolar electrocautery instruments, scalpels; all available in 5 mm and 8 mm diameters to heed a surgeon’s need. This instrument is also user-friendly in terms of recognizing different types and functions of instruments incorporated to the Da Vinci system. It detects the instruments via a unique interface; therefore it is easier to identify instruments that require replacements. Vision System EndoWrist Instruments are first introduced into the patient’s target anatomy through a series of dime-sized incisions to allow viewing of the body’s interior at a highly magnified three-dimensional image. These images are displayed via the vision system, designated with high-resolution three-dimensional endoscope and image processing equipments, previewing the exact condition of the body. By having image synchronizers, illuminators with adjustable intensities and camera control units, the operating images are well-enhanced, offering superior visualization of over a thousand frames of the instrument position per second. The vision system also has a built-in video processor that filters background noise. Meanwhile, the endoscope is designated prevent fogging by regulating the temperature of the endoscope tip. Surgeons are allowed to rapidly switch views on the display screen through a simple use of the foot pedal. How The Mechanism Function As A Whole In short, the Da Vinci system consists of four main mechanisms–surgeon’s console, patient-side cart, EndoWrist instruments and the vision system. These features function as a whole in the same room under the conduct of a surgeon and few supporting medical officers. The relationship between the four mechanisms is illustrated as shown in the adjacent figure. Advantages Enhanced Visualization Target anatomy in the body interior is previewed in true-to-life three-dimensional vision, forming crisp images in immense clarity. The endoscopic camera also offers immersive view of the surgical field with superior contrast and magnification for an accurate identification of tissue layers. Such improvement enables surgeons to perform dissection or reconstruction of delicate tissues with much precision, regardless of the space allotted. Steady Movements; Take Control. The limitation of human hands is overcome by Da Vinci’s ability to reduce tremors and control movements via proprietary EndoWrist instruments, enhancing control and intuitive motion. This enables pervasive use of avant-garde techniques, further reducing the learning curve since complex procedures can now be handled in an open surgery approach. Solo Surgery and two-handed intracoporeal suturing can become standard practice for interns with the addition of a fourth arm from the Da Vinci surgical system. First-Class Ergonomics Surgeon need not worry about the fatigue occurring from long hour surgery as the Da Vinci surgical system is designed to allow them to operate while seated in a comfortable posture. Such clinical advantage also implies that less surgeon assistance is required because medical instruments are mounted to the robotic arms. Moreover, with the robotic arms offering extra mechanical strength that is beyond human capabilities, higher-BMI patients can be treated in a minimally invasive approach. Supreme Hospitality Inception of Da Vinci marks a historical breakthrough to hospitals worldwide by increasing productivity and operational efficiencies. Patients can enjoy diminished post-operative pain, decreased risk of infections and surgery complications, less complicated nursing care and faster rate of recovery. Hospital stays are largely reduced by half, thus decreasing hospital costs by approximately 33%. Criticism Like many things good, Da Vinci surgical system also has its drawbacks. While this evolving technology has become almost like a necessity to medical services, critics are questioning the lacking of long-term results studies to prove Da Vinci superior to laparoscopic surgery. Besides, this technology costs an average of $1.3 million, excluding the several hundred thousand dollars of annual maintenance fees. There is also no existing data to justify the increased costs and hospitals are having a hard time recovering the high cost. According to The American Journal of Surgery, 75% of surgeons claimed that they felt financially limited by any system that cost more than $500,000 Furthermore, a large portion of surgeons performed the surgery via Da Vinci surgical system on approximately 12 to 18 patients before they feel comfortable utilizing the device. Though training programs are offered by Intuitive Surgical, most surgeons find themselves intimidated by this device as they felt obstructed from grasping the texture of body tissues and ultimately, the loss of tactile or haptic sensation. The patient-side cart also occupies a large space that hinders the movement of assistant surgeon’s access to the patient. The safety aspects of Da Vinci surgical system remain doubtful to most people as they still do not trust the ability of a robot wholly. Though this system operates in a Master-Slave relationship, some still find it unacceptable to risk lives of patients as robots have the potential to be fatal should they malfunction. Hence, a huge amount of cost is forked out to reduce these risks by adding safety features, making them financially inaccessible to some physicians. Apart from that, surgery utilizing this device takes forty to fifty minutes longer compared to traditional open surgery. Recommendation Conclusion – The Future The Da Vinci surgical system offers a surgery experience like never before to practicing physicians. Its brilliance in translating the surgeon’s hand movements from the console into corresponding micro-movements of EndoWrist instruments incorporated in the patient’s body interior has transformed the surgical fields in many aspects. A major outlook for this invention is its potential to perform remote operations, as what it was initially designed for. This long distance operation can be made possible by linking the patient and doctor through a series of ports from the Da Vinci surgical system. Say, a doctor from United States will be able to operate on a patient from across the globe, such as Africa. However this is still at its theoretical stage and will be developed in near future to globalize the surgical field. Albeit the criticisms, the Da Vinci surgical system is deemed as a mere preview of what to expect from future technology. From the high cost to the lack of touch sensation from surgeons’ feedback, the current Da Vinci surgical system has many hurdles to overcome before it can be wholly integrated into the healthcare system to satisfy everyone’s needs. To name a few, questions such as misconduct liability, credentialing, training prerequisites and licensing requirements for telesurgeons are still puzzling. However, Intuitive Surgical promises an improvement of Da Vinci surgical system in terms of size, haptic sensation and cost as their present focus before dealing with other relevant problems that are causing ambiguity to users. Although robotic surgery is still at its infancy, many of its known advantages are sustaining its progress and it has verified itself to be worth the value, particularly in areas unattainable to traditional laparoscopic procedures. For instance, the complexity of movement controls and manifold degrees of freedom by the Da Vinci surgical system offers minimal tremor and increased mobility which made it possible to go ahead of the human capacity. Robotic technology is aimed to bring surgery into the digital era and whether its advantageous usage can overcome the cost to execute it remains to be worked out. Despite being feasible to demands, further forthcoming research investigating efficacy and safety must partake for robotic surgery to take full root over conventional therapy. Appendix On the Market Two robotic surgical systems have received FDA clearance to be marketed in the United States: The da Vinci Surgical System, made by Intuitive Surgical, Inc. of Sunnyvale, Calif., is cleared to perform surgery under the direction of a surgeon. The ZEUS Robotic Surgical System, made by Computer Motion, Inc. of Goleta, Calif., has been cleared by the FDA to assist surgeons. “[The] da Vinci is cleared to assist in advanced surgical techniques such as cutting and suturing [sewing],” says Neil Ogden, chief of the FDA’s General Surgery Devices Branch in the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. “ZEUS is cleared to assist in grasping, holding, and moving things out of the way, but isn’t cleared for cutting or suturing.” Clinical trials on ZEUS are underway with the goal of obtaining FDA clearance to assist in the performance of advanced surgical tasks in the United States, according to Paul Nolan, senior director of customer training and education at Computer Motion. Here’s a profile of each system: The da Vinci Surgical System In July 2000, the FDA cleared da Vinci as an endoscopic instrument control system for use in laparo-scopic (abdominal) surgical procedures such as removal of the gallbladder and surgery for severe heartburn. In March 2001, the FDA cleared da Vinci for use in general non-cardiac thoracoscopic (inside the chest) surgical procedures – surgeries involving the lungs, esophagus, and the internal thoracic artery. This is also known as the internal mammary artery, a blood vessel inside the chest cavity. In coronary bypass surgery, surgeons detach the internal mammary artery and reroute it to a coronary artery. In June 2001, the FDA cleared da Vinci for use during laparascopic removal of the prostate (radical prostatectomy). The da Vinci is intended to assist in the control of several endoscopic instruments, including rigid endoscopes, blunt and sharp dissectors, scissors, scalpels, and forceps. The system is cleared by the FDA to manipulate tissue by grasping, cutting, dissecting and suturing. In use, a surgeon sits at a console several feet away from the operating table and manipulates the robot’s surgical instruments. The robot has three hands attached to a free-standing cart. One arm holds a camera (endoscope) that has been passed into the patient through small openings. The surgeon operates the other two hands by inserting fingers into rings. The arms use a technology called EndoWrist – flexible wrists that surgeons can bend and twist like human wrists. The surgeon uses hand movements and foot pedals to control the camera, adjust focus, and reposition the robotic arms. The da Vinci has a three-dimensional lens system, which magnifies the surgical field up to15 times. Another surgeon stays beside the patient, adjusting the camera and instruments if needed. There are 50 da Vinci systems placed in U.S. medical centers, 34 placed in Europe and five placed in Asia. ZEUS Robotic Surgical System The FDA cleared ZEUS in October 2001 to assist in the control of blunt dissectors, retractors, graspers, and stabilizers during laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgeries. ZEUS has three robotic arms that are mounted on the operating table. One robotic arm is called the Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning Robotic System (AESOP). AESOP is a voice-activated robot used to hold the endoscope. The FDA cleared AESOP to hold and position endoscopes in 1994, and voice activation was added later. ZEUS differs from the da Vinci system in that the AESOP part of ZEUS responds to voice commands. For example, a surgeon might say: “AESOP move right.” The positioning arm then would move right until the “stop” command was given. Like the da Vinci system, the other two arms of ZEUS are the extension of the left and right arms of the surgeon. Surgeons sit at a console and wear special glasses that create a three-dimensional image. Computer Motion has added a flexible wrist technology called Micro-Wrist, which is now included in FDA-approved clinical trials, Nolan says. There are currently more than 30 ZEUS units installed in North America, 15 units installed in Europe and the Middle East, and five units installed in Asia. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

MCS 275 Project 1 : Creating Basic Data-Based Prediction Models With Python

MCS 275 Project 1 : Creating Basic Data-Based Prediction Models With Python.

Attached is a python coding assignment, I would like it to be done neatly and organized. Make sure it is fully original and it should be completed on time. If you have questions feel free to message me.Your solution to each assignment must consist of a complete Python function that solves the assignment. If the assignment requires an additional worded answer, include the answer as a Python comment below the function definition. Name all your functions assgnment1(), assgnment2 … , etc. Place all functions and worded answers in a text file (not .py Python file) called project1.txt with the Python syntax in tact and upload it through Blackboard. No other format will be accepted.
MCS 275 Project 1 : Creating Basic Data-Based Prediction Models With Python

The Law Attitude of Child Labor Research Paper

essay writer free Introduction Child labor can be defined as, work for children which harms or exploits them in some ways like- physically, mentally, morally, or by blocking access to education. Laws of child labor in the United States The United States has adopted numerous statutes and rules regulating the employment of minors, called child labor laws. According to the United States Department of Labor, child labor affects those under the age of 18 in a variety of occupations. The National Child Labor Committee, an organization dedicated to the abolition of all child labor, was constructed in 1904. It managed to pass one law, which was struck down by Supreme Court two years later for violating a child’s right to contract his work. In 1924 Congress attempted to pass a constitutional amendment that would authorize a national child labor law. This measure was stopped, and the bill was eventually dropped. It took the great depression to stop child labor all around the nation; adults had become so desperate for jobs that they would work for the same wage. Minimum age according to law A child under the age of 14 may not be employed, except as: A newspaper carrier (should not below 11 years of age) In agriculture (should not below 12 years of age with parent consent) An actor, actress, or model; The law attitude of child labor In the United States, the first child labor law was passed by Massachusetts in 1836; it required that children should spend more than three months in the school that was employed in manufacturing and were under the age of 15. Most states had some law regulating child labor, by the end of the 19th century but the scope was limited. The law attitude of child labor began changing in the early 1900s, in part as a moral issue, but also due to changes in the U.S. Economy. By 1913, all but nine states had fixed 14 years as the minimum age for factory work. Nationally, Congress tried many times in the 1910s and 1920s to regulate child labor but was blocked by the Supreme Court, which at the time interpreted the Constitution as against federal interference in the free market. The first federal child labor law, which barred from interstate commerce any goods made by factories employing children under 14 years of age or employing children between 14 and 16 for more than eight hours a day, six days a week, or at night, was struck down as unconstitutional in 1918. The second child labor law was stuck down in 1922. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reformers even sought to amend the Constitution to permit federal regulation of child labor. Congress approved the amendment in 1924 and sent it to the states for approval, where it was rejected. By 1925, only four states had approved the amendment, 34 had rejected it. In the end, it got a new life by FDR’s New deal and his court-packing plan, the Supreme Court began approving a broader interpretation of the federal government’s commerce power, and Congress could pass a law regulating the market, including child labor. The Fair Labor Standards Act became law in 1938 and established a minimum age of 16 years for non-agricultural employment, with some provision for 14 and 15-year-old under certain conditions. Restricted work for children below 16 years of age according to law Hazardous Work Child labor laws govern more than just the duration of employment. They also restrict teens from working in hazardous occupations or operating dangerous machinery. Violation of the law and on-duty injuries among children are on the upswing. Health officials estimate that nearly 230,000 young workers are injured in the workplace every year. Children under the age of 18 can not drive as an occupation and can not operate power-driven slickers or paper balers (large compactors). When a child’s work hours or work conditions do not match with child labor laws, it is illegal employment. Each year, thousands of children are found to be illegally employed. Machinery To operate the machinery or assist in the operation of machinery. Laundry, rug cleaning, or dry cleaning equipment. Power-driven snow blowers, lawnmowers, or garden equipment. Drill presses, milling machines, grinders, lathes, and portable power-driven machinery. Meat slicers, textile-making machines, or bakery machinery. In oiling, cleaning, or maintaining any power-driven machinery. Agriculture In any agricultural operation declared by the U.S. Secretary of Labor to be particularly hazardous for employment of children under the age of 16. Transportation As an outside helper on a motor vehicle. In or about an airport landing strip and taxi or maintenance aprons; Operations Welding, loader, or launcher for skeet or trap-shooting, manufacturing or a commercial warehouse, processing plants. Other Lifting, carrying, or caring for patients in hospitals or nursing homes. In walk-in meat freezers or meat coolers, except for the occasional entrance. Exceptions A 17-years-old high school graduate; A child employed by a business solely owned and daily supervised by one or both parents; A child employed at tasks away from or outside of the area of hazardous operation, equipment, or material. Conclusion Nowadays, child labor in the United States implies teenagers who are full-time students and part–time employees, a very different scenario from that existing in developing countries. Still, the Department of Labor’s Wage and Hour Division finds thousands of violations each year. A study sponsored by the associated press in 1997 found that about 1% of all children were employed illegally either by working excessive hours or in hazardous occupations. The study found that illegal employment was concentrated geographically in the Midwest and in non-metropolitan areas, and occupationally in construction, manufacturing, and sales. We will write a custom Research Paper on The Law Attitude of Child Labor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bibliography Compliance Assistance Employment Law Guide. U.S. Department of Labor. Illegal Child Labor in the United States (Rutgers University, sponsored by the Associated Press, 97 ). U.S. Department of labor, report on the youth labor force.

“The Dead Hand” by David E. Hoffman Critical Essay

Table of Contents Summary of the Thesis Critical Analysis of the Book Strengths of the Book Reference Summary of the Thesis After the end of the cold war and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, there were still huge amounts of nuclear weapons that left on the face of the earth. In an interview, David Hoffman who is the author of the book, The Dead End, stated that at the present moment, the world has over 23,000 nuclear warheads (Hoffman, 2010). These are weapons that are capable of destroying the world over a million times. It is due to this fact that Hoffman was astonished by the amount of nuclear power that USA and Russia has at the present moment. This is almost two decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the cold war. With these stunning facts, Hoffman was curious to re-examine the history of how USA and USSR assembled these huge amounts of destructive power, the dangers that the world was facing and the individuals who were responsible of bringing the arms race to an end. This is the main thesis of the book, The Dead End. Other books that have been written about the cold war only represent the American perspective of the story. Due to this fact, these books normally credit the US under the administration of Ronal Reagan to have ended the war. However, Hoffman has brought in a new perspective into the issue that has changed history as we know it. He was an editor at Washington during the cold war. As a result, he had first hand information of what was going on with regards to the arms race from the perspective of the Americans. On the other hand, Hoffman was also privileged to work in Moscow during the beginning of the 21st century. While at Moscow, he was privileged to get concrete evidence that revealed the Russians point of view of the cold war. With the combination of this information, Hoffman has brought out a clear understanding of how these two super powers viewed the arms race and the efforts was put to end the cold war. Critical Analysis of the Book The cold war lasted from 1946 to 1991. During this time, there was political, military and economic tension between USSR and the Western Powers primarily the United States. USSR and US were competing for superiority and improving the status of national security. Instead of increasing peace and security in the world, the cold the outcome of the cold war was an increase in tension among these states. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the entire world was at the risk of coming to extinction. This is because these countries (the United States and USSR) built massive nuclear and chemical weapons that would end the world at an instance. The cold war however took a turn in during the 1980s. This was the time when the war was at its peak. After Ronald Reagan was elected the president of the United States and Gorbachev became the president of USSR, it was expected that the intensity of the cold war would increase. Both of these states felt that is was essential to protect and prepare themselves for a nuclear attack. To ensure that this goal is achieved, it was expected that these countries would undertake massive nuclear projects. However, this was not to happen as these leaders decided to take a different path, a path that did not aim at increasing nuclear and military power but to end the arms race. The books begins with an outbreak of anthrax in areas that surround Sverdlovsk in late 1979. There were reported deaths of individuals at hospital facilities No. 20 and 24. The deaths kept on increasing with time. The symptoms that these individuals showed suggested that they had been infected by anthrax (Hoffman, 2010). To ensure that this diagnosis was correct, autopsies of the dead bodies were conducted. Although it is against the medical profession to conduct autopsies for dead bodies from antrax, the state made the doctors and pathologists to continue with the exercise (Hoffman, 2010). An analysis of these bodies showed that the lungs and other internal organs had been badly damaged by the anthrax spores (Hoffman, 2010). It was believed that these spores had leaked from compound 19. This facility comprised of laboratories that were used for the development and testing of deadly pathogens (Hoffman, 2010). Anthrax was one of the spores that was being tested. It appeared that the spores had been accidentally released from the compound into the atmosphere, infected and killed many workers of compound 19 and many other individuals who were living in the vicinity. Indeed, USSR was developing anthrax and other pathogens to be used as biological weapons against its enemies in case war erupted. This was among the main objective of USSR during the cold war. We will write a custom Essay on “The Dead Hand” by David E. Hoffman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Russia also felt that it was essential to have a defensive mechanism in case of a nuclear missile attack. It had built several bases that would detect any missile that was towards them. In addition, the country had built many nuclear missiles and atomic warheads for its defence. This ensured that the country was ready to defend itself in case a nuclear war occurred. On the other hand, the Americans were also keen to know what their rivals were doing in terms of the manufacture of nuclear weapons. To defend themselves from a nuclear attack, USA had also embarked on several nuclear projects. In 1979, Ronald Reagan visited the North American Air defence Command centre that was located at the Cheyenne Mountains in Colorado. While at the facility, he was shown how the country will react in case of a nuclear attack. However, he was stunned to know that in case of an SS-18 missile attack from USSR, the nation will be vulnerable to the attack. To make the matters worse, the nation will only have around 10 to 15 minutes to react before the blast. This was not enough to conduct an evacuation operation. As a result, many innocent lives may be lost. The only option that the United States had was to retaliate by launching another missile to its enemies. This in turn implied that more innocent lives will be lost in the Soviet Union. Reagan thus saw that the only outcome that a nuclear war had was to kill innocent lives. This was immoral and no possible good can ever come out of it. However, once elected as president, Reagan launched the Star Wars project that protected the nation from a nuclear attack from space (Hoffman, 2010). Despite the nuclear power that they had, the Soviet Union felt inferior to the United States. This was due to Star Wars project. People at the Soviet Union expected that Gorbachev would retaliate by coming up with a newer and deadlier project. However, he did not. Due to this, senior generals and physicist suggested various options to the president. The first option was to embark on a better space defence program than Star wars. Other felt that the Soviet Union should follow a different path from that of the United States. They suggested that the president should build more SS-18 missiles that had 38 warheads in each missile. This was an increase from the 10 warheads that a normal SS-18 had. The outcome of this missile would be 18 times stronger that the nuclear bomb that was used in Hiroshima. Gorbachev did not act on any of this. It was until after the outcome of the Chernobyl disaster that Gorbachev finally decided to eliminate all the nuclear weapons by the end of the 20th century. At this time, Reagan realised that Gorbachev had the same ideologies as him with regards to nuclear weapons. Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Dead Hand” by David E. Hoffman by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This led to a number of summits that negotiated the end of the production of nuclear weapons. Although no agreement was arrived at, the arms race came to an end in 1991. By 1991, the Soviet Union was disintegrated and this led to the end of the cold war. Strengths of the Book The book gives a deep explanation of the events that were going on during the cold war from the two sides that were involved; USA and USSR. From the explanations of the book, it is evident that the arms race came about as a result of fear of inferiority and threats of an attack from the other side. However, the book has shown that both sides wanted the arms race to come to an end. Ronal Reagan and President Gorbachev exhibited this. The efforts that these individuals put had a remarkable impact on ending the arms race. From this book, one is able to understand the factors that led to the growth and development of the arms race and the reasons that it was brought to an end. Reference Hoffman, D. (2010). The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy. Washington: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group

The Burger Boy Case Study

The Burger Boy Case Study. The case study is about a fast food restaurant experiencing several problems that have affected its productivity. Workers have different responsibilities. However, due to the absence of two employees, some of them are forced to work more. The problems are indicative of the poor working conditions at fast food restaurants. Employees are poorly compensated even though they serve a large number of customers especially during breakfast and lunch hours thus overworking. Employees yell at each other because they are under pressure while doing their job. The Burger Boy has experienced several problems that have affected the output, efficiency, and effectiveness of the employees. In addition, these problems strain relationships between the employees. They include the lack of employee motivation, interpersonal conflicts, low morale, poor communication, poor performance, poor leadership, and employee dissatisfaction. Some employees do multiple jobs due to the lack of clear distribution of duties and employee absenteeism. Poor communication among the employees causes interpersonal conflicts and poor leadership. The employees yell at each other and the manager treats them disrespectfully. There is also a lack of job evaluation because the employees receive low compensation even though they overwork. The manager does not hire additional employees to reduce the workload. The number of employees required for Friday rush is 13. However, only 8 are present, and moreover they overwork without the additional payment. Most of these problems are associated with compensation. They include the lack of motivation, poor communication, interpersonal conflicts, disgruntlement, and poor performance. One of the most effective methods of motivating employees is offering them adequate compensation based on the amount of work done. However, the employees at the Burger Boy are poorly compensated even though they overwork. For example, due to absenteeism, some employees are forced to help their colleagues. The manager (Otis) breaches the psychological contract by declining to let Marge go home. He declines to let her leave because there are many customers who need services. The employees’ dissatisfaction due to low compensation is also a cause of poor communication. Interpersonal conflicts between the employees emanate from poor communication. They shout at each other because they are in bad moods. Their low productivity is evident from the amount of time it takes to serve a single customer. Usually, it takes two minutes and thirty second but they are taking three minutes and five seconds. This problem has also resulted from understaffing. Instead of the thirteen employees that work during Friday rush, only eight are present. One of the signs of poor compensation is the decline in the employee morale and the conflicts among employees. Rewards are important because they increase the employees’ motivation and consequently increase their performance. However, the employees at the Burger Boy do not receive any kind of rewards. Rewards could help to solve several problems including job dissatisfaction, low morale, and poor quality of work. Employee dissatisfaction is evident from the employees’ tendency to complain about their jobs. Many employees are dissatisfied because they overwork and are undercompensated. For example, Marge is forced to abdicate her work because her shift is over even though more customers are trickling in. Besides, Leon complains to Otis and says that he is vexed by the inefficiency at the workplace because the employees who work during lunch shift do not stock items as required. In response, Otis tells Leon that he is tired of his whining and storms out of the office and goes home. He also complains of low wages. Otis is a poor leader because communication between him and employees is very poor. Poor leadership leads to negative employee attitudes and relationships. These problems can be solved by establishing employee reward programmes. To improve employee morale, it is important for employers to establish fair compensation packages and reward programmes. Otherwise, productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction decline considerably. Additional hours of work are incentives that employers use to reward those employees whose performance is exceptional. It is similar to overtime. However, it involves working for additional hours besides overtime. Additional hours of work rewards are only effective if an employee is comfortable with the compensation offered. Chuck was not happy with working for 30 hours per week because he was dissatisfied with his job and had low morale. Chuck complains about the low staffing because he is aware that he will do more work than it is required of him. With the amount of work done at the pay window, Chuck was probably not happy with working 33 hours per week. Newman was happy working 20 hours per week probably because he was satisfied with his work. In addition, he was comfortable with his compensation. Schedules may be used as rewards by allowing employees to work during their most favorable hours. Employers could allow employees to set their own working hours depending on availability and commitment to other responsibilities such as family and education. In addition, the employers could create flexible schedules that give their employees enough breaks and rest. It is important for the employees to get enough rest in order to avoid burnouts and stress that reduce performance. The Burger Boy Case Study