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The Insecurity Of Gabriel Conroy English Literature Essay

There is no doubt that “The Dead” plays a significant role in Dubliners and there are still many debates about it even today: what or who the title hints at and what happens to the central character at the end, for instance. However, most people agree on the main characteristics of the protagonist, Gabriel Conroy: he is insecure2 , restrained3 , socially awkward2 , has “defensive feelings of intellectual and social superiority” (Loomis 150)4 and self-centred.5 In my essay I would like to focus on Gabriel’s irresolute nature and examine it through his conflicts with Lily and Miss Ivors and also through his reactions to Gretta’s story about her first love, Michael Furey. Gabriel has mentionable ‘quarrels’ with Lily, the servant of Miss Kate and Miss Julia, to whom he only would like to be nice; yet, all his attempts end in failure. He does not know how he should treat the young girl; whether he should behave as her friend or a man superior to her. The first conflict is right in the beginning of the story. Gabriel finally arrives and Lily precedes him into the pantry where she helps him off with his overcoat. A little conversation develops between them, there. After talking about the weather, Gabriel switches to a more friendly tone and asks her “tell me, Lily, do you still go to school?” (Joyce 123) and “I suppose we’ll be going to your wedding one of those fine days with your young man, eh?” (123). Although Gabriel knows her since her childhood, his questions are too intimate. He acts as though he would know her well and they would be good friends for a long time. The girl responses bitterly to him and Gabriel, “coloured, as if he felt he had made a mistake” (124), realises that it was too much and he cannot even look at her in his embarrassment. Gabriel should have been more tactful as this way he has hurt her, without any intention. Their other conflict takes place right after the first one. Gabriel would like to correct his mistake, “but instead of apologizing or explaining what he meant”3 , he takes a coin from his pocket to give it to Lily as it is Christmas. “O no, sir! . . . Really, sir, I wouldn’t take it” (Joyce 124) reacts the girl. He has made things even worse by giving her a ‘present’. He wants to show her how generous he is to the lower class; yet, he offends the girl more by treating her as a servant now. It seems that Lily thinks she is more a member of the family, hence finds Mr. Conroy’s gift humiliating. Gabriel claims that his inability to treat the girl adequately is due to his higher education but the fact that he gives her money may suggest that “he relies on the comforts of his class to maintain distance”.3 Gabriel cannot find the safe middle way, thus he is “almost trotting to the stairs” (Joyce 124) at the end to avoid the situation getting even more embarrassing. Gabriel also has a significant debate with Miss Ivors, with whom he has had a good relationship before. Miss Ivors accuses him of being a “West Briton” as a consequence of her discovery that Gabriel writes for The Daily Express (“a respected and comprehensive newspaper, but one that was decidedly pro-British in its positions”)6 under the name G.C. Miss Ivors, as being a nationalist, emphasises that she is ashamed of Gabriel as he is more loyal to England than to his own country: “Well, I’m ashamed of you . . . To say you’d write for a paper like that. I didn’t think you were a West Briton” (Joyce 130). Gabriel does not feel that writing reviews in a pro-British paper makes him a West Briton but does not know how to react to her charges. He only knows that a “grandiose phrase” would not do. Finally Miss Ivors says: “Of course, I was only joking” (131) and confesses that she does like his reviews, though. He interprets her accusation a personal attack for which he will compensate in his speech later.5 Things are getting even worse later as Miss Ivors asks him whether he and Gretta will go to an excursion to the Aran Isles, which is a symbol for Irish roots and nationalism and thus it is a true representation of whole Ireland).6 Gabriel answers no as he is going for a cycling tour with his friends and adds awkwardly, as he is pushed to tell her where exactly, that “well, we usually go to France or Belgium or perhaps Germany” (Joyce 131). Miss Ivors asks him sharply “and haven’t you your own language to keep in touch with – Irish?” (132) for which Gabriel responses “if it comes to that, you know, Irish is not my language” (132). Miss Ivors accuses him of being uninterested in his own culture and would like to know the reason why but Gabriel answers nothing. For Miss Ivors Gabriel’s silence is unacceptable. She finds nothing is a good reason for ‘neglecting’ one’s own country and language. He cannot stand up for himself and say that it is a false charge. He is interested in it but not the way she is, however, this does not make him a ‘traitor’. His problem is that he cannot explain the reasons of his feelings and also feels uncomfortable as he is obliged to answer in front of a huge crowd.7 Gabriel’s desire to control over others and the happenings around himself derives from his insecurity. A piece of evidence for this is his reaction to the story of Michael Furey. Gabriel watches his wife when she is listening to the music, The Lass of Aughrim that Mr D’Arcy plays and “a sudden tide of joy [goes] leaping out of his heart” (Joyce 148) as he sees her coloured cheeks and shining eyes. Although he does not know the reason why Gretta’s face has changed so much, Gabriel wants to “have control of her strange feelings”.3 After they leave the Morkan’s house, Gabriel intensely longs to “run after her noiselessly, catch her by the shoulders and say something foolish and affectionate into her ear” (Joyce 148-49). He feels an immense desire to possess her, to dominate her. All the way through, when they are getting closer and closer to their hotel, Gabriel thinks about his wife and their life together. He remembers their happiest moments and wants Gretta to forget “the years of their dull existence together” (149). He realises that in the past years romance has disappeared from their marriage. When Gretta gets off the cab, her touch makes him longing for her even more after all those memories that has come to his mind. When they are going up the stairs, he feels that “his arms [are] trembling with desire to seize her” (150). He only feels secure when the happenings around himself are calculable and he ‘determines’ them, that is, he controls them. “Though Gabriel remembers their romantic courtship and is overcome with attraction for Gretta, this attraction is rooted not in love but in his desire to control her.”3 Gabriel imagines what and how will things happen later , however, it does not even occur to him that something may ruin his plans. His keenness to get Gretta is so enormous that he does not even willing to realise that she is tired. He is too sure about his success and this is the reason why he cannot react adequately later. After they go to their room in the hotel, things are not going according to Gabriel’s plans. Gabriel says to the woman “Gretta!”, as he has imagined in his vision, but the woman does not react the way the man wants. As the woman’s face “looked . . . serious and weary . . . words would not pass Gabriel’s lips” (Joyce 151); he realises that “it [is] not the moment yet” (151). He fears that he would become diffident so he starts talking about Malins who has given his money back; nevertheless, he is not at all interested in that topic, he only feels that he has to talk about something and he is very annoyed by the look on Gretta’s face. He knows that he cannot ‘attack’ his wife and wants her to come to him by herself and “[longs] to be master of her strange mood” (151), to “overmaster her”. At the end Gretta does come to him, by herself, and kisses him for which “his heart [is] brimming over with happiness” (152). He thinks that his wife might feel the same, however, he does not understand why he has become so timid. He manages to make some move towards her, though, but sees that she is still thinking about something and wants to know what it is. She tells him that she is thinking about the song Mr D’Arcy played and then ” [breaks] loose from him . . . [runs] to the bed and [hides] her face” (152). He starts asking her why she has started crying but the answer makes him angry. He tries to be ironic when Gretta talks about the boy who used to sing The Lass of Aughrim but he always fails to reach his goal and feels humiliated by his failure. In spite of the fact that he wants to continue the interrogation in a cold tone, his voice becomes “humble and indifferent” (153). Gretta tells him that Michael Furey was her lover in Galway but he died and Gabriel asks ironically “and what did he die of so young, Gretta? Consumption, was it?” (154); however, he is taken aback by the response and feels that everything is against him. He is holding her hand more and more irresolutely as she progresses in her story till she falls asleep. Finally, Gabriel realises “how poor a part he, her husband, [has] played in [Gretta’s] life” (155) and that he “will never be “master” “.3 This incident is another piece of evidence that Gabriel is not self-assured. He has felt lust for his wife and is secure that everything will go according to his plans; however, when it occurs to him that his wife is not in that mood, at all and that she is thinking about her late lover he does not know what he should do: he becomes irresolute. He cannot react in such an unexpected situation and feels awkwardly. In spite of the fact that Gabriel is Gretta’s husband, he is not acting like that. He does not stand up for himself, his marriage and his feelings. He is not jealous, does not bring her to book, and neither does quarrel with her, even when he has the right to do so. He does nothing at all. He simply cannot cope with the situation. It seems that they have a happy marriage and they do have some feelings for each other, nonetheless, Gabriel cannot show her that she hurts him very much by telling him this story as he is paralysed. He wants her so much but he just cannot express himself, he rather leaves her alone in her grief. He is not at all acting like a man as he cannot handle the problem self-confidently. After all, we can conclude that the incidents with Lily and Miss Ivors, which lead him to awkward, uncomfortable situations, prove that Gabriel is not a confident person: he is very insecure in certain cases and cannot defend himself even if he will be humiliated. In connection with his wife, Gretta, we can say that by hearing the story of Michael Furey, he is so paralysed that he cannot react in the way a man should: assertively. All in all we can assume that Gabriel Conroy lacks self-assertiveness.
African-American Studies: The Great Migration’s Causes Research Paper. Introduction The first Great Migration underscores the relocation of over one million Negroes from the rural areas of Southern parts of the United States to the urban areas, which were mainly located in the North between 1910 and 1930 (Cassedy par.14). The aftermath of the 1876 Reconstruction heralded the restitution of white supremacy in the south, which then saw the passing of the Jim Crow segregationist policies. The black community in the South suffered greatly under these policies, as they could not access meaningful economic activities. Also, even after its dissolution in 1898, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) continued to execute its oppression against the Blacks and attacks were widely spread even though the group was operating as an underground organization. The southern environment was hostile to Blacks in all aspects. Fortunately, the First World War created a shortage of workers in the north, which presented an opportunity for the blacks to move from the south and provide the much-needed labor force in the urban industries. This paper explores the causes of this migration from the South to the North, and it centers on the first Great Migration, which occurred between 1910 and 1930. The causes Disenfranchisement, violence, and natural disaster The Reconstruction brought good news to African Americans as the Congress, through the Fifteenth Amendment, allowed Black men to vote (Tolnay and Beck 114). Unfortunately, most states in the South came up with new rules seeking to disenfranchise Blacks and curtail their freedom. Jim Crow’s segregationist laws made life difficult for the Blacks in the South, and an opportunity to leave was welcome. The rules brought educational, economic, and social disfavors for African Americans living in the South (“United States: Department of Labor” 46-68). The Blacks lost civil rights and liberties, and thus, life became unbearable. The legal doctrine of ‘equal but separate’ authenticated white supremacy, and thus when the opportunity to leave emerged, the blacks moved in large numbers to the north for better living opportunities (“South Unable to Put a stop to Negros Exodus” 1). With Jim Crow at the helm and white supremacy dominating a majority of the southern states, the Blacks had to contend with racial violence every day. Appiah and Gates note, “With white supremacy challenged throughout the South; many whites sought to protect their former status by threatening African Americans who exercised their new rights” (1011). Organizations like the Ku Klux Klan continued to operate underground after being banned in 1898. Widespread lynching of Blacks by white supremacists was a commonplace in the South as 3,446 Blacks died during that time (“Lynchings: By State and Race” par.1). The KKK abducted Blacks across the South, burned churches affiliated with the Blacks, and executed all manner of evils in the quest to intimidate African Americans and prevent them from enjoying the gains of the Reconstruction period. The outbreak of the Boll Weevil, which ravaged the South for over a decade starting from 1910, had multifaceted impacts on the Blacks living in the region. Earlier after the abolishment of slavery in 1865, African Americans needed to survive in a foreign land as liberated people. Unfortunately, the only available opportunity for them to make a living was through agriculture. The majority of Blacks depended on sharecropping for their survival. Another large number still worked in the plantations to earn a living. Therefore, with the breakdown of the Boll Weevil, farmlands became desolate, and thus blacks could not find employment or reap from agriculture. This quagmire called for an urgent solution, and with the opening of job opportunities in industries across the north, blacks moved in large numbers to avoid starvation. Better living conditions in the north World War 1 created an opportunity for African Americans living in the south to move to the north for better living conditions. After the war broke out, immigration from Europe to the United States was stopped, and this aspect created a severe labor shortage in industries (“United States Government” par.12). Also, over 5 million men from the North joined the military to assist the United States in the war. Therefore, Blacks living in the South saw this as an opportunity to move to urban areas where they were guaranteed to securing employment with better payment as compared to what they were earning in the southern plantations. Employment agents trooped into the south where they convinced the Blacks of the better living conditions and employment opportunities in the North. The majority of these agents arranged and facilitated means of traveling from the South, coupled with catering for the expenses. Chicago was one of the most preferred northern destinations for the blacks, given the numerous opportunities. The Pennsylvania Railroad also offered a great opening for able-bodied black men, as they were suitable for such positions. Even though women’s job openings were limited and restricted to the garment industry, they could secure employment opportunities as domestic workers cross Chicago and such an offer for hitherto segregated group of individuals was irresistible (Grossman 81). In the North, African American children had access to better education opportunities as compared to the South, where a child could only advance to the sixth grade. In the South, Blacks’ schools had minimal or no support from the authorities, and thus, the majority of the children dropped out of school to join their parents in the plantations. On the contrary, the North had better education policies, which called for students to remain in school regardless of one’s skin color. Apart from the economic and education opportunities in the North, African Americans had the opportunity to enjoy personal freedom, which was a rare issue in the South. Individuals in northern states were engrossed in wealth making, and thus they saw the Blacks’ immigration as an opportunity as opposed to a curse. Therefore, the constant fear that had gripped Blacks in the South was uplifted for the first time in their stay in the United States. The Black Press The press in the North played a critical role in fuelling the mass migration of the Blacks from the South. The Chicago Defender was at the center of selling the North to the southern Blacks. From the Northern newspapers, the Blacks accessed information concerning new job openings and train schedules. All vital information concerning the North was available via the Chicago Defender, and thus with the requisite information, the Blacks in South had all the reasons to migrate to the North. Conclusion The first Great Migration occurred between 1910 and 1930. The hostile socio-political environment, coupled with the lack of well-paying jobs, compelled African Americans to move to the North, where they were promised of a good life. The Jim Crow segregationist laws disenfranchised the Blacks and curtailed the freedoms enshrined in the Fifteenth Amendment. Also, the breakout of the Boll Weevil ravaged the agricultural sector in the South, which was the mainstay of the African Americans in the region. Moreover, World War 1 forced states to close borders for European immigrants, thus creating severe labor shortage in the industries, which were then compelled to open doors for Blacks. The Black press, led by the Chicago Defender also encouraged the immigration by painting the North as the preferred destination for southern Blacks. Therefore, the key causes of the first Great Migration were better living conditions in the North, disenfranchisement, violence, and natural disaster in the South, and black press in the North. Works Cited Appiah, Anthony, and Henry Gates. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience – The Concise Desk Reference, Philadelphia: Running Press, 2003. Print. Cassedy, James. “African Americans and the American Labor Movement.” Federal Records and African American History 29.2 (1997): 1-16. National Archives. Web. Grossman, James. Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Print. Lynchings: By State and Race, 1882-1968. Web. “South Unable to Put Stop to Negros Exodus.” Washington Times 23 October 1916: 1. Library of Congress. Web. Tolnay, Stewart, and Henry Beck. “Racial Violence and Black Migration in the American South, 1910 to 1930.” American Sociology Review 57.1 (1992): 103-116. Print. United States. Department of Labor. Division of Negro Economics: Negro at Work During the World War and During Reconstruction: Statistics, Problems, and Policies Relating to the Greater Inclusion of Negro Wage Earners in American Industry and Agriculture. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969. Print. United States Government. United States Senate: Report and Testimony of the Select Committee of the United States Senate to Investigate the Cause of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States 1880. Web. African-American Studies: The Great Migration’s Causes Research Paper
Walden University Week 3 Civil Rights Movement Memoir Paper.

Learning ResourcesNote: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.Required ReadingsDanver, S. L. (Ed.). (2011). Revolts, protests, demonstrations, and rebellions in American history: An encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC.Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History: An Encyclopedia, by Danver, S. Copyright 2010 by ABC-CLIO INC. Reprinted by permission of ABC-CLIO INC. via the Copyright Clearance Center.”Civil Rights Movement (1953–1968)” (pp. 891–901)”Antiwar Movement (1960s–1970s)” (pp. 925–935)”Feminist Movement (1970s–1980s)” (pp. 1043–1051)”Trail of Broken Treaties (1972)” (pp. 1067–1074)Meili, D. (2012). Militant AIM activist led Wounded Knee uprising. Windspeaker, 30(9), 28. This reflective piece offers a look at the life, challenges, controversies, and accomplishments of American Indian activist Russell Means.Handman, G. (2006). Martin Luther King: Why I am opposed to the war in Vietnam, April 30, 1967, Riverside Church, New York [Transcript]. Retrieved from http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/pacificaviet/river…In a passionate sermon from 1967, Dr. Martin Luther King addresses his opposition to the Vietnam War, noting, “There comes a time when silence becomes betrayal.”Rosen, R. J. (2014). A glimpse into 1970s gay activism. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/0…This overview of gay activism in the 1970s is as revealing about inequalities that routinely existed for gays in the United States as it is about the changes that began to emerge.Required MediaC-SPAN (Producer). (2015, April 10). American History TV: Martin Luther: Meet the Press [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.c-span.org/video/?c4533943/martin-luthe…Three days after the Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, march for voting rights concluded, NBC’s long-running Sunday talk show interviewed Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. King appeared remotely from San Francisco; the journalists who asked questions were in Washington, D.C.C-SPAN (Producer). (2011, May 22). American History TV: Freedom Riders 50th anniversary reunion [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.c-span.org/video/?299618-1/freedom-ride…This documentary recounts the story behind a courageous band of civil rights activists called the Freedom Riders who in 1961 creatively challenged segregation in the American South.C-SPAN (Producer). (2014, April 5). Book TV: The crusades of Cesar Chavez [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.c-span.org/video/?318806-3/book-discuss…Miriam Pawel discusses her book, The Crusades of Cesar Chavez: A Biography, in which she chronicles the life and activism of United Farm Workers co-founder and president Cesar Chavez.C-SPAN (Producer). (2007, July 24). American History TV: Senator John Kerry oral history interview [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.c-span.org/video/?303483-1/senator-john…In this interview, Senator John Kerry (D-MA) talks about being a veteran who was a vocal opponent to the war in Vietnam during the Nixon years and his reaction to finding out that administration officials were tracking his activities.Assignment: A Memoir of Social ChangeImagine that you are a 75-year-old resident of Chicago. The year is 1975, and you are recalling the major social events and developments that have unfolded on radio, television, other media outlets, and in the streets over the past 15 years. Some of these events took place in your own community, but their impact was felt across the nation. You are in a reflective mood and want to share the history that you remember with a younger generation.In preparation:Choose one of the following as the subject of your memoir:The civil rights movement (1960–1975)The anti-war movement (Vietnam War period)The women’s rights movement (1960–1975)The AssignmentCompose a 2-page memoir entry in which you reflect on the social change movement you selected and its impact on society. Infuse your memoir with the honest passion and insight of one who was a witness to history as well as (if relevant) a beneficiary of change or impacted by it in some way. Did the movement you selected influence your life and/or community? How? How did your prior life experiences influence your attitude toward this movement?Support your assertions by making several references to your course readings.
Walden University Week 3 Civil Rights Movement Memoir Paper

Question about GPP compiler

Question about GPP compiler.

you will use the Gpp compiler to test and answer the following questions:(Please personally test and record the relevant data to write a report, do not use any data and answers from the Internet.)1. Assume data cache is fully associative with 60 lines, each line can hold 10 doubles, the replacement rule is least recently used first, matrix elements are doubles, and n=4000. What is the total number of read cache misses for each matrix in each of the following three matrix multiplication algorithms? Implement these algorithms and verify the correctness of your implementation by checking the maximum error in the matrix C. Compile your code using gcc without any optimization flag and run your executables at any computer you can access. Rank the execution times and explain why the execution times are different./* ijk version */ for (i=0; i<n; i++) for (j=0; j<n; j++) for (k=0; k<n; k++) c[i*n+j]=c[i*n+j]+a[i*n+k]*b[k*n+j]; /* ikj version */ for (i=0; i<n; i++)for (k=0; k<n; k++) for (j=0; j<n; j++) c[i*n+j]=c[i*n+j]+a[i*n+k]*b[k*n+j]; /* kji version */for (k=0; k<n; k++)for (j=0; j<n; j++) for (i=0; i<n; i++)c[i*n+j]=c[i*n+j]+a[i*n+k]*b[k*n+j];2.Compile the attached simple matrix multiplication code dgemm-simple.c using gcc without anyoptimization flag and report the execution time of the program on any computer you can access. Compile theattached optimized matrix multiplication code dgemm-optimized.c using gcc with optimization flag “-O3”and report the execution time of the program on the same computer you used for dgemm-simple. Calculatehow much faster dgemm-optimized runs than dgemm-simple. As we explained in class, architectureknowledge is very important while studying/designing compilers and operating systems, can you read theprogram dgemm-optimized.c and briefly explain how architecture knowledge may help programmers to writecomputer programs that run faster?
Question about GPP compiler

HS 101 UIdaho Feudalism as A Pseudo State in Europe Analytical Review

programming assignment help HS 101 UIdaho Feudalism as A Pseudo State in Europe Analytical Review.

Read the following book: Crone, Pre-Industrial Societies: Anatomy of the Pre-Modern World (https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07ZWJ51J8/ref=dp-kindle-redirect?_encoding=UTF8&btkr=1)Write an essay, three to five double-spaced typed pages, proving or disproving one of the statements listed under Topic Statements. The essay should include an introduction, a well-organized cohesive body containing specific examples from the readings, and a solid conclusion.Topic StatementsChristianity and Islam, both concepts of peace and brotherhood, caused intense hatred and rivalries leading to the death of hundreds of thousands of people.Feudalism was a natural development in areas where a strong centralized government failed to develop.Religious and cultural tolerance always appears in societies that allow women some degree of freedom.The battle between church and state in Europe lead to a weakened position for both.With the rise of literacy, the study of poetry, literature, and music is important to the understanding of the lifestyles of the common people within a society.The spread of European power around the world lead to and increased nationalism and resistance.Cultural and political contact between the different areas of the world resulted in the spread of ideas and tolerance.Book is available on Amazon, will cover the cost if proof of receipt is provided. ($7.99 on Amazon Kindle)
HS 101 UIdaho Feudalism as A Pseudo State in Europe Analytical Review

A study of the Virgin Group

Founded in 1970 as Virgin Records, the company has expanded to a humongous organization comprising of more than 200 companies in 2007. Its business portfolio ranges from air travel, fitness centers, and mobile telephony. Since its inception, the culture and image of Virgin Group has been directly attributed to the personality and efforts of its owner and founder, the high-ranking executive and entrepreneur Sir Richard Branson. It makes no sense to delink Virgin Group from Sir Branson. In fact, the name Branson is almost becoming synonymous with Virgin Group. This essay aims to provide several aspects of Virgin group. These include the critical analysis of its organizational model, the leadership of Sir Richard Branson and eventually organization’s communication. Discussion Virgin Group is made up of more than 200 companies, which employ nearly 50,000 people all over the world. The business has witnessed continual growth since it was started. The revenues reached a record mark of 10 billion sterling pounds in the year 2006. This reveals the magnitude and level of business in which Virgin Group is operating. The nature of leadership in existence in Virgin Group draws many features from the personality of Sir Richard Branson. The business philosophy postulated by Sir Richard Branson believes that the ultimate results of customer satisfaction and shareholders’ gain is the responsibility of every individual. He believes that if the staffs are kept happy then the customers are going to be happy meaning that the shareholders will be happy too. Consequently, the management of Virgin Group does not fall in to any particular model. It has a unique management structure whose characteristics do not fit those of the existing models. The amalgamation of concepts makes it distinctive. A critical review reveals that the success witnessed by Virgin Group can be attributed to the uniqueness of its management styles. Management Theorists like F Taylor first created the concept of scientific management. This scientific concept postulates that there are six main features of management, namely; experiment, observation, selection, standardization, and training. Scientific philosophy of management expects that rewards and employee compensation should be pecked on performance and co-operation. Although some facets of this theory are outdated, some of its features are still applicable in the business structure of modern times. As a good illustration, Virgin group may be having what appears as a relaxed working environment but some features of scientific management are in application. Such aspects of scientific management used in Virgin Group include training, selection, and payment pecked on results. Some employees are compensated because of their outstanding entrepreneurial ambition and innovative thinking. Outstanding performance in Virgin Group is not only measure by the amount of financial input an employee has brought but also creativity and ability to think outside the box. Another model of management is bureaucracy, which sees the organization of business as one unit. The pioneers of this school of thought believed that family practices could not be delinked from the organization. Therefore, there a need to merge family goals with those of the entire organization. Organizational goals of Virgin Group cannot be dissociated with those of Sir Richard Branson. This is enough reason to conclude that the management style in the organization has some elements of bureaucracy in leadership. Max Weber first formulated this kind of management approach. The impact of entire society is given considerable attention by the management. In this model, the organization is considered as an integral part of an amorphous society. Despite having some draw backs, this model has found its way in to the Virgin Group’s management style. In a bid to meet the needs of the society it is serving, virgin management give priority to the impact, its strategies will have on the society. This is the reason as to why Virgin Atlantic, an airline company under Virgin Group, has been on the frontline on the crusade for environmentally friendly jet fuel. Furthermore, there is an element of administrative theory in the management of Virgin Group. Propounded by Henry Fayol, administrative theory view management as a chronological process comprising of planning, organization, training, and coordination of functions. This model represents the transitional theory between the traditional and modern models. It is characterized by rigid and mechanistic tenets. Virgin Group has a little bit of these management principles. It has deviated from it by allowing liberalized management at departmental level. However, at the departmental levels, there is need to advance the principles of management. The thoughts of employees should remain to be customized to suit these principles. The management of Virgin group with a heavy weight is contingency approach. The decision-making and plans executions are done with close reference to the problem at hand. This has seen the group attain notable milestones in streamlining its management, which eventually translates in to revenues. In this management model, the dynamics of business environments is appreciated. It recognizes the fact that different environments require different management approaches. Concisely, it is true to argue that Virgin Group’s success story of many years is a factor of many things including it optimal management model. The group has been able to amalgamate the presets of every model to suit its present needs. What is emerging vividly from this global organization is the fact that the efficacy of management is determined by its ability to move away from conventional and rigid requirements. Moving with the trends in the market has been proven beneficial in optimization of profits. From the descriptions given above, it is evident that Virgin Group leadership is a transformational. In transformational leadership the management looks beyond the compensation to the employees. The model, which is in use at Virgin Group, explores the inner factors, which enhance performance of employees through motivation. On contrary to transactional model, which look at compensation alone, transformational leadership looks at way of achieving high-level loyalty and commitment from the followers. The brand in the name of Virgin was founded in 1968. Since then it has grown beyond borders and become a worldwide product. Its venture into many different industries is a true reflection of success. Sir Richard Branson is the present chairperson of the group. He is well known for his stylish but competitive leadership skills. Many analysts and scholars attribute the success of Virgin Group to the creative leadership skills of Branson. In the process of expansion, he took over several risky ventures in a more to diversify and improve his business. In most of his business plans, he focused on minute segment of a specific market and provided quality products or services. This approach allows for creation of small monopolistic markets with high profit margins. One major contributor to Branson’s success story is his ability to lead people in exploring innovative and profitable ventures. Therefore, the leadership style depicted by Branson is a topic to be investigated in the following discussions. The kind of leadership philosophy advocated by Branson has been infiltrate into the entire company. Sir Richard Branson’s leadership style falls in the category of transformational. He has an outstanding ability of bringing out the best out of humanity. Interpersonal and relational skills possessed by Branson are impeccable. He has close touch with the day to day activities of various companies within his group. The most common feature that has made him achieve great milestones in business development is the ability to motivate and rally fellow partners in pursuit of a business opening. If the recent acquisitions are taken as an illustration, he managed to convince fellow stakeholders in adoption of new strategy. In his ventures, he looks for people who are outgoing and willing to start new businesses. His capacity building nature has made him an admirable leader of modern business. His focus spans beyond the orthodox perspective of employees where the management expects the workers to perform to deserve compensation. The interest of Branson surrounds asking the question as to whether a partner or employee is optimizing his or her capacity. He is interested also with people who are willing to take risks and the best in their tasks. For a long time, he has succeeded in bringing out the best out of his staff, a core character of transformational leader. There is no doubt about the fact that Branson’s success since 1970s is directly attribute to his attitude towards management of a team. In his approach, the barrier existing between the employees and management is broken. In fact, many people working with him approaches business issues with a philosophy of achieving through innovative thinking and not adhering to the preset rules. Because of the ideologies propagated by Branson, all participants in the organization share similar values. He formulated his own style of leadership, priding himself on integrating the employees in to his style and seeking their thoughts on ways of improving value to customers. Employees are expected to internalize these values and respond in accordance to them. Integration of corporate values in leadership strategies means that there is little interference by external forces. Nevertheless, Sir Branson’s approach does not mean that the employees are entirely dependent on the chairman’s thoughts. They are equally accountable of their actions like fellow employees under transactional leadership. In order to motivate his employees, Branson and his management team, especially human resources management department have systems of enhancing commitment of employees through bonuses, stock options and profit sharing, and internal promotion wherever possible. Apart from Sir Branson’s input in the success of virgin Group, there is a contribution of organizational culture in the company. Organizational culture existing in Virgin Group in fairly complex. The Group serves more than 100 companies operating separately in the industries which are not entirely related. The common feature within ever company in the group is the glamorous Virgin Brand. The brand remains unchanged in all companies operating in different businesses. This is a similarity, which puts a heavy responsibility on each department or division to positively represent the brand. The image reveals an overall image of quality and innovation inherent in the group. Through the creation of an exclusive brand, the company has been able to consolidate and maintain desirable loyalty levels among the customers. The diverse business portfolio evident in Virgin Group businesses is helpful in building and maintaining loyalty in various industries. This is the main reason as to why the company has witnessed high levels of success. The managers in the company employ the concept of creativity to encourage employees to enhance their contribution to the group in whatever level of hierarchy. They discourage the scenario where employees sit back to execute instructions. Employees have the capacity of producing cutting-edge products, which the whole company will be able to deliver to the market. They can also formulate ways of improving efficiency in the company. This is an outstanding feature of Virgin Group. Every individual has a say when it comes to products development. The management style in application at Virgin Group encourages members of staff to be competitive. This will eventually build a desire in the hearts of employees to see the company succeed so that they can be recognized as contributors to new and innovative business model. There is no clear cut between management and leadership within Virgin Group. Transformational leadership emanates from executives and top managers in the company. There are harmonized goals set by Sir Richard Branson and fellow company executives. Various companies within the group will work towards achieving those goals. These ambitious goals range from utilization of new technology, expansion in international markets, joint venture with other existing companies and loyalty among customers. Goals formulated at this level of management are communicated to every employee in the company. This is a beneficial strategy, which gives every employee a task to accomplish in fostering the group’s mission. The senior management implores the employees to output their skills in such a way that they are going to complement the company. The notion behind this effort is to advance the philosophy that the entire benefits of the group will eventually lead to individual gains for every person involved. The contribution in the group will ultimately result in rewards for managers, employees, shareholders, executives, and customers alike. One desirable feature of Virgin Group is its organizational structure. Through its structure the company has succeeded in overcoming the challenges related to expansion. An expansive organization like Virgin Group must explore ways of handling the massive information within the company. Through its flat organizational chart, Virgin Group Limited has been able to handle it expansive business portfolio with much ease. The reduction of horizontal chain of command means that interdepartmental communication is enhanced. As the level of hierarchy moves down, the lower levels of management tend to concentrate more keenly on the management of the company. Although leadership is always encouraged among the managers, it requires some levels of strict management to make sure that the task has been accomplished. Different divisions within the company have different management function. At Virgin Group, managers have several goals of wide scope. Because of the fact that different divisions of the company are specialized in their operations, well-trained and qualified mangers are required to manage it effectively. In most cases, managers employed by the company have a firm background in their sector of specialization. They must also prove that they are capable by showing a successful record of accomplishment. It is the sole responsibility of managers within Virgin Group to ensure that day-to-day operations needed to keep the division running are executed effectively. Organization is a vital ingredient in the success of Virgin companies. Since the group in an amorphous company comprising of several companies, organization is very critical in putting together the processes. To start with, the company has many goals to be achieved like expanding the global presence and building of customer loyalty. The top executive are responsible for determining these goals and making them available to the entire company. The same executive must ensre that these goals are achievable for them to be received well by employees. However, caution should be exercised to ensure that the employees are not underutilized. Challenging goals are important for the employees to feel that they are engaged in meaningful tasks. Organization of these goals within the division will ensure that specific targets are made. Every division have separate and specialized goals aimed at increasing market share and improvement of product and services. As the hierarchy advances to the junior staffs, goals become more precise and short lived. The targets set at implementation levels are easily achievable because they are very specific. These specific goals are formulated by division managers with close reference to those of the entire group. This system of information transfer enables the company to remain on track on the journey to meeting the targets set by executives. Virgin is a living evidence for the fact that this kind of organization is a major prerequisite for business success. Breaking down of general goals in to actionable points is a desirable feature revealed in Virgin’s organization. A healthy and workable organizational structure witnessed in Virgin Group’s businesses is attained with many varying strategies. Transformational leadership is one of these strategies that have seen the company attain great heights of success. This strategy enables people of diverse backgrounds and ability to share a common goal. Through working together, a team can combine its members’ efforts and work towards achieving common goal. Transformational leadership gives everyone an equal chance to output his or her ability without reservations. A critical review of Virgin Group business reveals that its versatile and innovative workforce is due to the transformational leadership in place. This is in contrast with transactional leadership in which employees are compensated according to performance. The draw back with this kind of leadership is that it breeds greedy employees whose goal will be to amass rewards as much as possible. Conclusion In conclusion, there are many things to be learned from leadership and management of Virgin Group Limited. The company has cut itself a niche in various industries. It has also proven that all things are possible with dedication and commitment. Through the able leadership of its Chairman, Sir Richard Branson, the management team has come up with a unique formula of managing large scale businesses like Virgin Group. To a large extend, the success of Virgin Group is directly attributable to the input of Sir Branson. He has succeeded in opening a new chapter of management, which deviates from conventional methods. His liberal and all accommodating approach is desirable. There is a formidable blend between management and leadership. A critical review of these two elements reveals that there is no clears cut between the two: a feature that has worked well for the company.

Globalisation Of Communication Curriculum

Globalisation is a word used more often today than twenty or thirty years ago. Globalisation describes the increasing movement of people, knowledge, ideas, goods and money across national borders (Eberlein 2011:15). When talking about globalisation people mostly refer to the political, economic and technological changes which they think makes the world function differently today than it did twenty or thirty years ago It is assured that higher education institutions are affected by globalisation and are being transformed on a day to day basis and is speeding up the process of interconnectedness. Most of the universities are internationally recognised and in touch and informed with what other universities across the world is doing (Marginson