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The Important Role of Antibiotic Resistance

The Important Role of Antibiotic Resistance. Antibiotic roles in food production have always been a point of contingence for many individuals. From the beginning, consumers have had fears of residual antibiotics left on food (The Science News-Letter). The first antibiotic used was Aureomycin. It was used as a food preservative for uncooked poultry (The Science News-Letter). When the U.S. Food and Drug Administration cleared Aureomycin to be used as a preservative, the original fear was human allergic reaction. When this was finally allowed in the early 1950s, the FDA had to be particular about the residual amounts that would possibly be left on the poultry, to ensure the consumers would not have adverse reactions. Through FDA research, it was determined that the amount of antibiotics left on the product was only trace amounts, at worst. This usage of Aureomycin stopped the growth of spoilage microbes that could potentially grow on the poultry. However, by 1999, seventy-seven percent of customers still assumed that products treated with antibiotics left drug residue on their meats – according to a customer survey (Donoghue). The FDA uses information provided by “animal drug sponsors” to evaluate public health risk associated with specific antibiotics (Center for Veterinary Medicine). In addition, they will evaluate using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) to help evaluate the risk of the proposed food production application of the antimicrobial agent (Center for Veterinary Medicine). Since the 1950s, the use of antibiotics in all aspects of food production has exploded in popularity. With this popularity, the negative attributes have begun worrying producers, consumers, and have even made headlines in political news worldwide. Antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance has now become a real issue in all aspects of life – from the health care industry to the food we eat every day. The term antibiotic resistance gets the most play in conversations that affect our everyday lives. It simply means that bacteria that would normally be affected and killed by a given an antibiotic now have a resistance to that specific treatment. Antimicrobial resistance is just as important, but is used less often. The term encompasses a larger field of resistant organisms. It includes bacteria, parasites, and fungi resistance as well. Both of these terms cover aspects that are becoming a serious problem for all living things, including human kind (World Health Organization). Antibiotic resistance can occur in a variety of ways. Intrinsic resistant is a natural part of bacteria life, yet it has been sped up with the use of antibiotics (Rosenblatt-Farrell). It is when the weaker, more susceptible bacteria is killed off by the antibiotic, yet the variant of stronger, less susceptible bacteria is unaffected and continues to reproduce. This is compounded with the use of weak antibiotics that will not wipeout the stronger bacteria. The strongest survive and multiply (Rosenblatt-Farrell). It is the literal definition of the survival of the fittest. Resistance to antibiotics can also occur via spontaneous mutations, and even DNA – by exchanging conjugative plasmids that carry genes that encode for the resistance (Rosenblatt-Farrell). Many bacteria have responded to antibiotics by having multiple resistance mechanisms for different chemicals that could be used (Lawson). Antimicrobial resistance has become one of the most serious health threats in today’s society (Guo). Antibiotic use in agriculture is one of the most important factors contributing to the emergency and spread of resistant organisms (Guo). In production, the antibiotics are mainly used for growth and disease prevention of the animals. This constant exposure to low grade antibiotics has led to a high occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in fowl, swine and other production animals. Within the human sector, resistant strains of bacteria have now sprung up (Guo). For many years, the dangers of livestock resistant bacteria was thought to not have a direct human consequence, but now livestock resistant strains have been found amongst the human population at an increasing rate (Guo). In these intensely farmed production areas, disease prevention and animal care are not ideal to reduce the occurrences of bacteria, and illness can quickly spread from animal to animal. Since the awareness of the use of antibiotics in commercial farming and the dangers have become topics of discussion, politics have started to play a role. In 2006, the European Union made a decision to ban all non-medical antibiotic use on animals. They cited the concerns over human health hazards as the reasoning behind the decision. Closer to home, the United States of America initiated a voluntary relabeling of antibiotics in food production to help reduce antibiotic usage as growth promoters, and in 2014 the White House announced the creation of the National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (Center for Veterinary Medicine). While the United States took a softer stand on the issue, at least the issue was addressed, but leaving the decision to be antibiotic free to the producer comes with its own problems. Every producer, when given the choice, is not going to decide to become antibiotic free. Some may make that decision, but that does not guarantee that antibiotic resistant bacteria will not affect the producers that ban antibiotics from their processes. Antibiotic resistant bacteria has been found on commercial farms that do not use antibiotics in their production (Hofacre). According to a study done by the University of Georgia, eighty percent of the bacteria in question was isolated from meat and bone meal (Hofacre). This means the majority of the bacteria could be traced back to the filled product in the feed being used. If the remains from a commercial farm are used to make feed, then anywhere that feed is sent has a potential of carrying that bacteria with it (Hofacre). While some countries have implemented bans and regulations, the issue remains that the majority of the world has unrestricted laws for antibiotic usage – in production or otherwise. In developing nations, poultry farming has become adopted as a developmental strategy to economic growth. Antibiotic use in poultry commercial farming has been shown to enhance feed efficiency, reduce disease, and overall make production more efficient and lead to reasonable cost for the consumers (Donoghue). With the lures that antibiotic usage brings, the fear is real that as the demand for food increases the usage of antibiotics in food production will also increase. It has been estimated that the global usage of antibiotics in the food industry will increase sixty-seven percent between the years 2010-2030 (Guo). In 1986, Sweden banned all growth promoting antibiotics, which was followed by Denmark a decade later (Casewell). In the years after the ban, animal health and welfare seemed to decrease and some studies showed that some farmers struggled with economic hardships (Casewell). This particular ban was the complete removal of growth antibiotic additives, and Denmark was officially using zero antibiotics for growth by 2000 (Casewell). While there were some issues with animal welfare and economics, the overall ban was successful. Studies showed that the total pool of antibiotic resistance genes in multiple strains of bacteria found in livestock fecal material had shrunk after the ban (Casewell). Alexander Fleming, in 1945, gave an interview that all but predicted the issues we now face with antibiotics. The same year that he won the Nobel Peace Prize for his discovery of penicillin, he warned that misuse of the penicillin could lead us to a future of drug resistant bacteria via selection (Rosenblatt-Farrell). Fleming was spot on. The constant misuse and overuse of antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Instead of trying to medicate and pacify the issues, the underlying causes should be addressed. The conditions of mass commercial farming shouldn’t be a breeding ground for bacteria to the extent of needing constant antibiotic treatment to make sure the supply is healthy. The food industry potentially will be harmed if the conditions stay the same, but the medication stops. Consumer safety should be the number one priority for all food producers, yet many overlook the safety issues in something that may not be directly linked to specific companies. Critical control points ensure the product is shipped in an acceptable state of safety, however the bacteria during the holding and rearing is causing the issues. The conditions animals are held in are not meant to be sanitary. Humans have decided that profit outweighs all other concerns. The concerns of public safety have been put on the back burner so production values increase. In 1951, when antibiotic food production was taking off, studies were conducted that showed that antibiotic additions to production would save approximately thirty to fifty pounds of feed for every pound of pork produced- with an annual savings of two hundred million dollars (Ratcliff). In the nearly seventy years since then, prices have continued to increase and the economic downside to removing antibiotics from food production has increased (Donoghue). These economic issues are one of the main reasons antibiotic usage became so popular in the food industry and why governments are starting to make requests of the interest of public health. Since strict government bans can lead to adverse effects of food production, the fundamental issues in livestock need to be addressed and is just as important as antibiotic regulations. Without addressing what is causing the health issues, the food industry may always depend on antibiotics. Food production is not solely to blame for antibiotic resistance. We have played a large role in the appearance of superbugs and resistant diseases. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics does not end with food production. The health care industry and everyday people across the globe have hindered the effectiveness of antibiotics on common ailments that once were easily treated. More varieties of antibiotics must be created to continue the never-ending arms race we started in 1945. The antibiotic misuse over decades has left us with no clear cut choice. Strict regulations and constant new varieties of antibiotics are the future of food production and health care. This alone will not cure the ever growing problems of resistance. With the health care industry, doctors are told to prescribe antibiotics only when necessary, as with the commercial farm industry all antibiotic use that is needed should be administered with veterinary approval and supervision (Nhung). The ease of access to antibiotics for commercial farmers has escalated the antibiotic issue in food production (Nhung). Antibiotic usage has become so common place, many individuals do not see the dangers it can possess. Both sectors encompass everyday life, the importance of successful new initiatives is truly becoming a top priority. The food industry has researched new alternatives to antibiotic usage. These include the use of probiotics to reduce intestinal contamination of bacteria that could contaminate the product, and the use of plant essential oils and their effects on bacterial infections – thyme, oregano, and garlic showing the most potential even if the results are inconclusive so far (Griggs). In 1945, the possible future of antibiotics was addressed. In 2018, it has started to become a very worrisome reality. The bottom line is that antibiotics are a double edged sword. They are wonderful when they work as intended, but have the potential of making food producers complacent and speeding up the natural evolution of bacteria. Cutting out antibiotics from food production could have unintended effects on animal welfare and the economy, so the solution cannot be singular. The issues of mass rearing and sanitation need to be addressed and tweaked to cut back on bacteria flourishing. Veterinary professionals need to take control of the antibiotic market to ensure misuse does not occur, and alternatives to antibiotics for food production need to be researched to help offset the economic drop that can occur when antibiotics are removed from facilities. Antibiotic resistance has become a reality in many aspects of our daily lives. Due to antibiotic misuse, we now find ourselves at a crucial moment in history – a moment Alexander Fleming saw coming in 1945 (Rosenblatt-Farrell). Nhung References Casewell, Mark, et al. “The European Ban on Growth-Promoting Antibiotics and Emerging Consequences for Human and Animal Health.” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 52, no. 2, Jan. 2003, pp. 159–161. Center for Veterinary Medicine. “Antimicrobial Resistance.” U S Food and Drug Administration Home Page, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, www.fda.gov/animalveterinary/safetyhealth/antimicrobialresistance/default.htm. Donoghue, DJ. “Antibiotic Residues in Poultry Tissues and Eggs: Human Health Concerns?” Poultry Science, vol. 82, no. 4, 1 Apr. 2003, pp. 618–621. Griggs, J. P., and J. P. Jacob. “Alternatives to Antibiotics for Organic Poultry Production.” The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, vol. 14, no. 4, Jan. 2005, pp. 750–756. Guo, Xueping, et al. “Antibiotic Resistome Associated with Small-Scale Poultry Production in Rural Ecuador.” Environmental ScienceThe Important Role of Antibiotic Resistance
Netflix is an entertainment company that is mostly focused on streaming media (films, TV series), producing media, and distributing media online. According to the company, there are more than 98 million subscribers as of 2017 (Netflix 2). In this paper, the company will be analyzed using PESTEL framework. The firm performance will also be discussed. PESTEL The political factors that can influence the company are the following: government regulations on online content distribution and copyright regulations. Government regulations can present both opportunities and threats; if online distribution is supported and not seen as a substitute to national television, Netflix will be able to continue its functioning successfully. Nevertheless, any issues with copyright materials can lead to lawsuits that will negatively influence company’s image and operations in particular countries. Economic factors that affect Netflix ability to function efficiently and expand include disposable income and economic stability of a state. For example, Netflix’s users in Malaysia use its services if their disposable income allows them to purchase additional subscriptions (Lobato and Meese 151). At the same time, any economic instabilities and downfalls will lead to decreased subscription rates because users will mostly spend their money on necessities. Social factors that influence the company include the age of the population, cultural and societal changes. It is more popular among millennials and members of the generation Z but can be adversely influenced by the aging population (Matrix 122). Societal and cultural changes can lead to decreased interest in binge watching, which can also negatively affect the company. Technological factor that presents both threats and opportunities is Netflix’s use of big data and recommendations. On the one hand, it can gather more valuable information using big data from its customers. On the other hand, big data often causes privacy concerns that negatively influence customers’ willingness to use the service (Amatriain 2). Environmental factors are also to be considered by Netflix. The company should focus on its impact on the environment; data hubs and services can negatively influence the surroundings and lead to the increased utilization of resources (electricity). The company does not publish data about its impact on renewable energy consumption (Boboltz par. 6). Legal factors such as changes in regulations, restrictions of online broadcasting, and high charges of streaming services can negatively influence Netflix and interfere with its expansion both in the USA and outside of it. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Firm Performance Although the company has to compete with such serious rivals as Amazon and Hulu, its expansion continues to progress. The company ensured its success with self-produced shows such as House of Cards or streaming of cable TV shows for those users who missed the show (Monica par. 2). According to Monica, Netflix stock “has soared more than 535%” since 2011 (par. 8). The company also decided to charge the newer users with $8.99 instead of $7.99; this innovation was expected to increase the company’s revenues (Monica par. 12). The company states that its “revenue for the international segment grew 62% year over year” (Netflix 1). Furthermore, the company’s revenues during the first, second, and third quarters of 2016 continued to grow, and in the first quarter of 2016, the company added 5 million members (Netflix 1). As it can be seen, despite competing with strong rivals in the market, Netflix continues to be a highly successful company that is able to increase its revenues and add more subscribers every year. Works Cited Amatriain, Xavier. Big
Government and Political System. I need an explanation for this Political Science question to help me study.

APA FORMAT
Plagiarism checked
Part One
Open and watch the video https://www.ted.com/talks/eric_x_li_a_tale_of_two_political_systems/transcript?nolanguage=en%23t-926261#t-438324 (Links to an external site.)and answer the following questions to the best of your abilities based on the video :

How does the author explain that the Chinese one-party political system is adaptable, meritocratic, and legitimate even though there are no elections held?
How does the party’s Organization Department work?
What is the author’s take on government corruption?
What are the author’s prediction for China?
Go to the “Studio” tab and watch the video on Democracy, Authoritarian Capitalism and China. Discuss the differences between western style representative democracy and autocratic governments.

Part Two
1. On an internet browser type the word “Andorra wikipedia” and pick the first link. On the right hand side you will see the Andorran flag, and other information like the capital, official language, etc. Read the section on government (including the links), and in your own words rephrase the information read and write three/four sentences to explain why Andorra’s government is defined as “Unitary parliamentary, semi elective diarchy”
2. Do the same as above for the country of Canada and explain to someone who does not have the time to read the whole thing, what is meant by “a federal parliamentary, constitutional monarchy”.
Note: Please double check your work before submission. Submission of empty files, corrupted files or wrong assignments (from other courses) are considered late until you submit the right file. The instructor usually takes three days to grade an assignment but under no circumstances it will take more than one week.
Government and Political System

Make sure that the essay is 1.5-2 pages, single space. Not citation or outside research is permitted. Any evidence of outside research will be considered plagiarizing. You should use the film and the power point lecture. Important notes: 1) Ignore any instruction in the essay that refer to green book or time writing. This is an online class. 2) Make sure in the essay that as part of the evidence you analyze each one of the 5 Court cases discussed in the film and how each one advanced the NAACP agenda . Explain what each of the cases introduced and resolved and how were they different from one another. ? 3) Make sure you go over the NAACP strategy, method of recruiting clients and organizing law suits. The role of the doll experiment and social science evidence, the role of important individuals in the film, and most importantly, what is the difference between Separate and Equal, both tangibly and intangibly. File to upload: Microsoft Word or pdf. I posted below the file for the essay question

8-9 constitutional law final paper APA format Time Roman

8-9 constitutional law final paper APA format Time Roman.

I need someone to write me a 8-9 page paper on a fictional story in MLA format. Outside sources are prohibit!ed! I will provide you with the materials you will need. DO NOT USE THE SOURCES LISTED Roe vs. Wade( DO NOT USE IT IS ALREADY PART OF THE FICTIONAL STORY ) Doe vs. Bolton ( DO NOT USE )Meyer vs. Nebraska case( DON’T USE) United States vs. Vuitch( DON’T USE) NO GRAMMATICAL ERRORS OR SPELLING ERRORS!! NO PLAGIARISMREAD THE INSTRUCTIONS CLEARFULLY!! Here is the question you should focus on:” Does congress have the power to pass Unborn Protection Act at all”? You are arguing FOR THE Unborn Protection Act. In other word, protection from abortion. You must read all of the uploaded documents. I uploaded an example of how to format the paper.YOUR JOB IS FIGURE OUT WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE CASE/ FIND THE LEGAL REASONINGI will attach the fictional story. PLEASE read ALL PAGES of the story very CAREFULLY!! Including the instructions and assignment page (page 7)and Hints and Final Summary(page 10).I will also attach an example of how it can be done.YOU DO NOT HAVE DO USE ALL OF THE CASES FOR THE STORY. YOUR JOB IS TO PROVIDE GOOD ANALYSIS AS TO WHY BE FOR THE UNBORN PROTECTION ACT!!Constitutional Law and Politics: Struggles for Power and Governmental Accountability (Tenth Edition) (Vol. 1) is the book. You can’t access it online less you buy it, so that is why i had to uploaded photos to the book,Scanned documents is how to format the paper!! lease READ EVERY SINGLE WORDS. Look at the scanned documents grading key on how to format the essay!! The way you should be answering the question should be similar to the grading key my teacher have provided!! For example: Reno vs Condon is one of the supreme court cases listed. In Reno vs Condon: The national government can restrict how states gather, circulate and sell info about citizens. To make it related to the Unborn Protection Act( abortion); You say that the national government The national government can restrict how states gather circulate and sell( promote) abortions. In the under Required Acts ( founded in scanned document) Women are required to submit a packet to the government. The way you use that is saying : Reno vs Condon allows to regulate individuals and state activities by requiring women to submit a packet of their reproductive health. YOU MUST USE THE CASES( NOT ALL OF THEM, JUST ONES THAT BEST FIT YOUR ARGUMENT AND ANALYSIS) LISTED BELLOW!! THE CASES ARE NOT ABOUT ABORTION,your job is to take the rule from Congress and apply it to “facts. Take about the strengthen and weakness of the cases,still explain how this cases will strengthen your argument and ANALYSIS Be objective!! Cases( do not have to use all if you cannot apply it accordingly For UnBorn Protection Act posotion) McCulloch vs MarylandGibbons vs OgdenUnited States States vs E.C Knights CoHammer vs DagenhartNational Labor Relations Board vs Jones and Laughlin Steel CorporationsUnited States vs Darby Lumber CompanyWickard vs Filburn ; Heart of Atlanta Motel vs United StatesKatzenbach vs McClungUnited States vs LopezReno vs CondonCity of Boerne vs FloresUnited States vs MorrisonGonzales vs RaichNational Federation of Independent Business vs SebeliusBaker vs CarrGoldwater vs CarterSteward Machine Co vs Davis
8-9 constitutional law final paper APA format Time Roman

After listening to the voice, answer 10 simple questions

order essay cheap After listening to the voice, answer 10 simple questions. I’m trying to study for my English course and I need some help to understand this question.

3.1 Identifying an Argument
Listen to “The Hate Debate (Links to an external site.).” For 1-4, respond based on the claims and evidence from the segment of time for your determined round and debater. For 5-10, respond based on podcast as a whole:

State the debater and the position.
State a main claim by your debater.
State the evidence offered to support the claim and explain it.
Explain how the evidence and claim function in the context of the debate.
Were the questions clear? Why or why not?
What connections or patterns did you see across all four positions in context?
Do you have any overall observations or questions about the debate?
Was your opinion about the overall topic impacted? How?
What points of evidence impacted you and why?
What else stuck out to you and why?

For this assignment you will listen to a podcast and do a write up based on one of the speakers. Your assigned speaker will be determined by the month you were born in: (Birthday January-April: Corynne McSherry, May-August: Elie Mystal, September- December: Ken White).
I need do a write up based on Elie Mystal.
After listening to the voice, answer 10 simple questions

critical reflection

critical reflection.

I’m working on a editing question and need guidance to help me study.

Good morning, I am completing my masters in Education and I have failed 2 modules. 1 module I have only failed , the other module is the same. Both modules have been written and feedback from my supervisor has been given. I need someone to help me please as I am at risk of failing. I would send both my modules along with the hand book. module 1 is critical reflection and module 2 is a literature review. Is this something that I could have help with? Thank you20 Sources requiredStyle: HarvardRequirements: 10.9 pages/6005 words ( SINGLE SPACED)
critical reflection

Self evaluation

Self evaluation. Paper details 1-The strength of my speech was that I was passionate about the topic, regarding why alcohol and tobacco commercial affect kids negatively. Had great eye contact. 2-Areas of improvements would be slowing down when I speak, better preparing myself 3- yes I was very nervous felt like I was going to pass out.Self evaluation

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