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The Impact Of Penal Populism On Policy Change Criminology Essay

This paper explores the impact of penal populism on policy change, examining definitions of penal populism and managerialism and evaluating their importance as determinants of policy change. For the purpose of this paper, the focus will be on the campaign for Sarah’s Law and the impact on policies relating to sex offenders that arose from the campaign. According to Pratt (2007) the origins of penal populism lie in the work of Sir Anthony Bottoms (1995) who used the term ‘populist punitiveness’ (Bottoms 1995 cited in Pratt 2007: 2) to discuss one of the main influences on contemporary criminal justice and penal systems (Pratt 2007: 2). The term punitiveness refers to the public’s disapproval and their harsh attitudes in response to offenders (Green 2009: 520). The notion of punitiveness suggests ‘a disproportionate use of sanctions and consequently a deviation from the principle of proportionality’ (Matthews 2005: 179). In the 1980’s it was conceded by senior conservative politicians that in penal matters it was the popular press rather than informed opinion that counted (Ryan 2003: 117). Populism is a political response favouring popularity rather than political considerations (Roberts et al. 2003: 3) and penal populism is a label, given to politicians who ‘devise punitive penal policies’ that are popular with the general public (Pratt 2007: 8). Both penal populism and populist punitiveness are used to refer to the presumption that it is the harsh attitudes of the general public that drives and justifies a harsher stance on crime and punishment policies (Green 2009: 521). Yet Roberts et al. (2003:5) argue that the electoral advantage of a policy takes precedence over any penal effectiveness and rather than attempting to reduce crime rates, penal populism is merely politicians pursuing a set of policies to win votes. ‘Crime is socially constructed, politically-influenced and historically variable … Punishment, like crime, is historically and culturally contingent’ (Newburn 2007:15). However, Pratt (2007) argues that one of the limits of penal populism is that the public’s desire for punishment is not insatiable. Penal populism is an emotional response to terrible, often rare, crimes that generate intense media attention (Roberts et al. 2003: 9). ‘The entanglement of politics and media creates an environment encouraging politicians to offer quick solutions for the most serious crimes’ (Roberts et al. 2003: 36). Furthermore, highly punitive policies are provoked by penal populism, reflecting a position of outrage rather than rationally considering the policy options in relation to offending (Roberts et al. 2003: 36). Penal populism is a product of social and cultural changes and the rise of penal populism reflects a ‘fundamental shift in the axis of contemporary penal power brought about by these changes’ (Pratt 2007: 3). Penal populism stems from the lack of faith in the government, ‘the decline of deference and the growth of ontological insecurity, along with new media technologies helping to spread it’ (Pratt 2007: i). There are a number of issues that require further examination according to Matthews (2005); definition, aetiology and the ‘relation between punitiveness and other dominant trends in penal policy such as managerialism, which are seen to involve different and even oppositional currents’ (Matthews 2005: 178). Similar problems are encountered with the term bifurcation, viewing the penal system as ‘a twin track or bifurcated system with coercive and segregative controls on the one side and inclusive community-based controls on the other is too restrictive’ (Matthews 2005: 181). Managerialism is ‘a set of techniques and practices which aim to fracture and realign relations of power within the criminal justice system in order to transform the structures and reorganize the processes’ (McLaughlin 2001: 169). Managerialism focuses on the operation of the system rather than the treatment of victims and suspects and there is an emphasis on results, targets and performance indicators. The main change in penal policy has not been towards more emotive or expressive punishments but the ‘development of more administrative and impersonal styles of regulation’ (Matthews 2005: 188). According to Matthews (2005: 185) new styles of managerialism have been introduced, which appear to develop alongside punitiveness, and the role they have played in shaping the criminal justice system has been widely reported. Penal policies are developed by governments ‘in line with the sentiments and aspirations of the general public rather than their own bureaucratic organizations’ (Pratt 2007: i). Populist sentiments veer toward a more punitive response to crime and the expansion of the media has been critical in ‘fuelling public sentiments and creating the conditions in which retribution and vengeance can more readily be expressed’ (Matthews 2005: 181). Newburn states that the politics of law and order are played out and stimulated by the media with crime becoming ‘staple newspaper fodder’ (Newburn 2007: 15). The way the media highlights certain crimes and events, influences not only the general public but also politicians and policy makers who have come to rely on the media as the voice of public opinion (Green 2009 : 527). Within the criminal justice system there is an abundance of experts that are not only able to influence policy making but also to mediate the demands of the public (Matthews 2005: 189). However, Pratt (2007: i) argues that there has been less reliance on academic expertise and penal populism has been allowed by governments to impact on policy development. The public have been able to articulate their views and also influence how penal policy is developed, moreover, the public’s hostility towards paedophiles and acts of vigilantism are often taken as an indication of intrinsic public punitiveness (Matthews 2005: 188). The media then encourage and stimulate public concern, in their search for a scapegoat on whom to focus their attention, resulting in a further increase in the sale of newspapers, also an increase in viewing figures (Matthews 2005: 188). Penal populism has not only set new policy agendas it has also radically redefined official opinions on crime and punishment (Pratt 2007: 28). It is in the development of policy on sex offenders that it has had most influence (Pratt 2007), with ‘close parallels in the media and political rhetoric concerning the risk posed by paedophiles’ (Newburn and Jones 2005: 73). According to Matthews (2005: 194), much has been made of the campaigns and legislation that have been passed to address the issue of paedophiles. Sara Payne’s daughter was abducted and murdered in 2000 by Roy Whiting, she called on the then Home Secretary to change the law regarding paedophiles. Campaigning for Sarah’s Law to allow restricted public access to the sex offenders register (BBC 2008), partially inspired by Megan’s Law, introduced in New Jersey after the rape and murder of Megan Kanka in 1994. With the support of the News of the World, Sara Payne and the Sarah’s Law campaign fought for parents to have the right to know if there was a child sex offender living in their area (Ryan 2003: 127). It also called for high risk paedophiles to be included in sex offender orders, those that previously did not fall within the ‘sex offender registration requirements; for the right of victims to know why this or that sentence has been passed; and to be informed of the release date of those who had abused them’ (Ryan 2003: 127). There was criticism from some police forces and child care agencies fearing vigilante attacks (BBC 2008), moreover, in 2000 on the Paulsgrove estate in Portsmouth suspected paedophiles and their families were victims of vigilante attacks and a paediatrician was forced to leave her home and neighbourhood after her house was attacked (Ryan 2003: 127). This was prompted by the News of the World publishing the names and pictures of convicted paedophiles on the back of the Sara Payne campaign (Ryan 2003: 127). The public’s response to this moral panic was, according to Ryan (2003) instructive and there was widespread condemnation of the violence, even the News of the World argued that it was counter-productive (Ryan 2003: 127). ‘Hard cases make bad law, and spectacular cases make knee-jerk policy’ (Walker 2002: v). Including those mentioned previously and others, such as the introduction of Multi Agency Protection Panels and preventing offenders from contacting victims (For Sarah 2009), there have since been 15 pieces of legislation introduced as a direct result of Sara Payne’s work (Moorhead 2009); the News of The World claim 14 of those are as a result of their campaign (For Sarah 2009). Furthermore, Sarah’s Law pilot schemes, allowing controlled access to information about paedophiles, are now being extended (Topping 2009). Politicians are aware of the depth of public feeling and they use ‘rhetoric and symbolism to imply support for stronger measures regarding notification, at the same time as bowing to the professional judgement and influence of criminal justice practitioners’ (Jones and Newburn 2002: 196). Criminal laws and penal measures that are named after victims, such as Megan’s Law and the campaign for Sarah’s Law, use the ‘plight of the victim to legitimate more extensive controls and new punitive measures’ (Hoyle and Zedner 2007: 473). Pratt (2007) questions the effects on criminal justice policy when policy is driven by popular public anxiety, the refutation of evidence based policy is questionably less concerned with proven effectiveness than with what the public want. Penal populism has enabled new policy agendas to be created, redefined official opinions on crime and punishment and Pratt (2007) states that it is in the development of policy on sex offenders that it has been most influential. The public, politicians and policy makers are influenced by events that the media highlight, with the politics of law and order frequently being played out and stimulated in the media. Despite the abundance of experts able to influence policy making, there has been less reliance on the expertise of academics and governments have allowed penal populism to impact on policy development (Pratt 2007). Word count: 1630
Performance Evaluation. I need an explanation for this Business question to help me study.

Write a 1-2 page executive summary, along with an appendix of supporting information, in which you analyze an organization’s financial performance as well as their level of risk for lending and make and present a recommendation to help leadership make a loan decision.
Introduction
This portfolio work project will help you complete a thorough review of an organization’s financial performance as well as their level of risk for lending. Your recommendation will help leadership create a loan portfolio, and your executive summary will clearly and concisely communicate your review to others in the organization.
Scenario
You work for an organization that provides loans to businesses. You are working with a client who is requesting a loan that will require a review of financial and related performance documents. You have been asked to review the documents and summarize your findings in a loan recommendation for your management team.
You may apply this scenario to either Option 1 or Option 2, described in Requirements below.
Your Role
You are a loan manager for a lending organization, and your responsibilities include reviewing loan requests and providing recommendations in regard to whether the loan requests should be funded.
Requirements
Option 1:
Your client works for Ace Company. Assume Ace Company requested a $3 million 10-year loan to purchase production equipment and develop accompanying software. Use the Ace Company Data document for this option.
Option 2:
Use a firm or scenario of your choosing.
Before choosing a company, read the assessment thoroughly to ensure:

The company fits the assessment requirements.
You have access to the financial statements and related performance documents needed to assess risk and make a loan recommendation. You will need information for this year and last year.
You can distribute the financial statements and related performance documents without disclosing confidential company information.

Loan Recommendation
To arrive at your recommendation, analyze the financial performance of the requesting company and present it to your organization’s upper-management team. The management team will take your recommendation into consideration as they finalize loan requests.
Analyze the company’s performance and performance trends. Include the following in your analysis:

Analyze the trend for accounts receivable collections.

Identify the trend.
Explain the relevance of the trend.
Determine if the trend is improving or getting worse.

Compare the company’s average inventory turnover to the industry average inventory turnover rate. Note that the average industry turnover rate for Ace Company is 10 times per year.

Consider whether the company’s average inventory turnover is higher or lower than the industry average.
Explain whether a higher or lower average is better.
Determine whether the trend is improving or getting worse.

Evaluate the company’s short-term and long-term credit worthiness based on financial performance and trend (comparing this year to last year). Include in your evaluation:

Information about performance and trends.
Information about other relevant financial information you consider important to the decision.
Your recommendation regarding whether the bank should grant the loan based on the financial data.

Deliverable Format
The management team of your organization requests this information in the form of a 1–2 page executive summary along with a title page, references page, and appendix of supporting information. The executive summary must highlight the key findings from your review and will provide your recommendation and rationale. The appendix must include data used in your analysis for others to review. Assume that this document is the only communication in regard to your analysis and recommendation and that you will not be with the team to explain anything as it deliberates. In other words, the documentation you provide must be well organized and include information for the management team to clearly see your recommendation and rationale.
Related company report standards:

The executive summary is a professional document and should therefore follow the corresponding MBA Academic and Professional Document Guidelines, including single-spaced paragraphs.
In addition to the executive summary, include:

A title page.
A references page.
Appendix with supporting materials. If you are using a firm or scenario of your choosing, ensure faculty has sufficient information to understand how you reached your recommendation.
At least two APA-formatted references.

Evaluation
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies through corresponding scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Explain how accounting concepts and practices impact financial reporting.

Analyze the trend for the company’s accounts receivable collections.
Compare the company’s average inventory turnover ratio to an industry average.

Competency 2: Apply principles of accounting to assess financial performance.

Evaluate the company’s short-term and long-term credit worthiness.

Competency 4: Communicate financial information with multiple stakeholders.

Communicate accounting information clearly.

Faculty will use the scoring guide to review your recommendation as if they were a member of your organization’s management team. Review the scoring guide prior to developing and submitting your assessment.
ePortfolio
This portfolio work project demonstrates your competency in applying knowledge and skills required of an MBA learner in the workplace. Include this in your personal ePortfolio.
Note: Faculty may also use the Writing Feedback Tool to provide feedback on your writing. In the tool, click the linked resources for helpful writing information.
Performance Evaluation

HIS 109 CC American History In the late 19th Century in The US Discussion

HIS 109 CC American History In the late 19th Century in The US Discussion.

I’m working on a history exercise and need support to help me learn.

American History and RacesDuring the era of colonization, many ethnic groups and races moved from their home land to new lands where either by their own will, war or as slaves. However, America is known to consist of many races which makes the whole continent to have some differences and priorities in making decisions. The first immigrants came frow Western Europe and settled in North America. They were followed by the Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Latin Americans, and Asians. Africans were later forced in America as slaves of the white people to work in the fields, factories, and homes. This paper will discuss how race and ethnicity influenced freedom and opportunity in the United States of America. Native AmericansThe first settlers to America came centuries before Europeans. The dates of the exodus are disputed, with figures ranging from 45,000 to 12,000 BCE. Early Indians are believed to have moved to this new territory in search of major hunting games that they found in great herds of herbivore grazing in America. Over the decades and then millennia Native American culture developed into a complex network of centuries of interlinked tribes with their respective customs, traditions, languages and religions. European colonizer-Native American intergroup links have a tumultuous past (Betancourt, & López, 1993). Also, European settlement of the Americas almost wiped out the indigenous people. And, while Native Americans died the most as a result of their lack of immunity to European diseases, overt mistreatment of Native Americans was also a factor. The above factor delayed freedom and opportunity in United States. African Americans. For certain people, the word “African American” is a misnomer. Many dark-haired people may be identified as Dominicans or Dutch Americans of more recent ancestors in Europe or the Caribbean. In addition, actual African immigrants may think that they have a greater claim to the term African American than those who are centuries away from their country’s original settlers. In 1619, a Dutch sea Capitan took the first Africans and sold their as insolvent servants to the Virginia colony in Jamestown (Betancourt & López, 1993). This was not unusual for Black and White people, and high demand was met by uneducated servants. The next century was attended by indentured black and white slaves. In 1705, Virginia had passed slave code stating that any foreign-born non-Christian might be a slave, and that slaves would be considered property. However, the expanding agricultural market needed more and cheaper work. Slavery is a prime example of the outlook of conflict theory on racial relations. The ruling class had complete domination of the lower caste to maintain power. Whipping, executions, violations, a lack of schooling and health care were both legal and common. Therefore, this war brought misunderstandings that did not establish a peace zone and thus delayed freedom and anticipated prospects. Hispanic.Late estimates of 17.1% of the U.S. population who identified themselves as Hispanic in 2013. The biggest and oldest Hispanic subgroup was Mexican Americans. At the beginning of the 1900s Mexican migration to the US started in response to a lack of cheap formwork. Mexico’s migration was mostly circular; migrants would remain with more wages than in their home country for a few years before returning to Mexico. The sociologist Douglas Massey (2006) states that while average living standards are lower than those in the US, permanent displacement is not so bad that the objective of most Mexicans (Betancourt & López 1993). However, a one-way exodus was the standard for the majority of Mexicans with the border tightening begun with the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. This has caused the Government to retard in freedom because of its efforts to legalize the group’s migration and therefore there are no planned prospects.This is the comment, “this assignment is supposed to discuss the period of the late 19th century in our course. Please resubmit and use our textbooks and topic pages as your sources.”
HIS 109 CC American History In the late 19th Century in The US Discussion

Ethics, Professionalism and Governance Case Study of IT

essay writing service free Abstract Case study 9 – Usage of internet by the company’s employees Mandy is the employee in a company and work as a “security Administrative”. She is a full-time employee and has a long-term contract with the company. The task of creating a report was given to her to gather all the information and history of the employees. This report will include the internet history of each employee and report if the employees is browsing some questionable sites like pornography. While Mandy is aware that employees will be panelised if found guilty and she also know that the company has not signed any contract as such in which company has right to access any personal data of the employees. Now she is in situation where is have to take a certain decision even when she is in between ethical dilemmas. This report will show how to take a proper decision. Introduction Being in a professional environment and being an IT employee, Every IT person is accountable and behave in a normal way, Mandy can take decisions by being in a limit of code of ethics and professionalism. There are some morals, rules, policies and some guidelines to be followed by ICT professional and also one should be aware of the IT governance rules laid down by the organisation. However, sometime we fall into some situation, where a professional get stuck into ethical dilemmas and face a tough situation to take a certain decision. This situation can be personal or can be related to organization. So, ethics those rules which give a person guidelines to take decision which is in the best interest of the organization and other party as well as acceptable socially. “They are used to negotiate, support, and strengthen our relationships with others”(William, 2019). With the help of these guidelines and ethical rules we can take a decision ourselves and know whether it is right or wrong. In a concept of It governance, ethical dilemmas is known for involving evaluation and direction to plans a case which support the organisation and monitor the plans. It also includes the strategy and policies for using ICT within an organisation.This case study will study the ethical dilemmas and provide possible suggestions to be followed. Findings From the case study 9 following are the three suggestions which are taken from code of ethics and professional conduct. 1. ACS code of ethics and code of professionalism 1.1 The preference of public interest Identify those directly involved and impacted in any situation by your work and clearly discuss and consider their interest. Discuss with clients and stakeholders about any conflicts which can occur in the near future which can involve professional action, legal action or other accepted public action or requirements. Let your clients, stakeholders, employees and other party involved know about the conflicts of interest or conscientious objections as soon as possible. If we take an account of ACS code of ethics and rules of professional conduct.Mandy has to reconsider the possible effects and consequences of her actions on other employees which are involved and manager. Because there is no signed agreement or contract which suggest or state that the permission is given to the organization to monitor online activities and web history of any particular employees. So, there are chances of conflicts and she may have to discuss and tell the whole story to employees personally for better clarification of the situation and then she will be able to have a clear idea and will be able to make a better decision. 1.2 Honesty and Integrity It is not essential to improve your reputation in a company by telling certain decision at the expense of destroying someone else’s reputation. Distinguish between your professional and personal opinions and advice. According to this code of ethics, Mandy has to think about her colleagues’ reputation as she will access their personal information. She also has to think about the business and being ICT professional she is accountable for the company’s policies and regulation. 1.3 Competence and Proficiency Make yourself aware about the relevant standards and legislation, and act accordingly to that. Respect and protect your employees and organization’ proprietary interests. According to this, Mandy should research and make herself aware about the organization’s policies and regulation and also about the employee’s contract in which they are restricted to limited internet access or not. However, she needs to make a certain decision which is favourable to both the parties. 1.4 Professionalism Taking a suitable action against the party who are involved in some misconduct of law or opposing to this code. One should not provoke nor initiate to influence or change the state of mind, if any Employee takes any action, that action may breach the ICT code. Dont be involved or take any action in your professional role which may affect the image and reputation of the profession or diminish from the good name of the ACS. According to this code and clauses, Mandy should take appropriate action if an employee engaged in misconduct and also against the organisation which is breaching the staff contracts to ensure good conduct is in practice. Recommendations In the recommendations, Mandy should follow the Thomas White’s approach to solve these dilemmas at the workplace, which is as below: Examine the consequences By following these steps mentioned above ,it will be easy for Mandy to take a certain decision and it will be easy for her to think about the consequences and what action can be taken. Some solutions can be really helpful for her to solve the problem such as who will be affected and who is a beneficial party, whose feelings will be hurt and will it cause short term or long term consequences. In the given case study the employee’s private information with website history will be recorded and was told to make report without their consent. So, ethically it is unfair to do so because it is written nowhere in the company regulations and it is a breach of laws and company’s own policies. It will create conflicts among the staff members and they may protest against the company’s norms. Examine the Actions “When analysing the actions it is essential to only think about the impacts of activities regardless of the consequences”(Oaic.gov.au, 2019). In this case study the actions can be taken after analysing the situation with the manager who has given the task of masking such report. furthermore,to ensure the ICT corporate governance is followed properly. Mandy should think about the end result of the action she will take. Making a final decision Now it is time to take the appropriate and final decision by taking an account of all ACS code of ethics and Australian legislation. This suitable decision can be a discussion between both parties involved but it should be a healthy discussion. After the discussion, the best result can be the change of current contract and then updating the contract according to the new rules and regulation where employees are made aware of the legal use of company’s network and computers without any breach and conflict. while employees should know that “The laws are quickly changing and Australian websites are being actively monitored by the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner” (Legal123.com.au, 2019). Conclusion In the end, it can be concluded that as any party whether it is employees or the big organization should follow certain rules before enforcing something and everyone is bound to follow the ACS code of ethics and standards. In this case study, changes and updation in employees’ current contract can be taken into consideration and making the employees aware about the particular change in contract. This can be the best solution where they don’t become the victim of corporate propaganda References William, F. (2019). What Is an Ethical Dilemma?. [online] SocialWorker.com. Available at: https://www.socialworker.com/feature-articles/ethics-articles/What_Is_an_Ethical_Dilemma?/ [Accessed 20 Jun. 2019]. Oaic.gov.au. (2019). What is personal information?| Office of the Australian Information Commissioner – OAIC. [online] Available at: https://www.oaic.gov.au/agencies-and-organisations/guides/what-is-personal-information [Accessed 20 Jun. 2019]. Legal123.com.au. (2019). Privacy Policy Guide for Australian Websites, Apps

​The Historical Impact of Personnel Psychology

​The Historical Impact of Personnel Psychology.

The Historical Impact of Personnel PsychologyThroughout the years, there have been two disputing theories on when industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology began. Some experts believe that I/O psychology began in 1903 when Walter Dill Scott wrote The Theory of Advertising. Others believe it began when Hugo Münsterburg wrote Increasing Human Efficiency in Business. The use of I/O psychology has influenced many events such as wars, civil rights legislation, court decisions, and science. Throughout its development, I/O psychology has broadened its range to include concepts such as personnel psychology. Many historical events and people in I/O psychology have influenced the development of personnel psychology and continue to influence the field today.For this Discussion, select a historical event or person you consider most influential in I/O psychology and/or personnel psychology. Consider how this event or person influenced current research.With these thoughts in mind:Post by Day 3 a brief description of the historical event or person that you selected. Then, explain how this person or event influenced current research in personnel psychology. Finally, explain one way you might have experienced an application of this current research. Support your response with the Learning Resources and current literature.Your post should be three paragraphs. Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.Walter Dill Scott. (n.d.). In People in psychology. Retrieved January 26, 2012, from http://elvers.us/hop/index.asp?m=3&a=83&key=114
​The Historical Impact of Personnel Psychology

FDU Marketing Management Hybrid ?Marketing & Product Life Cycle Essay

FDU Marketing Management Hybrid ?Marketing & Product Life Cycle Essay.

Marketing ManagementAssignment 1Activity 10This activity/assignment will help students understand pricing strategies.Activity: Recall the product life cycle as discussed in Chapter 8 and discuss the pricing strategies followed in each phase of the life cycle.The assignment is to answer the question provided above in essay form. This is to be in narrative form and should be as thorough as possible. Bullet points should not to be used. The paper should be at least 1.5 – 2 pages in length, Times New Roman 12-pt font, double-spaced, 1 inch margins and utilizing at least one outside scholarly or professional source related to marketing management. The textbook should also be utilized. Do not insert excess line spacing. APA formatting and citation should be used.Assignment 2Activity 11This activity/assignment will help students understand advertising messages and marketing communications.Activity: Use the Internet to research and identify 10 ads that have used subliminal messages, prepare a report about these ads. Is it very easy for consumers to identify these hidden messages? What effect do they have if any? If not, why do you think advertisers use them?The assignment is to answer the question provided above in essay form. This is to be in narrative form and should be as thorough as possible. Bullet points should not to be used. The paper should be at least 1.5 – 2 pages in length, Times New Roman 12-pt font, double-spaced, 1 inch margins and utilizing at least one outside scholarly or professional source related to marketing management. The textbook should also be utilized. Do not insert excess line spacing. APA formatting and citation should be used.Assignment 3 Current and Emerging Technologies. 700 wordsTopic: “Protection of patient data has become a critical part of the scope of practice of all healthcare professionals. Routine data breaches underscore the importance of training clinical employees in protecting these data. However, beyond exposure to HIPAA regulations, little is done to educate the healthcare student about the risks and vulnerabilities of the online environment as it pertains to health data” (Swede, Scovetta, & Eugene-Colin, 2018). Search the peer-reviewed literature for examples of this. You may select any topic relating to technology that illustrates the potential for really messing things up. Include, in your description, an analysis of what might have caused the problems and potential solutions to them. Be sure to provide supporting evidence, with citations from the literature. As with the first discussion topic, it is not enough for you to simply create a own posting. You must read the postings of the other members of the class and comment on each of them. Please see Discussion Forum of the class syllabus for additional details on content. No Plagiarism and Need references under each assignment.
FDU Marketing Management Hybrid ?Marketing & Product Life Cycle Essay

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