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The History Of Visual Effects

The moving images has always enthralled and surprised its viewers. Since the first ever video of horse running to prove his animal feature to the latest video featuring Akon or Eminem, or to the latest film avatar which took 10 long years for its completeion, this medium of Moving Visual Images has come a long way and still far more to go and explore. The most influencial among these moving images is the medium of cinema. I has a strong hold on people, they never get tired of movies. This is the key thought behind movie making . If the people are showing any hesitation towards the movies, the makers would soon come up with new ideas and technologies. If the Improvement is in the field of technologies it would certainly be containing the word Effects in its priority list. Effects is the most important and key part behind the film Industry now. More than 90% of films releasing today has a Special or Visual Effects sequence in some part of its running time or may be the entire movie would be VFX showcase. The first film screening was done on December 28, 1895 showing 10 short films of 20 minutes in total was held in the basement launch of the Grand cafe on the boulvard des capucines in Paris, and the inventers of this technique of capturing and projection of sequence of images were by the Lumere Brothers. And now A single film is releasing world wide on the same day in more than thousands of theatres. The growth of the Industry was in tick of a time but this tick of time has a lot more to say. Louis Lumiere once said about cinema ” Cinema is an invention without any future”. He might have been right when he made this statement, The period of invention, Invention of usabel electricity, steel and petroleum products which inturn lead to the second Industrial revolution. But that statemnt of Louis Lumiere would be a joke at this poit of time, In this era of technologies and development, A period when manpower is questioned by the machines. Experiments were the key to improvement, innovation and inventions. The technologies dint come up by itself There is a lot of hard work and lot of man power behind it. A small brief of the eveolution of Effects. Special Effects Smokes and mirrors were the first visual effects tool used in the begning of movie making to create Effects. The smoke and mirrors with the help of tricky camera techniques startled the audience. This was achiedved with the help of human inablity of vision, that they will see sequence of images as they are in motion and not as single images. These was scientifically called as the persistance of vision. These simple techniques were produced within the camera, such as simple jump-cuts or superimpositions, or were created by using miniatures, back projection, or matte paintings. The first ever Special effect used ina motion picture is called “Stop trick”and It was the first type of photographic trick in motion pictures. The trick is simple,Executed by Alfred Clarke in 1895. While filming a reenactment of the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots, Clark instructed an actor to step up to the block in Mary’s costume. As the executioner brought the axe above his head, Clarke stopped the camera, had all of the actors freeze, and had the person playing Mary step off the set. He placed a Mary dummy in the actor’s place, restarted filming, and allowed the executioner to bring the axe down, severing the dummy’s head. George Melies a French magician is a personality whom I shouldn’t miss when speaking about the History of Special Effects. He is also reffered as the Cinemagician. George melies accidently discovered the same “Stop trick”. While he was filming in the streets of paris, his camera got jammed. And later when it was screened He found that “Stop Trick” has caused a truck turn into a hearse, Pedestrians to change direction and men turned into women. Melies the stage manager at the theatre Robert-Houdin, was inspired to develop na series of more than 500 short film, between 1896 and 1914, in the process developing or inventing such techniques as multiple exposures, time-lapse photography, dissolves, and hand painted color. Because of his ability to seemingly manipulate and transform reality with the cinematography. He used this trick when shooting his eight-and-a-half minute famous Nickelodeon based on Jules Verne’s From the Earth to the Moon. This video featured a combination of live action andanimation, and also incorporated extensive miniature and matte painting work. Introduction To Visual Effects Visual Effects or VFX is a subsidiary part of special effects. What is VFX Visual Effects (Visual FX/VFX) is the various process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live action footage. Visual Effects involve the Integration of computer generated Realistic Environments, characters or Effects which is dangerous, costly or simply impossible to capture on film. The technique of Visual Effects is now commonly used in Big Budget films as the generation is a costly business. The Availability of affordable Compositing and 3D softwares creates a wave among the amateur film makers to include these techniques in their films too. Different Techniques Involved or Integrated with Visual Effects Animation: Animation is the technique by which images which would be 2D or 3D artwork or model position shown in a sequence such that it creates an illusion of motion. This is due to the optical illusion of motion which is in turn by the persistence of vision of our eye. The most common method of presenting this would be motion picture or a video program although there are plenty of other methods. Chroma key: Chroma key compositing or Chroma Keying is the technique of compositing two images or frames together in which a color or small color range from the above image is removed or made transparent revealing the image behind it. This technique is also referred as Colr keying or Color separation overlay green screen or Blue screen. Compositing: Compositing is the combining of of visual elements from various sources to one image, creating an illusion that all these elements are the part of the same scene. Live action shooting for various compositing are called, chroma keying, green screen, blue screen etc. All compositing involves replacing one part of an image with another part from another image. In the digital method of compositing the software command designates a narrowly defined color as part of an image to be replaced. Then every pixel from the source image is replaced by the pixel from the image which has to be in place. That should be aligned in such a way that the whole composition should look like a single image or frame. Computer Generated Imagery: Computer Generated Imagery or CGI is the application in the field of Computer graphics or more precisely 3D computer graphics to special Effects in films, Television programs, Commercials etc. CGI is used for films because its controllable than the other physical processes like Constructing miniatures or calling Extras for the crowd sequence. And the advantage CGI has over other mediums is that It can be controlled and edited by one individual/CG Artist without the help of Actors, Expensive set pieces or Costly props. Matte Painting: A matte Painting is the painted representation of a landscape, Set or Distant location that allows filmmakers to create an illusion which would rather be very much expensive, impossible to visit or shoot on a live action film. During the course of time since its first usage, The artist have used and experimented different techniques on matte painting. But the quality of output of matte painting is seamless and is directly proportional to the skill level of the artist and his imaginations. Rear Projections: Rear Projection is an in- Camera special effect technique used in film productions to combine foreground performance with pre-filmed backgrounds. It was widely used and still being used to show background motions like driving or a “distant” Background motion. The projector is placed behind the screen which is called plate and casts a sequence of images on to the screen. As the projector is behind the screen a reversed image is casted which makes the image looks fainted or washed out . A large area of space is occupied for this kind of projections as the projector is kept at a distance from back of the screen. Since the screen is called plate, “Roll Plate was the command given to the crew to roll the projector according to the time. Front Projection Effect: In contrast to rear projection, in front projection the background image is projected onto both the performer and a highly reflective background screen, with the result that projected image is bounced off the screen and into the lens of a camera. This is achieved by having a screen made of a retroreflective material such as Scotchlite, a product of the 3M company that is also used to make screens for movie theaters. Such material is made from millions of glass beads affixed to the surface of the cloth. These glass beads reflect light back only in the direction in which it came, far more efficiently than any common surface. The actor (or subject) performs in front of the reflective screen with a movie camera pointing straight at him. Just in front of the camera is a two-way mirror angled at 45 degrees. At 90 degrees to the camera is a projector which projects an image of the background onto the mirror which reflects the image onto the performer and the highly reflective screen; the image is too faint to appear on the actor but shows up clearly on the screen. In this way, the actor becomes his own matte. The combined image is transmitted through the mirror and recorded by the camera. Schüfftan process: Its a special Effect technique used in the first of 20th century before being completely replaced by traveling matte. This process is named after its Inventor Eugen Schüfftan(1893-1977)Schüfftan placed a plate of glass at a 45-degree angle between the camera and the miniature buildings. He used the camera’s viewfinder to trace an outline of the area into which the actors would later be inserted onto the glass. This outline was transferred onto a mirror and all the reflective surface that fell outside the outline was removed, leaving transparent glass. When the mirror was placed in the same position as the original plate of glass, the reflective part blocked a portion of the miniature building behind it and also reflected the stage behind the camera. The actors were placed several meters away from the mirror so that when they were reflected in the mirror, they would appear at the right size. . Visual special effects techniques in rough order of invention practical effects in-camera effects miniature effects Schüfftan process matte paintings rotoscoping Dolly zoom optical effects travelling matte aerial image effects optical printing bluescreen prosthetic makeup effects motion control photography Audio-Animatronic models digital compositing wire removal morphing match moving Virtual cinematography Landmark movies 2001: A Space Odyssey (Pioneer in spaceships models) Amadeus (Old age stipple, era effects) The Birds (Male/Female Matte developments) Buddy (Animatronics) The Day After Tomorrow (Prolonged digital shots, playing with “weather effects”) Independence Day (Digital effects combined with small-scale models) Jurassic Park (Large animatronics, creating creatures from scratch) King Kong (2005) (Motion Capture) The Lord of the Rings film Trilogy (Created Massive Software, prosthetic work, digital effects, motion capture) The Matrix Trilogy (Bullet Time) Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest (Motion capture from a 2D image) Star Wars (Creation of original, practical effects, “destruction” effects, pioneer in spaceships models) Superman (Human flight) Terminator 2: Judgment Day (3-Dimensional Morphing and 3D Human Body) The Terminator (Digital effects) Titanic (Model work, computer generated water, motion capture) Toy Story (Complete Computer Animation) Tron (Computer animation, virtual sets) The History Of Indian Cinema History Of Indian Cinema The first ever screening In India was held in Bombay at Waston’s Hotel in the year 1886, six soundless short films were screened by Lumiere Cinematographe just on year after the first ever screening by Lumiere Brothere’s in Paris. Soon after, Hiralal Sen and Bhatavdekar started making films in Culcutta(now Kolkatta) and Bombay(now Mumbai) respectively. First acuality films were made by Bhatavdekar in 1899 just like the Lumiere’s did. Thogh there were many efforts in making feature films since the introduction of Film in India, The first feature film Raja Harishchandra was made in the year 1913 by Dada Sahab Phalke, He was later known as the Father of Indian Cinema.By the year 1920, The begning of Indian film Industry was started and started with 27 films per year, reached 207 films in 1931 and today India makes about more than 1000 films per year. A world record has been set in 2009 by producing about 2961 films on cellulloid which includes a staggering figure of 1288 feature films. Visual FX in India The History of Indian Visual FX dates back to the silent era, At the same time as hollywood films were experimenting and Executing VFX, India has also closely followed and caught on. Dada Saheb Phalke’s silent movie Kalimardhan in the year 1919 is one example wit such work. Later came movies like Padhala Bhairavi and Mya Bazar which took VFX to greater heights. The Golden Era(1940-1960) Of Indian Cinema: This was the era when Indian films where well acclaimed and Appreciated along with the growth of world Cinema. The films were treated well in the Industry. This nourished and helped the Indian film makers to Explore and Experiment both technically and story base. There were many experiment in the field of cinematography innovating new techniques and experimenting with new Ideas. Cinematographers like Subrata Mitra were pioneers in that. His techniques had an Impact on the cinematography of the world cinema. His techniques included Bouncing the light that’s using the daylight on the sets. Then came the major twist, which has made the Indian films to lack behind in Techniques. The reason are many, But two main reasons would be The usage of computer generated technologies in world cinema where Indian filmmakers were drawn back, as the Indian Scientists and technologist may ot have helped the field of cinema in improving its quality. The second reason would be, Eventhough the scientists and Technologists were keen in helping the Indian film for producing the special effect techniques, Indian film makers might have more preferred creating Masala Movies( A colocial word used for the Typical Indian Commercial Film) fledged with Darama, songs, Tragedy and all. As the medium of cinema is a Pure process of Business through Entertainment. Even then Few movies were released in Indian Cinema with magnificant Films with special Effects, Makers being the pure lovers of Cinema, and whoe adored the growth of world Cinema. The 90’s: Begning of The Visual FX The 90’s has to be considered as the milestone decade for the Visual FX Of Indian Cinema. This decade show us first that Indian Cinema has the strengh and courage to Compete with the world cinema in Visual FX. The first live action movie incorporating animation in India was “O Faby” in 1993, A malayalam feature film. Then Came a film in the year 1994 where the lead Actor was dancing with his heroine for the song “Mukkala Mukkabula” but the surprise was that only his clothes were visible and his body parts were just blank or Invisible. This was the first time when Indian Audience as well as the makers were experiencing such a technique in an Indian cinema. The Indian Government had been too impressed with this dance I think, From the next year onwards, 1995 The rajat Kamal or Silver Lotus for Special Effects have been Included in the National Film Awards. The first award went to none other than the creator of this piece of Effect Mr. Venky. Venky has shown his talent in the 1993 released film Gentleman and did some charisma in the movie, and then he came to work in Kadhalan and grabbed the award. But it would be too Unfair If I dont mention the Director Both the films, which is the same person, who has shooked each and everyfilm maker in the country with his love toward Visual FX, with his love towards Cinema, with his belive in the Visual FX, and shooked the whole country with his latest film Endhiran/Robo( 2010), Simple but fledged with Innovative ideas Mr. Shankar.

Foothill College Sex Education Essay

Foothill College Sex Education Essay.

Let’s Talk About SexSo, how many of your parents sat you down and had “the talk?” When I ask this question in my classes on campus, I maybe get one or two hands in the air. Oftentimes, parents never had the “talk” given to them so they are afraid to have it with their own children and hence the cycle repeats. So now you have a chance to give the talk that you wish your parents would’ve given you. Bonus, you’ll be prepared when/if you become a parent yourself. So for this assignment, I’m asking you to write a one- to two-page “speech” which you would give to a twelve-year-old about sex. Most students format the assignment as if they are writing to their future child. If you are a male student completing this assignment, please complete it thinking of how you would talk to your son someday (and vice versa if you are a female student). Include a discussion of the following questions:What is menstruation?What are nocturnal emissions?What is an orgasm? How do you know when you are ready to have sex? How do you know when you are in love? Everyone else seems to be growing breasts, having their period and I’m not. Is there something wrong with me? Every other guy in my class has grown a foot taller in the last year or so and I am still under five feet tall. Am I going to be a dwarf? What exactly happens in puberty? Does everyone grow pubic hair? Does it hurt when your breasts grow? I had sex with my boyfriend four times and I didn’t get pregnant. Does that mean I am sterile? Other information you think that an adolescent should have (including consent)Do NOT wimp out by just writing “I will answer any questions they have.” or “I’ll tell them to Google puberty.” Try to anticipate what questions they have so you have an answer ready.Also, just so you are prepared, think about this question… What are you going to tell your children when they ask about YOUR sex life, e.g., did YOU wait until you were married before having sex, etc?You have three options: A) You can tell them the truth. For some of you, who are just pure as the newly fallen snow that presents no difficulty. Other people will admit that they had a less than blameless youth but tell their children that they do not want them making the same mistakes. (This does not often meet with nearly as good a reception as you might expect. Many teenagers argue that they, too, need to make some mistakes.) B) You can lie through your teeth and PRETEND that they were a product of the second virgin birth in two thousand years. C) You can tell them it is none of their business. In case you are interested, I tend to go for a combination of A and C. I do point out to my children that, when I was younger, AIDS did not exist, so what we had to worry about was getting pregnant, while they have to worry about ending up dead. The paper should be written in essay form (single spaced, APA format—although I am not a stickler on the formatting), assuming you are speaking to your son/daughter (no dialogue back and forth). I would like you to cover everything on the list that pertains to the sex of your “child” in the assignment. If you wish to cover topics on the list regarding the opposite sex, that is up to you (optional–not mandatory). No, you do not need to include citations from the text, however if you do, pls do cite the sources correctly. If you feel you have the basic gist of what the text explains regarding each topic, then no need to reference.
Foothill College Sex Education Essay

Mental Healthcare in Louisiana Research Paper

custom essay Introduction The mental health of individuals is one of the major concerns of the U.S. healthcare sector. The tendency towards the gradually increasing level of pressure caused by society on people preconditions the growth in stress rates. Additionally, complex economic situations, environmental factors, crime, disasters, and personal issues can also be considered stressors that might trigger the development of the disease and lay the ground for the appearance of multiple complications. That is why there is a critical need for improved monitoring in this sphere and effective intervention. Unfortunately, the scope of the problem and the complexity of the given task becomes a serious challenge to various states and authorities. For instance, the current state of mental health care in Louisiana can be considered catastrophic as there are multiple problems that demand immediate intervention and resolution. The presented paper outlines the existing situation in the given sector, factors that contributed to its appearance, and offers possible approaches to improve it. Background Discussing the given problem, Hurricane Katrina’s landfall in 2005 can be considered one of the root causes of the emergence and development of critical issues in Louisiana. Devastations of the main elements of infrastructure preconditioned the dramatic decrease in the effectiveness of care provision (Potash, 2008). The healthcare sector of the state has been trying to recover pre-storm resources to be able to help all individuals who returned after the natural disaster (Potash, 2008). However, it turned out to be a severe challenge, as mental health services did not follow the residents’ return (Potash, 2008). Reports state that out of 208 psychiatrists who worked in New Orleans, only 42 remained (Potash, 2008). Additionally, the number of beds available for mentally ill patients reduced from 487 to 190 (Potash, 2008). Along with the substantial harm done to healthcare units in the area, it resulted in the sector’s inability to assist patients with mental problems and contribute to their recovery. The situation signalized the need for intervention and improvement; however, it continued to deteriorate and preconditioned a crisis that can still be observed today. Budget Cuts Another factor that has a significant negative impact on the state of mental care in Louisiana is a chain of budget cuts in observed years. It limited caregivers in their ability to provide appropriate care to patients, especially those who have mental illnesses. At the moment, Louisiana holds the lowest rank in spending on mental health care if compare with the other 43 states (LBP, 2018). The lack of financing and state investment preconditions the further evolution of the crisis and the use of ineffective policies to deal with the problematic situation. The bigger part of these cuts took place in the last decade during the rule of Bobby Jindal, who failed to repair the health sector (Sayre, 2018). As a result, specialists working in the sphere do not get the needed training, and caregivers are deprived of a chance to help patients because of the limited resources available to them. Hospitals Poor financing also preconditions multiple psychiatric clinics’ closures or their inappropriate functioning. Being not able to work with this sort of client, health units prefer to turn away patients before they become this very unit’s responsibility (Potash, 2008). Moreover, reports show that many working hospitals accepted the decision to close psychiatric wards after the storm and avoid working with mentally ill patients mainly because of the increased amounts of uncompensated care that were associated with this sort of duties (Potash, 2008). In such a way, the core reason for the closure of healthcare facilities or their inability to open and support their psychiatric departments was inappropriate funding that deprived caregivers of a chance to offer needed interventions to patients of hospitalizing them (Potash, 2008). Moreover, the decrease in the number of hospitals preconditioned the appearance of problems in many other social spheres, which critically depend on the successful functioning of this very sector, and the penitentiary system belongs to this cohort. Prisons At the moment, Louisiana also faces a serious problem related to the imprisoned people. Statistics show that at the moment, jails are full of mentally ill patients who are not provided with the needed care (Sayre, 2018). The poor functioning of the healthcare sector preconditions the development of dangerous situations when people who need assistance are not provided with the demanded treatment and might pose a threat to other individuals who surround them (Moller, 2010). Additionally, human rights become infringed as incarcerated people should also be provided with all services needed for their living and development. In such a way, the appearance and evolution of multiple problems in mental health care also have a negative effect on jails and community health. Emergency Rooms and Nursing Homes Furthermore, the cuts in the budget discussed above should be taken as a limiting factor for the work of emergency rooms and nursing homes. Accepting the fact that that rates of mental illness remain especially high in the area, the effective work of these two types of facilities is fundamental for the improvement of care delivery and the quality of people’s lives. Unfortunately, the gaps in the system and problems with the budged also mean that people with this sort of problem remain uncovered and suffer from the further development of complications (Sayre, 2018). Emergency rooms might refuse to take a patient because of the absence of financing, specialists, or beds available for this cohort of clients (Sayre, 2018). As for the nursing homes, their number also has been decreasing since 2005 because of the uncompensated work and systematic problems in the whole sphere (Potash, 2008). For this reason, the existence of critical issues can be observed. Ineffective System Analyzing the given crisis and the main aspects associated with it, it should also be said that the fragmented character of the system and the existence of multiple flaws should be discussed. First, there is no effective plan for the alignment of continuous improvement in the given sector. It results in the failure of some successful incentives as they cannot evolve without federal or governmental support. Moreover, findings evidence the widespread incompetence and fraud in current Louisiana’s mental health system (Potash, 2008). The problematic financing and ineffective approach precondition the development of illegal schemes and approaches. At the same time, the level of staff preparedness decreases, which preconditions the increase in the rate of mistakes and deterioration in the quality of care offered to clients (Potash, 2008). The existing Medicaid program suggested care to more than 430,000 people in Louisiana; however, many doctors do not accept patients who fall under this category (Sayre, 2018). Additionally, low reimbursement rates limit patients’ opportunities to acquire the needed care and make practice management extremely challenging (Sayre, 2018). It results in the creation of a fragmented and ineffective system that cannot resolve the crisis. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Private Issues The scope of the problem means that even some private firms and individuals with private insurance might have difficulties. First of all, because of the complex situation, several mental health providers insist on using out-of-pocket payments to treat patients (Sayre, 2018). Additionally, the effective work of the private sector faces problems similar to those deteriorating to work of all state’s facilities in Louisiana. The absence of the structured approach to working with clients who demand this sort of intervention and the gaps in this sphere mean that the number of patients will continue to increase, and private services will remain available only to a limited group of citizens (Moller, 2010). At the same time, there are not so many agents who want to act under these conditions and enter the given sphere because of the absence of a clear understanding of how to improve the situation. Programs There are also some public problems and governmental attempts to achieve serious alterations in care delivery and improve the quality of people’s lives in Louisiana. First, as it has already been stated, Medicaid was considered a proper intervention to help people with serious health problems to acquire care, but its effectiveness and ability to influence the situation was limited (Sayre, 2018). Additionally, there are some public programs aimed at assisting people with a low level of income to ensure that they can improve their living conditions and acquire the desired health (Hardy, 2018). This very intervention can be taken as an appropriate one as there is a high rate of household poverty that prevents people from enjoying their lives (Potash, 2008). However, these programs are not able to reconsider the whole sphere because of the need for some systematic approach. Recommendations As for the positive solutions to the problem, there are several recommendations that can be given regarding the existing situation. First, the fundamental step is to introduce the appropriate financing of the sphere to ensure that local mental health providers will work in communities and provide patients with the treatment they need. It can be organized in the form of retention grants or donations for the federal government because of the extreme complexity of the current situation and the tendency towards its further deterioration. Moreover, it is essential to achieve a pre-disaster number of working hospitals and psychiatric units for them to work with all mentally ill individuals and contribute to the improvement of their states. Finally, as a part of the improvement program, a deep investigation of the sphere should be performed to determine cases of fraud, malpractice, or low competence among employees. Conclusion Altogether, the state of mental healthcare in Louisiana remains complex. The area is still trying to recover from the hurricane and restore its health infrastructure. However, there is a set of problems that contribute to the appearance of negative tendencies and the further sophistication of the issue. First of all, the poor financing and ineffective distribution of costs cause substantial harm to the field and precondition closure of many facilities critical for people’s recovery. Moreover, the absence of trained health workers, a decrease in the number of beds, and a high level of household poverty precondition the need for immediate intervention to ensure that the question will be solved. The proposed solutions include better financing schemes to attract workers, restoration of infrastructure, and in-depth analysis of the sphere to create the basis for continuous improvement. References Hardy, S. (2018). Louisiana officials must take lead in mental healthcare, federal officials say. The Advocate. Web. Louisiana Budget Project (LBP). (2018). Louisiana’s mental health crisis. Web. Moller, J. (2010). Health care facing huge changes in Louisiana. Nola. Web. We will write a custom Research Paper on Mental Healthcare in Louisiana specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Potash, M. (2008). The struggle for mental healthcare in New Orleans – One case at a time. Psychiatry, 5(7), 32-41. Sayre, K. (2018). Louisiana’s mental health care system is broken. Here’s how we got here. Nola. Web.

Health Sciences homework help

Health Sciences homework help. How much has your cultural competency changed since Unit 1 of this course? Which material covered in this course resulted in the change in your cultural competency scores? Any specific course materials, discussion posts, or expert videos?,How much has your cultural competency changed since Unit 1 of this course?,You should have a 3- to a 4-slide presentation (excluding the title and the references slides).,Slide 1 should have the assignment’s title, your name, the institution’s name, and your tally results.,On the next slides, address the following prompts thoroughly, in the given order.,How much has your cultural competency changed since Unit 1 of this course?,Which material covered in this course resulted in the change in your cultural competency scores? Any specific course materials, discussion posts, or expert videos?,What factors hindered your cultural competency in the past?,How will your cultural competency from this course ,affect, your career now or in the future?,What new ideas will you take with you after completing this course?,Finally, how can you help to create a more inclusive workplace and society from the knowledge you gained in this class?,In your presentation, feel free to give reference to photos, videos, research articles, media, or specific discussion posts to support your feedback., More details;,How do you develop cultural competence?,How do I become culturally competent?,Firstly, learn about yourself. Get started by exploring your own historical roots, beliefs and values, says Robert C. …,Secondly, learn about different cultures. …,Thirdly, interact with diverse groups. …,Fourthly, attend diversity-focused conferences. …,Further, Lobby ,your, department.,What are the 6 stages of cultural competence?,The Cross framework emphasizes that the process of achieving cultural competency occurs along a continuum and sets forth six stages including: 1) cultural destructiveness, 2) cultural incapacity, 3) cultural blindness, 4) cultural ,pre,-competence, 5) cultural competency and 6) cultural proficiency.,What are the four features of cultural competence?,Cultural competence comprises four components: (a) Awareness of one’s own cultural worldview, (b) Attitude towards cultural differences, (c) Knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews, and (d) cross-cultural skills.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Health Sciences homework help

Advertising, Publicity, and Public Relations Exploratory Essay

Advertising, Publicity, and Public Relations Exploratory Essay. Introduction The ultimate goal of every business is to sell its products to as many customers as possible in order to make high profits. To achieve this goal, businesses employ various strategies, which include advertising, public relations, publicity, and direct salespersons to market their products. This paper will discuss the importance of each of these strategies in the process of marketing a product. Significance of a Salesperson Salespersons make significant contributions to their companies since they possess a variety of values that alternative marketing systems such as e-commerce cannot replace. To begin with, a salesperson is an expert who is well connected in a particular market segment. This enables him to reach out to customers and to identify their needs, thereby creating opportunities for new product development and market share expansion. An effective salesperson is usually likeable and is capable of building strong relationships with customers. The relationships enable customers to identify with the company’s product, thereby increasing the chances of repeat purchases. Salespeople identify important leads that ultimately turn into huge sales. They are passionate about the company’s product and explain its benefits to customers in a manner that creates a lasting emotional impact. It is this personal connection rather than the product or brand that turns potential customers into actual customers. In a nutshell, salespersons are very important since they enable companies to take business away from their competitors. The type of the product being sold determines the significance of the salesperson. For instance, first moving consumer goods (FMCG) such as bread usually do not require a salesperson because the consumers already have adequate knowledge about them. Additionally, the product is so important to the consumer that they have to buy it without being persuaded by a salesperson. However, for a service such as insurance a salesperson is very important because the product is costly, has complicated features, and is often associated with rip-off. In this context, a salesperson is not only needed to explain the benefits of the product, but also to convince customers to purchase it. Expectations of a Salesperson The main expectations of a salesperson include the following. First, a salesperson expects to maintain a high customer satisfaction rate. This helps in reducing customer attrition by improving the loyalty of existing clients. Second, a salesperson expects to maintain a positive and professional attitude. A positive attitude is important to a salesperson since he is bound to experience rejection in the market. A positive attitude provides the motivation to pursue new leads in order to meet sales targets. Third, a salesperson expects to meet his sales targets within the set timeline. In order to realize this expectation, the salesperson is required to have excellent negotiation skills and product knowledge. The sales role is a position that I would be interested in. This decision is supported by the following facts. To begin with, the role will enable me to make valuable contributions to the company. Undoubtedly, selling is the most important activity in any company since it directly generates revenue. The sales role is also important to me because it creates new challenges that have to be addressed through innovative strategies. This not only eliminates boredom, but also provides numerous opportunities for learning and creativity. Working as a salesperson is a highly rewarding career in nearly every company. For instance, most organizations provide their sales personnel with a fixed and a variable pay. The variable component provides the opportunity to the salesperson to increase his income according to his ability. Advertising Policy Ethics determine the long-term benefit of advertising. Specifically, the society’s perception or attitude towards an advert can lead to an increase in demand or a total rejection of a product. An advertising activity is considered to be ethical if it demonstrates respect to the target audience. Showing respect in advertising involves anticipating and addressing the intentional and the unintentional effects of an advert on the society. Based on these perspectives, my advertising policy would be to create responsible desire. This involves using advertising to create desire or stimuli in a manner that does not create harm in the society. Basically, this policy is based on the principle of do good and no harm. The proposed policy is likely to be effective because it addresses all the elements of a firm’s triple bottom line. The elements include profitability, social responsibility, and environmental responsibility. Creating responsible desires leads to sustainable advertising. Adverts that do not cause any harm to the society and the environment will not be resisted by social activists or banned by the government. Thus, they can be used for a long time to stimulate the public to purchase a particular product, thereby increasing the company’s profits. Public Relations, Publicity, and Corporate Advertising Publicity, public relations, and corporate advertising have the following similarities. First, they are all used to create awareness about a company and its products. Second, they all depend on the print and electronic media to convey information about the company and its products. Publicity, public relations, and corporate advertising are different in the following ways. Publicity is the act of drawing the attention of the media in order to improve the visibility of a brand, product or a company in the public. The main objective of publicity is to garner as much media coverage as possible in order to create awareness about a brand or a product. Unlike advertising, publicity is often not paid for. Moreover, publicity does not involve controlling what is being covered by the media. Thus, publicity can be positive or negative. For instance, Virgin Cola brand received positive publicity in the US when the chairman of the company that produces it, Sir Richard Branson, drove a Sherman tank down a street in New York in 1998 during its launch. The main strength of publicity is that it enables companies to create brand awareness at a low cost. Public relations activities are concerned with influencing the public’s opinion through the media. Thus, its main objective is to improve the reputation of a brand or a company. For instance, after the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, BP used public relations in 2012 to regain its reputation as an efficient firm in the oil industry. Thus, the main benefit of public relations is to help companies to minimize the negative impact of various events on their brands. Advertising involves paying media companies to convey specific information about a brand or a product. Unlike publicity, advertising enables the company to determine the message that the media presents to the public about its product. The difference between advertising and public relations is that the later positions information as news, whereas the former presents information as an appeal to make a purchase decision. For instance, Nokia Lumia 920 gained market share in the US in 2012 after its advert presented iPhone 5 (its main competitor) as boring. Publicity in Future Publicity will continue to play an important role in improving the competitiveness of products in future because of the following reasons. First, publicity ensures credibility since the message about the product emanates from an independent source. As the public becomes more informed about the consequences of consuming various products, publicity will be one of the tools that companies will use to enhance the credibility of their brands. Second, publicity is cost-effective and provides a lot of information to the public. As competition increases in various industries in future, companies are likely to turn to publicity to improve their brand awareness at low costs. Finally, technological advancements such as the use of the internet and smartphones to access real-time information will enhance the suitability of publicity in marketing. Conclusion Advertising, publicity, and public relations are used by marketers to improve the brand awareness for their products. Unlike advertising and public relations, publicity is cost-effective and is likely to be used in future by companies that have limited marketing budgets. Apart from implementing the aforementioned strategies, companies should employ salespersons to sell their products. However, the need for a salesperson depends on the characteristics of the product. References Amstrong, G.,Advertising, Publicity, and Public Relations Exploratory Essay