first:This case study (attached) assignment will reinforce concepts related to market segments, targeting, and positioning. In addition to these strategic components, the case will bring pricing strategy into the strategic planning process. Clean Edge Razor is a ‘wet shave’ company that sells nondisposable razors (i.e., consumers buy replacement razors), very much like Gillette Fusion blades. As you review the case and prepare your case study submission, please keep the following discussion points in mind:What are the dynamics of the non-disposable razor category? Is it stable, growing, or declining? Include numbers from the case. What is Paramount’s (company that sells Clean Edge) position in the industry (i.e., market share leader, etc.)Be sure to identify, describe, and discuss the three price/quality price tiers (value, mainstream, premium). Notice the different names. What is happening in each of those price tier segments (i.e., growing, stable, declining)? In addition to the price/quality price segments, please discuss the ‘benefits sought’ segments (e.g., aesthetic shavers) in your discussion – these segments need consideration for assessing growth trends and whether to target the mainstream or premium segment.The central issue, in this case, is how to position Clean Edge (the newest razor technology) in the mainstream vs. premium segment. Discuss the pros/cons of targeting the mainstream segment; do the same for the premium segment. Discuss the potential profits for both segments (premium vs. mainstream) – this will require using pricing, estimated sales volume (units), and costs (variable and fixed). Make a recommendation based on your analysis. Be sure to include potential short-term consequences and long-term consequences of your decision. Marketing managers usually put more emphasis on short-term results over long-term results (short-term sacrifice with long-term growth). Please include these considerations in this caselink:.https://learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet02-xythos.conten…second:Weight Watchers brand used to be about ‘dieting’ and ‘shedding pounds. Now, it is more about wellness, lifestyle, how individuals define their ‘ideal of beauty’, among other things. The Product Life Cycle is a term that explains how concepts like weight loss and associated services might grow in popularity (and sales) and mature (many companies enter the market; sales for all companies peak). Taking this all into consideration, compose a post that responds to the following prompts:Visit the new WW website and read these articles from CNN Business and Fast Company. Identify and describe the external forces (i.e., societal norms/values, consumer preferences and mindset shifts, competitive offerings (including new ways of seeing health, etc.) that caused ‘diet programs’ to go into the decline stage.What does ‘repositioning’ mean? Why did WW ‘reposition’ and rebrand WW? Include the new name and slogan in your post. What types of associations did they want potential consumers to have regarding the brand? Examples might relate to wellness and a typical user of the services. Read about the types of brand strategies in this article from Willow Marketing. Which is WW? House of brands, branded house, or hybrid? Use the following information from the WW website to support your claim:Frozen NoveltiesCheeseBluetooth Scale
The Dynamics of The Non Disposable Razor Category Weight Watchers Brand Case Study
(Grammar errors will result in a rejected paper) (Native like English writing skills required) (Not Stated,Double Spaced, Apa Format) ——————————– Subject of the paper: Answer the following questions based on the video in the link (the video is short ,only 5 minutes) Requirement: 1.Watch this video on anchoring: After watching this video answer the following questions: A. Let’s say you are negotiating salary with your employer. According this video who should make the first offer: you or your boss? Why? (the why is the most important part) B. Adam Grant in the video talks about how he worked against anchoring when he leased a car. What does he say? 2. Watch this video of Dan Ariely on mental accounting. Explain what happens when we lose a 100 dollar theatre ticket versus lose 100 dollar bill. Why do we do this? 3. How are you guilty of mental accounting? Give a personal example if you can. 4. In the example at Berkeley (in Lecture 2), the students had completely different responses when they were in the aroused state as compared to the unaroused state. Indeed, we are very different people when we are aroused, angry, hungry or tired (in hot states). Yet utopian finance and economics assumes that we are always in the cold state and ever in these hot states. Give an example when you have been in a hot state in which you acted much differently than normal. 5. Watch this really short video on present bias: Then answer the question of how you are guilty of present bias? 6. In the video I asked you to watch on slide 230 (of Lecture 2) what did Ariely find about the nudge in organ donations in two countries? Other information: No minimum number of words as long as the answers are provided. Reminder: APA Format No plagiarism is accepted (people are checked through two different systems for plagiarism) Only academic resources should be used, no older than 5 years old Adhere to the requested number of words/pages No Grammar errors (refunds will be asked for incoherent/ full of grammar errors papers) *** Coherent and correctly written papers are the only ones accepted*** ——– Thank you for your support
Harvard University Behavioral Finance Biases & Traditional Economic Discussion
Presence of Zebra Mussels in Vermont
Presence of Zebra Mussels in Vermont Introduction I remember looking intently at the small trick bike hanging on the wall covered in what appeared to be mud and shells. I ran my hands over it, even though there was a sign that said, “Do not touch.” The bike was rusted and covered in what I now know to be zebra mussels. When I was younger, I visited a place called the ECHO, Leahy Center for Lake Champlain. It is a museum/aquarium located on the lakes shore and is filled with interactive activities for families. They have an Invasive Species exhibit and zebra mussels are in it amongst others. I grew up in the state of Vermont only about 15 minutes away from Lake Champlain, which is a large lake located between the northern parts of Vermont and New York. Zebra mussels or Dreissena Polymar are considered the most aggressive freshwater invader in the northern hemisphere. (Karateyev, 2015) They are a common invasive species known to many great lakes around the country. There are many issues with zebra mussels positively and negatively effecting the ecosystems, economics, and social environment of the lake. Background An invasive species is a non-native organism that is introduced to an area harming and affecting the biodiversity of an ecosystem and the native organisms within that area. Invasive species can be introduced to an area in numerous ways one of them being from humans. In the case of Lake Champlain zebra mussels were introduced through humans who boat and angle in the lakes and waterways. (Mulhollem 2018) There are a lot of fishing competitions on the lake and people from other states will come to fish, their boats have bacteria from other waterways that introduce zebra mussels especially if they are not rinsed off properly. Zebra mussels are an issue in waterways for many reasons. One reason is that they can regenerate in large amounts compared to native mussels. They simply release larvae into the water column whereas a native mussels larva has to attach to a fish in order to reproduce. Zebra mussels can regenerate 30,000 eggs per year. (Cobban, 1991) They clump together on underwater objects as well as intake pipes causing large issues with the companies that have those pipes. Whereas freshwater mussels burrow into the lake bottom. Another concern with zebra mussels is that they smother the shells of other mollusks and compete with them for food. (Ricciardi, 2002) Groups of scientists in Vermont have done studies on the population ecology of zebra mussels and how other animals’ prey on zebra mussels. There is also the Lake Champlain Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program were findings from studies done by divers and scientist can be applied to create solutions. There are current solution options to rid zebra mussels and solutions already put in place for Lake Champlain. Environmental Impacts and Benefits Zebra mussels benefit the Lake Champlain environment by being prey to many of the native fish in the lake. Zebra mussels don’t have many of their own natural predators. Scientists completed a study in 2008 on fish in different locations amongst the lake and studied their predation on zebra mussels. They used a remote operated vehicle to film the fish in the early morning and late afternoon when fish are active. They took data from Bulwagga and Stave Bay, locations shown in Figure 1. Finally, they examined gut contents from a total of 698 fish across four species. The results showed that zebra mussels were a crucial part of the Pumpkin Seed fish diet by being 70% of its diet. (Watzin, 2008) They found that fish didn’t consume zebra mussels in the northern parts of the lake for example the Freshwater Drum had 59% of its diet consisting of zebra mussels but only within the southern portions of the lake. (Watzin, 2008) Over all zebra mussels provide a form of food for fish and this can be due to the fact that invasive species alter preferred food options for many native species. Zebra mussels seem like they can benefit the environment because they are filter feeders, so they filter sediment in the water column. However, when they filter the water, they filter food that is necessary for other organisms in the lake to eat such as plankton, since the introduction of zebra mussels Lake Champlain has seen measurable declines in phytoplankton biomass. (Watzin, 2008) There are only seven native mussels in Lake Champlain and they are currently at risk because of zebra mussels which suffocate them by multitudes attaching to native mussel shells making it difficult for them to open and collect their own food. Freshwater mussels are an important part of the ecosystem because they are considered “ecosystem engineers” where they alter habitats for other organisms and algae is able to stick to its shell. They also release nutrients that other organisms can intake. (“Important of mussels”, 2018) Currently there has been a drop in freshwater mussel population and zebra mussels are altering the lakes ecosystem. (Allaire, 2007) Significant loss of native mussels can lead serious issues within the food chain and the organisms who rely on them. Another environmental impact that comes with zebra mussels is their ability to reproduce in great amounts. As mentioned earlier they release larvae into the water column unlike native mussels where they attach to fish. (Cobban, 1991) This is the forefront of the many issues involving zebra mussels. They are also able to refuge from predation and have protection from disturbances such as wave action by the creation of interstitial spaces among shells. (Beekey, 2004) A study was done in Lake Champlain researching the population of zebra mussels within the lake in different bay locations, Hawkins Bay and Appletree Bay also seen in Figure 1. Each bay has different characteristics. Hawkins has a muddy bottom and is sheltered. Appletree has a sandy bottom and is exposed to high winds. The difference in environment allows for a variety of data. Scientists studied zebra mussel densities in the sediment of the bays. Hawkins Bay saw 38,172 individuals and Appletree bay saw 31,312 individuals. (Beekey, 2004) These are large amounts of mussels because they can reproduce so easily. It also shows that they prefer a muddier sediment that is sheltered from wave action and strong winds. It was also found that dissolved oxygen was much higher in bare sediment than sediment containing zebra mussels in both bays. Dissolved oxygen is good for freshwater fish because they use it to breathe through their gills. It is also important for keeping good water quality so it is not beneficial that zebra mussels make it so there is less dissolved oxygen in the water. They also consume large amounts of algae which is a source of oxygen for fish, so their presence can cause little amounts of oxygen. Also, zebra mussels that coat sediment floor multiple inches thick can make it difficult for fish to find food on the lake floor. (McCabe, 2015) Social Impacts and Benefits Lots of people in Vermont enjoy fishing whether it is for sport or recreation. Fishing season is all year round with lots of people ice fishing in the winter. Zebra mussels can have a social impact on Lake Champlain because they can drive fish species out of an area or cause them to die. Zebra mussels intake lots of plankton and food opportunities in the water column for other fish. (Karateyev, 2015) This would cause fish to visit that part of the lake less frequently because there are scarce food resources. Thus, making it more difficult and unsuccessful for people to fish because fish are no longer in areas they were before. Personal experience with zebra mussels as well as the ECHO Leahy Center for Lake Champlain are great opportunities for citizens to learn more about the invasive species issue. A social benefit of zebra mussels in the lake is that people in the Burlington, Vermont area can recognize this issue because it affects organisms on a local level. Many people may not have known about zebra mussels or their affects until they heard about them from fisherman, the news, even museums like ECHO. I wouldn’t have known about their existence in Lake Champlain if I hadn’t seen the exhibit on them on my school field trip. Also, the more people are aware of the species the easier it is to prevent them from showing up in different areas of the lake. Economic Impacts and Benefits Salmon fishing is popular for recreation and personal consumption. While it is illegal to sell any game fish in Vermont according to Vermont Public Radio, many families and the local economy could benefit from better Salmon. (Cengeri, 2015) Zebra Mussels can in fact contribute to the growth of fatter more desirable salmon. This was discovered in Lake Ontario in Ontario, Canada and shared by National Public Radio. Zebra mussels filter lots of algae out of the water column therefore making once mucky water, clearer. Salmon prey on a smaller fish called alewife and alewife prey on bottom dwelling shrimp. Since these fish hunt primarily by sight, clearer water means the shrimp have a difficult time hiding from the alewife when the sun is up because it is easier for the fish to see them. Ultimately the alewife eats more shrimp and the salmon eat more alewife making them fatter. (Nielson, 2008) While this hasn’t been studied in Lake Champlain there is a possibility for this to happen along with an increase in people paying to visit the area and purchase fishing equipment or licenses benefiting the local economy. One large impact the zebra mussel has on communities is that they clog and block water intake pipes for buildings. Due to their staking ability on any surface they stack together blocking water from entering the pipe. This poses threat to dams, buildings, and hydro plants from closing. If these places do close down it can hurt local Vermont economy since people will be put out of work and less energy supply is available for the surrounding communities. Zebra mussels also negatively affect tourism on the Lake Champlain beaches. Zebra mussels have sharp shells that get washed up to the shore and their decay creates an unpleasant odor. (Allaire, 2007) This causes visitors to not want to visit and pay the money to park which is important for the economy and to pay for the employees, snack bar, and bathrooms on the beaches. (Michael, 2018). Historical artifacts in the lake are also being ruined by zebra mussels, threatening sunken ships. The Lake Champlain Maritime Museum preserves nine Vermont vessels and one New York vessel. These vessels are open for divers to explore but one day may no longer be there. The mussels are putting strain on the wooden decks of the boats which are now water logged. The mussels lay two-three inches thick on the boat’s surfaces. (“Zebra Mussels Threaten Sunken Ships in Lake Champlain, Vt.”, 2018) As these vessels decline there will be a decrease in divers who spend money to be in Vermont and on their equipment to explore the underwater vessels which could harm the local economy. Discussion There are little solutions to solving the invasive zebra mussel issue. However, there are some options. Removal of zebra mussels from the lake would be expensive and can be difficult. Mechanical removal of the mussels would cost around $150,000-$200,000 every two years. (Shaefer, 2010) Chlorine treatment into pipes is the most common way, but it poses risk for leakage of chemicals into the lake. It also doesn’t eradicate zebra mussels only harms the ones that are there, so it must be consistently used. Zebra mussels can adapt to environment easily, so once chlorine is sensed they close their shells for long periods of time if necessary. (Sarrouh, 1998) Chemical treatment is subjected to cost $63,000 with less than $100,000 a year in operating cost. (Shaefer, 2010) Another solution being tested is using sparker pressure pulses to remove zebra mussels that are blocking pipes. In an experiment the sparker was placed in a wet well at the exit of an intake pipe for a paper towel and tissue mill in Lake Champlain. An electrical pulse was released and reacted with the water creating two pressure pulses. It was found that this not only eradicated adult mussels it prevented larvae from settling. (Shaefer, 2010) This system coats $60,000 and less than $5,000 a year for operation. (Shaefer, 2010) Sparker pressure is the cheapest option out of three mentioned above which is why it is being considered. Vermont Fish and Wildlife shares what citizens should do to avoid the spread of zebra mussels in a statement saying, “Make sure that all gear is drained, clean, and dry before entering and upon leaving a waterbody, and let gear dry as long as possible in the sun before moving it from one waterbody to another.” (Mulhollem, 2018) Also, The Sea Grant Lake Champlain states, “know the facts… be a part of the solution inspect, remove, drain, dry” (“Aquatic Invasive Species | Lake Champlain Sea Grant”, 2018) The Sea grant aims to prevent the spread of invasive/unwanted species during fishing tournaments by spreading the information. Very few water droplets are needed to contain juvenile zebra mussels, so it is important to dry equipment off to prevent the spread of the species. This is the current and common solution many sources are putting forth in Vermont because it is something everyone can do. (“Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program | Department of Environmental Conservation”, 2018) The Lake Champlain Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program continues to research and examine the species within the lake providing updates on their website to make sure the lake remains in good health. Conclusion There are many issues with zebra mussels positively and negatively effecting the ecosystems, economics, and social environment of the lake. Zebra mussels harm more than they benefit organism and the community proving this species is invasive and unwanted. It is necessary to have a healthy lake and keep native mussel species alive. The water column needs to be filtered properly as well as intake pipes being able to successfully extract lake water. Zebra Mussels are able to substantially reproduce so the less there are in Lake Champlain the better. There are solutions available such as the sparker pressure pulses which is a cheap option but educating the community on what they can do to prevent zebra mussels is what is being implemented. The Burlington Free Press recently shared that the Lake Champlain Monitoring Programs test plates were pulled up and entirely lacked Zebra Mussels in the sediment sample. (McCabe, 2015) Right now zebra mussels are harming Lake Champlain but there has been a decline of population of the recent years to it is essential that this trend continues to preserve the health of the lake. Citations Karatayev, A., Burlakova, L., Mastitsky, S.,
Florida International University Advertising in Young Children Apps Discussion
assignment writer Florida International University Advertising in Young Children Apps Discussion.
I’m working on a communications question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.
Find an academic paper where the researchers did a content analysis as a research method on an advertisement(s). It can be any topic you choose or find.Summarize:The purpose of the study, what the researchers set out to demonstrate/observeThe methodology including the population sampledThe findingsDiscuss the findings – what you find interesting, or why you chose this particular article, etc.You must cite the article you read and summarized. Please don’t simply copy the abstract. Read the article, understand what the researcher(s) did, and use your own words to discuss.
Florida International University Advertising in Young Children Apps Discussion
Psychology homework help
Psychology homework help. Journal Entry 1This week, you complete and submit your first journal entry. Your journal draws from evidence, concepts, and/or theories you have examined in this program, especially those related to your specialization. What have you observed during your Practicum Experience that you would like to analyze through your journal writing?To prepare:Reflect on your Practicum Experiences in Weeks 1?3.Think about the evidence, concepts, and/or theories (evidence) learned throughout this program and your specialization.Analyze a problem, issue, or situation that you have observed during your Practicum Experience. (There was an unplanned downtime of the electronic health system (EHR) which lasted an hour).Using a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources of evidence, consider what you have observed within the context of your specialty using appropriate concepts, principles, and theories. Give special attention to observed events that vary from the scholarly literature. (See attached pdf of the peer-reviewed articles)Determine how the problem, situation, or issue was handled in a manner that is consistent and a manner that is inconsistent with the theory, concepts, and principles detailed in the evidence. (Read attached pdf articles)Given the various evidence-based approaches that can be used in handling the observed problem, situation, or issue, think about a plan for approaching the matter differently. (Read attached pdf articles)To complete:Write a 250- to 300-word journal entry in APA format and at least 3 references (identified as Journal Entry 1) in which you do the following:1)ÿÿÿÿÿ Describe a problem, issue, or situation that you have observed during your Practicum Experience (no more than a half page). (There was an unplanned downtime of the electronic health system (EHR) which lasted an hour).2)ÿÿÿÿÿ Using no fewer than three peer-reviewed sources of evidence, analyze what you have observed within the context of your specialty using appropriate concepts, principles, and theories. Give special attention to observed events that vary from scholarly literature. (During downtime, the main issue was that the medication administration record [MAR] was unavailable for the whole 30 minutes which was critical and too long in case any of the patient may have required emergency medications to save their lives; also, the alarms on the babies leg in the NICU were deactivated which posed a security risk that may have caused a baby to be stolen).3)ÿÿÿÿÿ Explain how the problem, situation, or issue was handled in a manner that is consistent and a manner that is inconsistent with the theory, concepts, and principles detailed in the evidence. (Emergency meeting was held after the unplanned downtime, see attached plan for handling unplanned downtime)4)ÿÿÿÿÿ Given the various evidence-based approaches that can be used in handling the problem, situation, or issue, formulate a plan for approaching the matter differently. (See attached plan)ReferencesFoote, S. O., & Coleman, J. R. (2008). Medication administration: the implementation process of bar-coding for medication administration to enhance medication safety.ÿNursing Economic$,ÿ26(3), 207-210.Campos, F., Luna, D., Sittig, D. F., & Bernaldo de Quir¢s, F. G. (2015). Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Architecture based on the CDA R2 Document Repository to Provide Support to the Contingency Plan.ÿStudies In Health Technology And Informatics,ÿ216173-177Oral, B., Cullen, R. M., Diaz, D. L., Hod, E. A., & Kratz, A. (2015). Downtime procedures for the 21st century: using a fully integrated health record for uninterrupted electronic reporting of laboratory results during laboratory information system downtimes.ÿAmerican Journal Of Clinical Pathology,ÿ143(1), 100-104. doi:10.1309/AJCPM0O7MNVGCEVTKolowitz, B. J., Lauro, G. R., Barkey, C., Black, H., Light, K., & Deible, C. (2012). Workflow continuity–moving beyond business continuity in a multisite 24-7 healthcare organization.ÿJournal Of Digital Imaging,ÿ25(6), 744-750. doi:10.1007/s10278-012-9504-4Psychology homework help
Describe what leadership is and all the relevant leadership styles
There are various definitions and concepts by a variety of people it comes to defining leadership. According to G a Cole leadership is a ” dynamic process in a group whereby one individual influences the others contribute voluntarily to the achievement of group tasks in a given situation.” Leadership engages other people, for example subordinates. The role of the leader is to direct subordinates towards set goals or aims and objectives of the group or the business. Subordinates help define a leaders status by how much there are willing to listen and accept direction from the leader. Weak leaders tend to have no respect from group members and find it hard if not impossible to direct them. Leadership involves an unequal division of power between the people or person in charge and group members. This allows order and coordination within a group or organisation if there is one clear leader, employees will know who to refer to for confirmation on decisions or when problems arise. It should be noted however that some employees are note entirely powerless; they do contribute and shape activities in the group in various ways. If a group is to be highly effective and successful every member needs to contribute and play a part form start to finish, but more power usually concentrated in the hands of the leader. Different leaders have different forms of power; reward, coercive, legitimate, referent and expert power. Reward power is formed on the leader having the skill to reward group members for getting instructions done and achieving set goals. Employees are more likely to work harder if they know their efforts will be recognised and rewarded. Rewards could include promotion, pay rise or a bonus. Reward power is highly used in the workforce as a form of disciplining and motivating employees. Coercive power is formed on the leader’s capability to make subordinates accountable for not achieving objectives or getting their job done on time. Through coercive power subordinates are aware that failure to meet job requirements might lead to tell off or job loss. Legitimate power is a form of formal authority, it usually comes with the job. Under legitimate power employees recognize the fact that the leader has the authority to exercise influence over them. In many cases employees are obliged to accept this power and failure to concur will mostly result in them being reprimanded or made redundant. Expert power is formed on the principle that the leader has the significant skills and expertise that other members in the group do not. Subordinates are more likely to respect, accept and acknowledge the leaders authority and leadership if they are know he/she is more experienced that there are in that field. Referent power comes from the other group members desire to be like their leader. This type of leadership usually links with charismatic and pragmatic leaders. James A F Stoner notes that “possession of some or all of [the above powers] does not guarantee the ability to influence particular individuals in specific ways.” A leader may have subordinates approbation as a specialist but still fails to motivate or make them more corporative in the workforce. A good leader must have the capacity and skills to draw upon and use the various forms of power to be able to influence employees. Good leaders must possess the power of influence if employees are to do the work that is required of them, on schedule and in some cases on budget. As a individual a leader must be able to look ahead, identify how to get ahead and guide colleagues ahead. For a leader to be successful according to Tim Hannagan he/she must share common goals with those around or have the skills to steer group members towards their way of thinking. Employees must intern momentarily give up their own views in favour of the leaders and the rest of the group, listening to other group members and compromising. Although employees go about different ways in achieving company objectives “â€¦they accede to the preferences of the leader in exchange for the rewards they expect to receive as a result.” Tim Hannagan 2005. Effective leaders motivate their employees by convincing them that the aims set for them is the best way to get the job done and will provide a better result. Happy employees work hard and are more likely to achieve the common objectives of the business or group. Leaders are in charge of employees under them therefore responsible for them and their actions in the workforce there are held accountable for the success and failure of their team. The accountability makes it comparative that the leader makes the best decisions, manages the team and communicates effectively with employees in such a way that action is taken and unneeded costly mistakes that could cost the leader, team members or the organisation avoided. Leadership involves avoiding obstacles and if they should arise overcoming them in the most cost effective way possible. The business environment as shown by the unexpected financial crisis is very unpredictable, so leaders need to be pragmatic and innovative if there are to survive and stay on top is an economic, technological and social environment that forever changing. The 21st century static business environment is rapidly changing and leaders need to evolve with the times if there are to retain employees and be successful. According to Hannagan “leadership can be seen as performing the influencing function of management largely involved with establishing gaols and motivating people to help achieve them.” In management there are various leadership styles and different leaders fall under different styles. Good leaders tend to use a style of leadership in response to the workforce or situation concerned to achieve the best result possible. There are old and modern styles of leadership, including; Transactional, Transformational, Participative and Situational Leadership. 1.Situational Leadership Situational leadership is “..an approach to determining the most effective style of influencing, considering the direction and support a leader gives, and the readiness of followers to perform particular tasks.” David Buchanan, 2004. Situational leaders should be able to change their leadership style in response to the teams developing or changing behaviour, for example experience or willingness to accept responsibility. Blanchard and Heresy (1982) believe the maturity of the employee determine the leadership style of the leader, they believe that employer and employee relationship move through four stage. As employees become more experienced and skilled, the employer will need to change his style of leadership to motivate and take advantage of employees new found skills to make the team more effective, The Situational Model of Leadership SOURCE : OBNotes.HTM by WILF H. RATZBURG D1: LOW COMPETENCE HIGH COMMITMENT D2: SOME COMPETENCE LOW COMMITMENT D3: HIGH COMPETENCE VARIABLE COMMITMENT D4: HIGH COMPETENCE HIGH COMMITMENT As the diagram above shows the situational model of leadership has four stages : Phase 1 Directing . New subordinates are instructed in their tasks and the corporations procedures and rules. In the initial phase employees are given a lot of tasks by the leader. Subordinates are trained in their tasks as they are being familiarised to the organisation. They are told what to do, when and how to do given tasks. this is arguably a good and effective way to introduce new employees as ” a non directive [leader] would cause anxiety and confusion in new..” employees whilst “a participatory, high relationship behaviour approach would â€¦be inappropriate at this stage because the [employee] requires structure.” James A.F Stoner, 1995. Phase 2 Coaching. In phase two there is more relationship behaviour than in stage one as subordinates become more accustomed to their job and the business. In this stage the participatory leadership style can be adopted as employees are considered to want more responsibility. Employees are more likely to seek more responsibility as they have become accustomed to the environment including how their leader wants tasks handled and completed. Task behaviour however remains necessary as employees still need structure to complete their work. The leaders trust and support for subordinates will increase at this stage as the leader becomes familiar with the team and wishes to encourage their efforts further. Phase 3 Participating. At this stage subordinates are more skilled and achievement motivation becomes mote noticeable which will lead to subordinates seeking more responsibility. As the employees become more experienced the leader will no longer need to strictly direct employees, in most cases skilled employees dislike autocratic leaders as they feel there are experienced enough to carry out certain task without strict supervision. There is a lot of interaction and support but little direction and task behaviour. The leader should however continually motivate employees by being supportive and considerate, if he/she is to bring out the best of employees. Phase 4 Delegating. High levels of delegation from the leader as employees are more confident, experienced and self-directing. Kenneth and Heresy feel that at this stage an employee no longer expect direction from their leader. There is less task or relationship behaviour. Under this leadership style leaders should constantly assess employee experience, motivation and ability to decide on which style is appropriate under changing conditions. If the leader chooses the most effective style there should be able to develop subordinates professionally and at the same time motivating them. The ability to be able to shift leadership styles is arguably a skill any good leader should possess as leaders are faced with different evolving situations on a daily bases. Leaders who are trained to flexibly use various leadership styles when faced with changing situations use the situational leadership style effectively as they know when to adapt or change to a different style. Leaders who are not trained to be flexible are likely to be more effective in situations that match their style of leadership. Failure to adapt will cause the leaders team to lack direction and to be less effective than if they had a flexible leader. 2. Participative leadership Participative leaders have total trust and confidence in employees. Leaders will always ask employees for ideas and opinions and then constructively use the ideas to further the groups or the organisations success. There is a lot of communication between the leader and employees and employees will be rewarded for their participation in the group. Being involved in the process of decision making help motivate and make employees more committed to their job and the business. When faced with unexpected problems employees are more willing to help as they no their input will be taken into account. Involving a group of people in the decision making ensures a better outcome, as suggestions are thoroughly analysed before the final decision is reached. Group decision making also unites employees as the social commitment amongst the group members is greater. Employees are more likely to corporate and come up with new ideas if they feel comfortable with the people around them. Leaders who adopt this style of leadership when operating usually have the greatest success as leaders. Businesses that use the participative style of leadership could be said to be the most successful in setting goals and achieving them and are also usually more productive. The success is due to the degree of participation and the maintenance of employee support for one another and from the leader. Participative leaders can improve the businesses effectiveness by using the skills, experience and knowledge of the workforce. Employees who feel and are involved setting business standards are more likely to feel ownership for the decisions made and tend to: Accept the legitimacy of decisions reached with their help; Accept change based on those decisions; Trust managers who ultimately ratify and implement decisions; Volunteer new and creative ideas and solutions. [David Buchanan 2004] It should be noted that it is the leader’s choice to give or deny control to surbodinat6es under his control. Although an organisation might require their its leaders to use this type of leadership style, a manager might chose not to use it as effectively as they possibly can as they might feel involving subordinates in decision making might threaten their job position. The level of employee participation also depends on the sort of decision being made. Subordinates are usually involved when deciding on how to put goals into action, whereas employee evaluation on those decisions is done by the leader. Participative leadership is highly democratic and empowers employees. 3. Transactional leadership A transactional leader is “â€¦a leader who treats relationships with [employees] in terms of an exchange, giving [employees] what they want in return for what the leader desires, following prescribed tasks to pursue established goals.” Transactional leaders perceive their association with employees in terms of bargains; they believe that employees are motivated by reward and punishment and not their willingness to work. Transactional leaders aim to create clear structures, where employees know exactly what they are expected to do. These type of leaders believe that social system are more effective with a clear chain of command, when employee are expected to yield all authority to their leader. Leaders who use this leadership style decide what subordinates need to do to attain their own and the corporations aims and objectives and help subordinates become confident in believing they can achieve the set aims and objectives through hard work, but employees are expected to do what they are told by the leader in all cases. Failure to comply with leaders instructions will lead to formal discipline which might result in job loss. As soon as a potential employee becomes an employee it becomes transparent the leader is in charge and in control. Employees who are successful under transactional leaders are usually the ones that follow orders Transactional leaders deem employees to be completely responsible for their work despite their skills, experience or resources. Subordinates are expected to take full responsibility for their work, success will be recognised and rewarded while failure is seen to be personally the subordinates fault despite internal or external influences that might have contributed to objectives not being met. Leader who use this type of leadership style believe that employees require little attention if they are meeting expectations or operating as expected. There is a variety of leaders that use this type of leadership. The leadership style might be effective with employees who are used to an autocratic leadership style and who work well under strictly structured conditions. The success of the leader is assured when the leadership style aligns with the work environment. Employees who are highly skilled and experienced are likely to despise and be unhappy under this type of leadership if it is constantly being used by the manager as they might feel they have more to offer to the business and will therefore despise being constantly told how to their job. Unhappy workers are unlikely to perform to the best of their ability and find a new job else where. .