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The Gods And Mortals In Greek Tragedy English Literature Essay

Aphrodite opens the play with her promise to kill Hippolytus, And this young man who makes war on me shall be killed, Euripides, Hippolytus, line 42 for his rejection and spurn of her. She makes good on that promise by her manipulation of the characters she mentions in this same passage; Theseus, Phaedra and Hippolytus himself. The extract proves further significant in exploring the relationship between the gods and mortals in Greek tragedy. The use of speeches by Aphrodite at the opening of the play and Artemis at the closing, are effective in conveying the main theme of the play, which Buxton neatly describes as exploring the conflict of two ‘antithetical perceptions of sexuality’ (Textual Sources 1, p82). This divine and ‘eternal rivalry’ (Textual Sources 1, p82) of Aphrodite and Artemis is illustrated by the action of the human characters of Phaedra and Hippolytus, even if Phaedra’s feelings are a manipulation of the gods. Euripides has chosen to write a version of the myth, which is definitively underlined by the god’s interactions. The play without this early extract may have had the same plot but Euripides would not have made his point as clear with regards to the human tragedy that unfolds. Aphrodite and Artemis stand as polar opposites on how to live life so even their use as ‘literary symbols’ (Block 1, p27) and not as key players within the myth serves to highlight the push and pull conflict within the family of Theseus. The extract specifically utilises phrases which connote just how powerful gods in Greek tragedy were. That Theseus can call on Poseidon when he needs him to ‘have his prayer fulfilled’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 48) is evidence of just how involved the gods were in Greek life whether it be in the context of the myth itself or in the context of the audience in fifth century Athens at the festival of Dionysus. Euripides use of words such as ‘war’, ‘killed’, ‘death’, ‘honour’ and ‘punished’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, lines 41-51) all illustrate the main themes of conflict, death and of course tragedy within the play. When Aphrodite tells the audience ‘I will reveal the affair to Theseus; it shall not stay in the dark.’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, Line 41), it sets up her intentions for the main characters and foreshadows the tragic events the audience have yet to witness. What Euripides doesn’t do at this point is give away the details of how she completes her mission. She doesn’t in fact tell Theseus directly as she claims she will do. It is only after the death of Hippolytus near the end of the play that Theseus finds out about the ‘supposed’ affair, so this would have been a nice twist for the audience and even if they knew the myth well it would have toyed with their expectations of the plot. The extract from Euripides is significant in that it tells the audience the basic plotline of the entire play in a very concise way without revealing how the characters travel to their final destinations or deaths. Part 2. How does the characterisation of Phaedra change between different versions of the Hippolytus myth? Answer in not more than 1500 words with reference to sources you have met in block 1. Euripides Hippolytus was first performed in Athens in 428 BCE. It is a good example of a literature source profiling the character of Phaedra, one of the main players in the Hippolytus myth, which would have been familiar to an audience at that time. The version of the myth Euripides chooses to tell paints a very pitiful picture of Phaedra, as she is very much the victim even though she is not the only character to die. Aphrodite’s opening speech, ‘my scheming caused a terrible longing to seize her heart’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 28), informs the audience that Phaedra is someone who is perhaps but a mere plaything of the gods and a pawn in the on-going rivalry of Artemis and Aphrodite. When the audience first meet Phaedra in the play she is in a state of mental torment over her love for her stepson Hippolytus. She realises the passion she feels for him is wrong and as such when she first appears in the play she is very unstable in her requests to her nurse of her reasoning for them. She asks her nurse to help her take her net off her hair then she soon wants it back on, ‘This net is heavy that holds my hair. Remove it, let my hair fall over my shoulders.’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 200) ‘Nurse dear, cover my head once more;’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 241). Phaedra changes her mind in several matters over a sort space of time in various matters which Euripides has chosen to show her volatile state of mind regarding her situation, which at this point in the play she hasn’t divulged to her nurse yet. Euripides heightens Phaedra’s anguished state further by having the chorus ask ‘Is she out of her mind or trying to kill herself?’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 274). Euripides leaves the reader in no doubt what Hippolytus feels for Phaedra and his opinion of her female character. When he finds out about her love for him he is appalled and aligns Phaedra, ‘this poisonous creature’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 630), with all women whom he feels are a ‘dangerous pest’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 624) and who should only be allowed to keep the company of ‘dumb and savage beasts’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 642). The nurse in the play is on Phaedra’s side and has affections for her but it is her actions by telling Hippolytus of her love, which leads to Phaedra’s eventual demise. Phaedra had been trying to conceal her passions, as she knew how wrong it was to attempt any seduction of her husband’s son. She decides to kill herself in order to save losing her husband and also to exact revenge from beyond the grave in falsely naming Hippolytus as her violator in the letter to Theseus. So here Euripides shows her character to be noble yet vengeful in the same act. Euripides utilises the chorus well when the nurse, via the contents of a letter reveals Phaedra’s love for Hippolytus. They ask Phaedra questions and show her sympathy, which in turn allows the reader or audience to sympathise with her plight. ‘What now? What will you do? Your position is hopeless!’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 594). Just like Aphrodite at the beginning, the chorus throughout remind the audience of Phaedra’s eventual death. Euripides structures his play cleverly in that it is not ‘why’ events happen that forms the intrigue but it is ‘how’ the events unfold. He keeps the audience interested in his version of the myth by inviting them to analyse the psyche of Phaedra and the way she reacts to those around her. Similarly Ovid’s letter ‘Phaedra to Hippolytus’ from his Heroides collection is a retelling of the Hippolytus myth (Textual Sources 1, pp10-14). Ovid deals with one character in this letter but the reader is presented with various similarities with Euripides version. The madness evident in Euripides, Phaedra is also retold here, ‘I am swept up like the mad screaming disciples of Bacchus who are driven by their god’s frenzy’ (Textual Sources 1, p11, line 61). Similarly Ovid recounts the gods involvement in Phaedra’s passion for Hippolytus, ‘ I know I have been possessed by love’ (Textual Sources 1, p11, line 70). In this respect Phaedra in Ovid’s letter is almost a reimagining of Euripides version of her. She is tormented and conflicted about what to do about her feelings and knows it is wrong in both versions, ‘This heavy load does not rest well on my soul’ (Textual Sources 1, p10, line 35) and ‘As for the act and the illness, I knew they brought disgrace on me’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 404). However, Ovid decides to highlight certain aspects of the myth differently than Euripides. Ovid’s one crucial difference in that she actually tries to make Hippolytus love her, ‘I offer you a purity long preserved; let us both be equal in our guilt.’ (Textual Sources 1, p10, line 39). This makes the characterisation of Phaedra in Ovid’s letter much more forward and outgoing than the Euripides character. Nowhere in Hippolytus does the audience see her try to come clean about her feelings. She tries her absolute best to hide them and realises when that isn’t going to work any longer that she will kill herself to spare her husbands feelings ‘I must die at once; there is no other cure for this anguish I feel’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 599). Ovid’s Phaedra contrasts this whimpering version of her by being more determined to win her Hippolytus and fulfil their love, ‘I was determined – if love can determine anything – to fight long rather than be conquered, but I confess I am overcome’ (Textual Sources 1, p13, line 185). She even employs various arguments to convince him they should be together by reminding Hippolytus that Theseus killed his Amazonian mother and Phaedra’s brother, ‘We have both been deeply hurt by Theseus’ (Textual Sources 1, p12, line 140). As the letter goes on Phaedra’s unbalanced state of mind becomes much more rational as in her mind she clears the path for them to be together. Euripides Phaedra is lost at the beginning of the play and stays that way until her death. In the wall painting (early first century CE), found at the House of Jason in Pompeii (Visual sources, plate 1.4), Phaedra can be seen with her nurse by her side. The first comparison of note about Phaedra here is her seated position, which suggests preoccupation or distress (Block1, p50), similar to her previous incarnations in Ovid and Euripides. The picture shows the nurse holding a writing tablet, so this scene illustrates a distressed Phaedra about to write her love letter to Hippolytus in Ovid’s version or her damning letter to Theseus about Hippolytus in Euripides version. The image of the letter is predominant in many Roman images of this myth such as those seen in vases and paintings of houses (Visual Sources, plates 1.4, 1.7, 1.9, 1.10). The context, which the Romans used this myth is interesting as it gives another dimension to the character of Phaedra. The House of Jason image (Visual Sources, plate 1.4) has a servant in the background and gives the appearance of Phaedra taking care of her household but in fact this is juxtaposed with her writing the letter, which will destroy her household. This image was placed near images of Medea and Helen of Troy which suggest a theme of women and their actions (Block 1, 50), evaluating the images more closely gives weight to Buxton’s ‘underside’ of myth in which ‘heroic love can wreck heroic households’ (Block 1, p51). Compare this to Euripides words from Hippolytus where he says ‘But a sit is they sit at home and think up wicked schemes in their wicked hearts, while their servants carry them to the outside world’ (Euripides, Hippolytus, line 649). This conveys the conspiratorial element of the myth and of Phaedra’s character as a devious woman. This aspect of Phaedra is emphasised as a polar opposite as to how Roman women were expected to behave in the home and in their society. These images may have then been placed in such prominent home positions, as a warning for women to stop and think about the consequences of their actions (Block 1, p52). Another image showing Phaedra at a similar moment is seen in the red floor mosaic at Antioch from mid-second century CE (Visual Sources, plate 1.5). The placement of the three characters in this image is comparable to the victim side of Phaedra’s character as shown in Hippolytus. Phaedra is placed between a statue of Aphrodite and her nurse in a pose facing away from everyone else, almost apologetically, like she isn’t in control of her actions, which parallels with previous versions of her character from both Euripides and Ovid. However this version of Phaedra contrasts more with the scheming nature of her character as in display in the house of Jason image (Visual Sources, plate 1.4). Both images depict precise moments of myth that are of a decisive nature, strengthening their purpose in Roman homes. Morally these images act as a reminder to women how they should conduct themselves or also to be mindful of the gods. These images were placed strategically in households in Roman Italy and not just for aesthetic reasons. From the sources chosen here it is evident that different versions of Phaedra’s character are picked out from the myth to serve a purpose either to an audience, a reader or in the home. This illustrates how myth was used in different ways at different points in history. The various characterisations of Phaedra can be judged under differing circumstances through the assorted social contexts.
Introduction Fair trade refers to an organized movement whose major goal is to assist producers in developing countries. The aim of this entity is to improve trade and enhance economic sustainability (Feenstra and Taylor 23). The focal point of the movement is the yields exported by stakeholders from developing countries. It seeks to promote equity in international trading ventures. The various policies touching on fair trade are formulated and implemented through dialogue, transparency, and solicitation of opinions from the concerned parties. In this paper, the author analyzes several elements related to the fair trade movement. They include, among others, the theories applied by the organization and the challenges it faces in the global market. The place of the fair trade movement in the contemporary society will be reviewed. Fair Trade Movement: A Historical Background Fair Trade movement has its roots in the European societies. It came before the structured alternative trading organizations. The major ideas associated with the movement reflect pre-capitalist notions and beliefs. The movement can be traced back to the late 1950s. It was started by Oxfam in the United Kingdom. It began with the sale of crafts made by Chinese refugees in the shops owned by this organization. In 1964, the United Kingdom created the first fair trade organization (Ruerd 45). To this end, agencies were put in place to source products from developed nations in the South. The primary efforts to commercialize fair trade goods in northern nations commenced in the 1950s. The commercialization was carried out by religious groups and non-governmental organizations. The aim of these undertakings was to come up with fair trade supply chains in developing countries (Ruerd 9). The movement has changed a lot since World War II. Some of them include large scale modifications of fair trade proponents. Other changes affected the products used in the trade and the distribution networks used. The modern fair trade movement took its current shape in the 1960s. It was mostly structured with the help of global free market economic models (Raynolds 34). There are three types of products associated with fair trade. They include ‘smallholder’ crops, such as coffee and cocoa. Others are the plantations crops, such as tea and bananas. The third category is made up of small scale manufactured goods. Such products include, among others, handicrafts (Hutchens 69). Fair trade labeling is an important aspect of this economic network. It refers to a system designed to help consumers identify products that meet the criteria laid down in the movement’s code of conduct. Certification of producers is another significant variable. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To this end, the stakeholders who are approved by the movement must operate within specific political standards imposed by European authorities (Feenstra and Taylor 12). It is also important to note that fair trade movement is a commercial brand operating in the global market. It is structured on the basis of ethical business operations. As a brand, the movement is owned by the Fair Trade Foundation. Theories Used in Fair Trade Movement A number of theoretical frameworks are associated with this organization. One of them includes the theory of change. The framework describes the transformation that a given entity desires to see or make in the world. It is a trade policy that allows business persons to act and transact without interferences from the government (Raynolds 45). The fair trade movement has also come up with strategic trade theory. It describes the policies adopted by various countries to determine the outcomes of planned interactions between firms. One of the assumptions made by this theoretical framework is that global economic interaction in some industries gives rise to zero-sum competition (Raynolds 200). Protectionism is yet another trade theory affiliated to the movement. It describes a situation where economic policies are put in place to restrain trade between states. Such activities include imposing tariffs on imported goods. The major assumptions made in this theoretical framework are aimed at protecting the domestic economy. The domestic market is shielded from competition emanating from the outside world. The ideas promoted by the protectionism theory contradict with those expounded by the free trade model. However, they are similar to those associated with the strategic theory. To this end, both protectionism and strategic models emphasize on the importance of government intervention to help local firms enter into the global market (Mankiw 76). The major argument is that regulations formulated and implemented by the government are inherently beneficial. They can improve the welfare of consumers in the local market. It is one of the reasons why the fair trade movement stresses on the importance of trade agreements between partner states. Operations of the Fair Trade Movement in the Modern Global Market In spite of the fact that the movement started in Europe, its impacts and operations are evident in many parts of the world. The major purpose of this organization is to promote free trade and spur business between countries. To this end, it is important to note that free trade is both a movement and a set of business initiatives. It is based on a critique of conventional trade policy and practice (Ruerd 49). Fair trade commodities are products sourced from a region where the principles of the movement are applied. Such goods and services must be approved by an authorized organization. It is noted that 60 percent of the fair trade market is made up of food products (Ruerd 91). Coffee is one of the most established commodities in these transactions. We will write a custom Essay on The Fair Trade Movement and Its Socioeconomic Influences specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a product characterized by the transition between small-scale farms and big companies. A number of transnational companies have started engaging in fair trade policies. For example, Starbucks supplies coffee sourced from these markets in its stores. However, the ethics associated with transactions in fair trade commodities are not enough to make a difference in the lives of small-scale farmers (Ruerd 69). To address this challenge, the free trade movement has made efforts to challenge profit oriented competitors. The organization acts as an agent to secure changes in the international trading regime. It also plays the role of redistribution of benefits in relation to price premiums. Free trade movement empowers producers by enhancing their capacity to participate in international business. Such manufacturers enjoy the benefits associated with connections in the global market. As a result, the commercial value of the movement has risen significantly in the past decade (Raynolds 97). The organization questions the policies adopted by northern and southern governments. It also criticizes the practices promoted by multinationals. In light of this, fair trade organizations argue that the activities of the agents mentioned above have negative impacts on agricultural producers and small-scale processors in the developing world (Ruerd 38). According to Mankiw, the movement can be described as a meaningful expression of solidarity (91). It brings together consumers in the north and marginalized producers in the south. It criticizes most international relations as unfair engagements. The producer-controlled marketing organizations are generally efficient. The movement raises awareness among consumers with regards to the negative effects that unscrupulous producers have on the market (Mankiw 45). Challenges Associated with the Movement The impacts of the movement have become perceptible in the global market since the early 1990s. There is increasing emphasis on quality assurance. There is also the harmonization of definitions and supervision at the European level. However, a number of criticisms have been leveled against this entity. One of them is the fact that the advantages associated with some fair trade products are not equally distributed. For example, consumers may fail to benefit. On the contrary, they are lost on, among others, unnecessary expenses (Mankiw 33). There are also challenges associated with the definition of fair trade and its objectives. For example, some manufacturers find it hard to adopt such elements as pricing. In addition, a number of issues associated with labeling deter conventional business operations. For instance, labeling is incompatible with the adoption of a free trade sub-brand (Raynolds 7). Fair trade activists raise a number of questions regarding the perceived and actual benefits of the movement. There are doubts whether or not fair trade improves the welfare of developing countries and small-scale farmers. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Fair Trade Movement and Its Socioeconomic Influences by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Organizations operating in a given market desire to associate their products with fair trade practices. The scenario is especially evident in cases where the movement develops a sustainable alternative form of production arrangements. It helps create enduring partnerships. However, the marketing system associated with the organization may lead to increased cases of corruption. Such evils are evident among elite members of cooperatives in developing countries. In addition, there may be ‘false’ labeling of products, reducing the revenues of exporters. Free trade movement calls for cooperation and not competition. It identifies and discourages unfair trade structures, approaches, and practices. It also promotes ethical practices and social justice in the market. Works Cited Feenstra, R., and Alan T. Essentials of International Economics. 2nd ed. 2012. New York, NY: Worth Publishers. Print. Hutchens, A. Changing Big Business: The Globalization of the Fair Trade Movement, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2009. Print. Mankiw, G. Essentials of Economics. 5th ed. 2008. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Print. Raynolds, L. Fair Trade: The Challenges of Transforming Globalization, London: Routledge, 2007. Print. Ruerd, R. The Impact of Fair Trade, Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic, 2009. Print.
The Third and last US presidential debate for the 2012 elections was held on Monday 22 October 2012. The debate was held at Lynn University, Boca Raton, Florida. Bob Schieffer of CBS moderated it. The debate was held two weeks prior to the elections. The media houses had given each candidate a single win in the previous debates with Romney taking the first and Obama the second. Furthermore, shortly before the debate, the CBS News poll had given Obama a forty-eight percent lead on handling foreign policy matters compared to Romney’s forty-six percent. The debate focused on foreign policy that was subdivided into the following subtopics, the attacks in Benghazi, Iran’s nuclear program, and war on terrorism. The others included the Size of the US military, and focus on China. The politicians mixed the issues much as the moderator tried to control it. Schieffer took everybody by surprise when he started with the attack on the American Consulate in Benghazi Libya. In his response, Obama accused Romney for pursuing what he called shoot then aim reaction. He lashed out at Romney for seeking political mileage with the lives of Americans. He insisted that Romney did not have specific policies on foreign policy. In the President’s opinion, American allies and foes ought to know the American stand. This was a trend brought by American fathers (Thurber 2009) Romney accused the President of failing to act on the intelligence report that had been received. He however, insisted on empowering the people of Libya and the Arab world economically. When the matter of Syria came up, the two leaders agreed that action was needed in Syria, they both talked about giving the anti-government groups weapons to help overthrow the government. In addition, Romney urged for caution to make sure that the terrorists do not take advantage to use weapons. He accused the President of leading from behind. The president maintained that the government of Syria had to be ousted. The US was keenly after the issue and the necessary support would be given. When the issue of spending on the US military came up, Romney refused to comment but instead directed people to his website for details. Obama explained that technology had advanced and that for America to stay as the best military nation in the world, their soldiers had to be given the best resources (Thurber 2009). Romney accused the President of treating Iran with hands of glove. That the president delayed in imposing sanctions on Iran, hence its impact had weakened. Obama however, insisted that the sanctions were already crippling Iran and that military intervention would be undertaken when necessary. He quoted Romney as having been unstable. He supported Iraq invasion, but refused the planned withdrawal from both Iraq and Afghanistan. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They agreed that Israel was America’s close ally and needed more attention and protection. The tour made by Obama that Romney called the apology tour never made a great impact because the President overshadowed it (Thurber 2009). In my opinion, The President won. A few reasons attributed to this. During the debate, Romney gave into much of the President’s ideas. The President had a head start in the foreign policy due to incumbency. This limited Romney’s knowledge of execution of the foreign policy. Romney was not average in his policies. He put a lot of emphasis on the domestic policies such as employment and economy giving little attention to the foreign matters. The President was balanced hence; he could handle questions from any field. Works Cited Thurber, James. Congress and Presidency. Washington: American University 2009.Print.
Nationally, there is an expectation that all students, by the end of high school, will be college and career ready, and diverse learners to include English Language Learners and students with disabilities, as well as those who are educated in urban settings are no exception. As schools prepare students to meet this expectation, they must provide them with not only the social consciousness, attitudes, and beliefs needed to be successful in post-secondary education and employment, but also the character and integrity required to be productive citizens in our global, technological, and multidimensional society. Among other 21st century skills, this includes the ability to think critically, solve problems, and communicate effectively. It is my belief that all students, regardless of circumstance or difference, should and must be held to the same high academic standards. Because teaching and learning never really ends, the educational process is a “living, organic” one. All students are capable of acquiring knowledge and developing skills, and must therefore accept ownership in the process of becoming life-long learners. As educators, it is our responsibility to teach, challenge, and support students in realizing and achieving their maximum learning potential as we move them towards proficiency. This is accomplished by providing for activities and experiences inside and outside of the classroom that are intentional, timely, and timeless, based on student needs and interests, individually and in groups. CORE BELIEFS Each student can and wants to learn. Therefore, as a teacher, it is my responsibility to motivate the students in my classroom to learn by helping them to understand how what they are learning is relevant to them as individuals and as members of the community. When this responsibility is carried out as intended, students will bring meaning to newly learned information, making connections across disciplines and to their everyday lives. All students, when given the appropriate support, are capable of performing at or above the proficient level as defined by the Pennsylvania Academic Standards. Therefore, as a teacher, it is my responsibility to provide the students in my classroom with curriculum that is rigorous, which both challenges and supports them in meeting high academic standards. Instruction and assessment must and will be aligned with the curriculum. When this responsibility is carried out as intended, students will develop a repertoire of skills and strategies that enable them to access the content-specific, grade level information contained in the state standards. Every student counts and needs, wants, and deserves a top-quality education, as well as the support of caring adults. Therefore, as a teacher, it is my responsibility to inspire the students in my classroom to work harder and achieve more by building meaningful, productive relationships with them based on trust, individual responsibility, and mutual respect. When this responsibility is carried out as intended, students will understand they are valued members of the learning community and they will demonstrate their commitment to the teaching and learning process. THEORY OF PRACTICE As it relates to education, a theory of practice is, according to Argyris, Putnam, and McLain Smith (1985), the lens through which an educator views their practice. One’s theory of practice is influenced by their personal values, as well as their knowledge and beliefs about the education profession and their opinions about what is considered “good enough” based on their past experiences and present context and situation. Not only does a theory of practice provide a framework for decision-making, but it also provides a framework for knowledge acquisition and information processing. McAlpine and Weston (2000) highlight the value of reflection in the education profession, asserting that it is a catalyst for the improvement of teaching and learning. As I reflect – looking closely at and thinking carefully about, in particular, my beliefs about how children learn, grow, and develop best, and recognizing the diverse perspectives that are present in today’s classrooms and schools – I am reminded of the famous quote from Transcendentalist American author Henry David Thoreau’s (1854) critically acclaimed book, Walden, and this serves as the lynchpin for my theory of practice: “If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music he hears, however measured or far away.” The classroom as a community of learners: I like to think of the classroom as a community of learners where students and the teacher are always learning from each other. To me, the students in my classroom are, in essence, a “band” of different drummers, each coming with different talents and abilities. As the leader of the “section,” I believe I must be accountable and committed to quality at all times. Because of this, I use my knowledge and understanding of my students’ talents and abilities, as well as their individual needs and interests to create a productive teaching and learning environment for the group. Committed to high achievement regardless of the cost, I remain dedicated to preparing every student for informed, responsible citizenship in our global, technological, and multidimensional society. I jealously guard the right of my students to a world-class education and keep them as the focus of each decision I make. I believe that teaching is my “calling,” and in fulfilling this assignment destined to me by the Most High Power, I believe that I can help open doors to brighter futures for the students I serve. Relationships are the basis of all learning; accordingly, I pledge to work with students, families, colleagues, and the community in the nurturing of such in an effort to yield better outcomes for students.

Privacy in the Workplace as a Business Ethics Issue Case Study

Privacy is an issue that bothers many individuals who are involved in the world of business. It is not only about the number of people who may gain access to personal information, but about the ability to control access to this kind of information and make independent decisions whether to expose a secret or not. In the business workplace, the dilemma of privacy can be developed in a variety of forms. For example, in informational advertising, a company may investigate several products in the same category and develop price or quality comparisons to persuade potential clients to pay attention to the offered product. The dilemma is that on the one hand, personal information about competitors is exposed so that no data control can be followed, and on the other hand, information for comparison is not stolen but taken from public sources. As a result, informational advertising may provoke multiple questions about truths and lies available to organizations and clients. There are several ways to approach this problem, and one of the possible theories includes the basics of cultural ethics that promote respect to moral doctrines like rules or beliefs of specific communities. The peculiar feature of culturalist ethics is that there is no way to support the idea of the comparison of two cultures or, in this case, two products. According to this theory, it is allowed to describe the differences between items, but it is forbidden to say that one of them is better than another as it turns out to be a contradiction to the idea that all moral truths depend only on what society thinks about them. In other words, the comparison of products in informational advertising can be supported in the world of business only if a company aims at describing something but not defining which one is a better option.

University of Miami Minorities in Policing Discussion

essay help online free University of Miami Minorities in Policing Discussion.

Visit these websites and consider the principles set forth, the views stated, or concerns raised.http://www.iawp.orghttps://nawlee.orghttps://www.goalny.orghttps://tcops-international.org/vision/https://hpoadade.orghttps://www.nypdshomrim.org/what-is-shomrim/https://www.sikhofficers.orgOnce you’ve reviewed these sites (not a full read-through, just a skim!), consider what the similarities and differences exist between these organizations and how the materials / principles / views / concerns on those websites tie into this statement of the community policing philosophy:The text (see chapter 12) reports that, “Community policing is an attempt to involve the community as an active partner with the police in addressing crime problems. It involves a true trusting partnership with the community and a will-ingness to accept and use input from the community.”Further, the Bureau of Justice Assistance advises that “Community policing is, in essence, a collaboration between the police and the community that identifies and solves community problems. With the police no longer the sole guardians of law and order, all members of the community become active allies in the effort to enhance the safety and quality of neighborhoods. Community policing has far-reaching implications. The expanded outlook on crime control and prevention, the new emphasis on making community members active participants in the process of problem solving, and the patrol officers’ pivotal role in community policing require profound changes within the police organization. The neighborhood patrol officer, backed by the police organization, helps community members mobilize support and resources to solve problems and enhance their quality of life. Community members voice their concerns, contribute advice, and take action to address these concerns. Creating a constructive partnership will require the energy, creativity, understanding, and patience of all involved.” Bureau of Justice Assistance. (1994, August). Understanding Community Policing – A Framework for Action. Retrieved June 9, 2020, from https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdfYour analysis should consider one or more group(s) of minority officers either listed above or of your own choosing. How do the objectives, concerns, and police-community relations issues of the group(s) you choose align with concepts of community policing listed above? Submit your analysis in APA format in two pages of text plus cover page and references (total of four or more pages).
University of Miami Minorities in Policing Discussion

WU Employee Commitment the Extension of Job Satisfaction Discussion

WU Employee Commitment the Extension of Job Satisfaction Discussion.

Respond by Day 5 to at least three of your colleagues’ postings in one or more of the following ways:Ask a probing question about a colleague’s explanation of employee commitment and provide the foundation, or rationale, for the question.Expand on your colleague’s explanation of employee commitment by offering a new perspective or insight supported by the Learning Resources.Agree with a colleague and offer additional (new) supporting information for consideration related to their explanation of employee commitment.Disagree with a colleague by respectfully discussing and supporting a different perspective on employee commitment. Resources:Ćulibrk, J., Delić, M., Mitrović, S., & Ćulibrk, D. (2018). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment and job involvement: The mediating role of job involvement. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(132), 1–12. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00132Lapointe, É., & Vandenberghe, C. (2018). Examination of the relationships between servant leadership, organizational commitment, and voice and antisocial behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 148(1), 99–115. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1007/s10551-015-3002-9Organ, D. W. (2018). Organizational citizenship behavior: Recent trends and developments. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 80, 295–306. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032117-104536
WU Employee Commitment the Extension of Job Satisfaction Discussion

Capital Budgeting and Replacement Decisions Research Paper

Capital Budgeting and Replacement Decisions Research Paper.

Conduct a comparative analysis of the capital budgeting process for new projects versus replacement decisions. The objective is to maximize shareholder wealth.Your assignment should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Be sure to adhere to the Academic Integrity Policy.Instructions:Write a five to seven page APA report not including title and reference pages answering the questions below. Do not just answer the questions, but use the questions to formulate your report. Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Be sure to adhere to University’s Academic Integrity Policy.Questions to be answered in your report:Write a research report that outlines the topics -Identify the steps to the process such as the formulation of cash flows, the development of the cost of capital (i.e., weighted average cost of capital), and the calculation of decision metrics, including the net present value and the internal rate of return.Utilize the analysis to predict project success/failure in terms of shareholder wealth and other relevant factors. For example, if the net present value of a project is positive, then the project should be undertaken and the expected result will be that shareholder wealth will increase upon the announcement and execution of the project.Discuss how each of these two types of decision methods are different and formnumerical examples to make your points.Place special emphasis on how a new project analysis differs from a replacement project.Assignment Objectives:The purpose of this assignment for the student is:Use information technology to complete academic writing and research.Present written information in a persuasive, organized, clear, and concise manner relying on research, data, and analytics.Use acceptable paragraph and sentence structure with minimum grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors; and demonstrate appropriate word choice, tone, and format.Explain how the cash conversion cycle is determined, how the cash budget is constructed, and how each is used in working capital management.Explain why the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is used in capital budgeting.Requirements of the assignment:All papers must follow all APA requirements including an abstract. (10% deduction if not)All papers must have a reference page. The textbook is an acceptable source.Body of the paper 5 -7 pages, no more or less.Title page, abstract, and reference pages are required. However, they do not count towards any page count.Writing should reflect an understanding of the chapter’s basic concepts, thorough research, and logic and critical thinking skills.The introduction is attention getting with sufficient background information to establish the topic and a clear thesis statement.The conclusion summarizes the main points and leaves the reader with a strong comprehension of the paper’s significance and the author’s understanding.Grammatically correct – No spelling, grammar, or mechanics errors.Do not use the first person. (10% deduction if used)
Capital Budgeting and Replacement Decisions Research Paper