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The Flea by John Donne and The Altar by George Herbert

Compare and contrast the The Flea by John Donne and The Altar by George Herbert. The Flea by John Donne, published in 1633, is an erotic metaphysical poem in which the concept of a flea serves as an extended metaphor for the relationship between the speaker and his beloved. In comparison George Herbert’s The Altar, also published in 1633, demonstrates through the conceit of an altar how one should offer himself as a sacrifice to the Lord. This essay will compare and contrast; the poetic techniques, the shape of the poems and the use of meter. This essay will also highlight how these features link in with the main themes of sexual desires, religion and repetition to evoke the meaning of each poem. Both poets present the speaker differently through the use of poetic devices. For example, the metaphysical conceit in The Flea begins when the speaker states ‘And in this flea, our two bloods mingled be’. (4) This metaphor suggests that the speaker believes the mixing of two bloods is similar to the consecration of marriage and this is the argument the speaker sets up to woo his lover. The speaker uses direct address when he says ‘how little that which thou deniest me’. (2) By using the determiner ‘little’ it shows how he is trying to convince his lover of the unimportance of sexual intercourse. In addition, the possessive pronoun ‘me’ suggests he is trying to assert his authority, thus highlighting his sexual desire even more. In complete contrast, the speaker in The Altar is ambiguous as Herbert refers to a ‘servant’, (1) which implies anybody could be speaking it; whether it is the poet, the reader or even a priest, as it seems to be in the form of a prayer. Furthermore, the speaker illuminates they are addressing someone of higher importance as he refers to the ‘Lord’ (1). In addition, the adjective ‘broken’ (1) is an expression of a heartfelt sense of inadequacy and so this further captures Herbert’s meaning to define man’s place before God. It is important to take in to account how Donne and Herbert have a distinct contrast in how they use religion as a theme to evoke the meaning of their poems. Following on from this, Donne uses the general insignificance of a flea to be the primary image of the poem thus revealing his humorous and witty tone; as it contrasts with the act of intercourse, which is of monumental importance to many religious people back in the seventeenth century. Unlike Donne, Herbert uses the conceit of an altar to show how one should offer himself to God. Through his conceit, Herbert highlights the importance of devoting oneself to God, whereas Donne only uses religious imagery in order to win over his lover. In The Flea, the metaphor ‘three lives in one flea spare’ (10) contradicts what the speaker believes to be of unimportance. The speaker tries to manipulate his lover by suggesting she is going against the sanctity of marriage if she kills the flea. The image of ‘three lives’ equates to the three persons of the Holy Trinity; the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. By incorporating this imagery, Donne effectively uses Biblical references to shape his argument and tries to seduce his lover in a crafty manner. However in The Altar, the metaphor ‘A HEART alone / Is such a stone’ (5/6) demonstrates how devout the speaker believes he is without offering himself fully to God. The noun ‘HEART’ is in bold and is placed near the centre of the poem, which illuminates that the heart should be central to what is being done. In addition, this suggests if the heart was to be taken out, the altar would lose its significance. This metaphor also symbolises the fall of Adam in the Garden of Eden; the sin that he committed represents the heart that has died. This again links in with the idea that one should offer himself as a sacrifice to God. Both Donne and Herbert’s poems create an effective visual image with the purpose of linking back to the meaning. The repetition of the shape in The Flea and the indentation of the last three lines of each stanza refer back to this three in one imagery. This repetition suggests a habitual routine that the speaker is a product of as he is determined to persuade his lover to agree in sexual intercourse. Furthermore, the speaker says ‘three lives’ (10) and ‘three sins in killing three’ (18) which are of high importance. This repetition of the three in one imagery suggests each stanza mirrors the concept of the flea, the lover and the speaker or even more importantly the Holy Trinity. In the same way the theme of repetition and religion has come across in The Flea, The Altar also creates a visual impact. Like Donne’s repetition of the shape of the stanzas, Hebert’s poem also repeats the shape of the first four lines with the last four lines. This creates a sense of how the spiritual world will always overrule the material world. The speaker in The Flea gives reference to material things such as sexual intercourse in order to win over his lover. However in the first four lines of The Altar, the speaker gives reference ‘workmans tools’ (4) to suggest that material goods will never be on same level as the spiritual world. Micah Krabill states Herbert has ‘made an external altar for the reader; by approaching the poem, the reader approaches the altar.’ (Krabill, 1998) Following on from this, Herbert purposefully sets the shape of this poem like an altar so that the reader places themselves before God, which links back to Krabill’s statement of how the reader approaches the altar. Herbert gives reference to a ‘broken ALTAR’ (1) which is clever as the poem is in the shape of a broken altar. This evokes the meaning of how the pathway to God is not always easy. Herbert further emphasises the significance of religion when the shape moulds to the centre at ‘A HEART alone’ (5), thus highlighting how the heart is at the centre of the sacrifice given to God. The repetition of the shape of the last four lines links in with the visual shape in The Flea as it suggests the speaker is prepared to offer himself fully at the end of the poem. The meter of each poem are similar in that they fall in to the iambic rhythm, however they create different impacts. The Flea alternates between iambic tetrameter and iambic pentameter for example ‘Though use make you apt to kill me, / Let not to that, self-murder added be’. (16/17) However the last three lines in each stanza alternate between tetrameter for line seven and then pentameter for lines eight and nine. The alternate meter and having three couplets and one triplet in each nine line stanza links back to the idea of the speaker’s manipulative motive and scheming behaviour in order to engage in sexual desires throughout the poem. In comparison with the complexity of his argument, the rhyme scheme follows an aabbccddd pattern in which every last word of each line, with the exception of ‘maidenhead’ (6) and ‘innocence’ (20), all has one syllable. For example, ‘me’, ‘thee’ and ‘three’ all address the speaker, his lover and refer back to the three in one imagery. By having one syllable for every word, it links back to the simplicity of what the speaker wants. Like Donne’s poem, The Altar engages in an alternate iambic pentameter and iambic tetrameter for the first two couplets. The poem then changes to iambic dimeter for four couplets and then the last two couplets mirror the alternate meters in the first two couplets. Similarly to The Flea, the alternate meter’s highlight the speaker’s character. The immediate switch from iambic tetrameter to iambic dimeter speeds the pace of the poem up; the middle section illuminates the speaker’s message in how he believes one should offer himself to God. The last couple of iambic dimeter is, ‘Meets in this frame / To praise thy name’ (11/12) which is of high significance. Herbert cleverly uses a punning reference to the ‘frame’ of the poem and also a person’s state of mind. Following on from this, the alternate meter’s also fit in with the visual shape of the poem which is effective as it links in with the metaphysical conceit of an altar that Herbert uses throughout. Both poets use various meter’s to demonstrate either the duplicitous motive of the speaker in The Flea or to strengthen importance of the message in The Altar. Both Donne and Herbert structure their poems effectively using the metaphysical conceits of a flea and an altar to highlight the message that is intended. Without fail, both poets are able to use the shape of their poems and also various meters’ in order to create different impacts upon the reader. The Flea and The Altar are seen as completely different poems due to the erotic and seductive behaviour of the speaker in the first poem, yet the latter is in complete contrast as the speaker addresses God in a respectful and dutiful manner. Nevertheless, both Donne and Herbert highlight similar themes such as sexual desires, religion and repetition in order to bring to light the meaning of both poems effectively. Bibliography Krabill, M. (1998). Visual Metaphor. Interpreting English Literature: Milton, Herbert
POLS 4310 Democratic Governments and Indirect Democracy Discussion.

After graduation you have been retained by the government of the fledgling indirect democracy of the nation of Freedonia. They would like you to advise them on the design of their judicial system. They have two main questions for you. First, they are trying to decide between a common law system and a civil law system. What are the advantages of each? What are the disadvantages? Which would you recommend? Explain your reasons for your recommendation. You’ll need to be relatively detailed as they are transitioning from an authoritarian regime and democratic norms are new to them.Their second major question involves the concepts of natural law and positive law. Positive law, they think they understand – after all when the tyrant makes a pronouncement on the law, it really IS the law. Try to explain to them, how Natural Law differs from legal positivism. You may find Blackstone of some help here. You might also temper your enthusiasm for Blackstonian thinking with a reference to Holmes and the notion of judicial realism.The paper should be 4 to 5 double spaced pages in length, in a 12 point typeface. I personally find Calibri among the easiest fonts on my aging eyes, but if that’s not an option for you Times New Roman will be fine. You should use one-inch margins – top, bottom, and sides. In the age of word processors, proper spelling is (or should be) assumed, but be careful. I have found that spell checkers are like autocorrect in Android, they can put words in your mouth you did not mean to say. Grammar, sorry, but grammar will count as well. Not hugely, but I really want you guys to think about sentence structure and word usage. It’ll pay off when you graduate. I think that’s it. If I think of something else, I’ll let you know. If you see something I missed, please let me know. Enjoy!!!Oh, two more things. First, feel free to use outside resources if you want, along with the readings in the text(s). Whichever you use, ensure that you cite them in the paper. As to citation style, the coin of the realm these days is APA (American Psychological Association).Submit the paper through safe assign.
POLS 4310 Democratic Governments and Indirect Democracy Discussion

Table of Contents Introduction Declining labor unions membership in the US Challenges facing labor unions in the US Evolving labor laws and their effects on labor movements Modern legal challenges threatening labor movements in the US The way forward Conclusion References Introduction Labour unions refer to organizations or associations of employees or professionals formed to advocate the interest of the members. These interests include working conditions, employment benefits such as medical benefits, and salary increments amongst other issues. Labour unions often propagate interests that are in contravention to the will of the employers. The employers are often interested in profit making which may involve incurring minimal expenses as possible. In this context, they may not provide ideal working conditions for the employees. More often than not employers have tried to undermine labor union movements through various ways including intimidation of the leaders, bribing and legal measures amongst other ways. There have been radical changes in the need for labor unions in the US workforce in modern days compared to the 1930s and 1940s (Turner 2001). Declining labor unions membership in the US Labour unions movements have been in decline in the US in the recent past. According to Global Research (2013), union membership in the private sector has been at all-time low in the US standing at 7% in the year 2009. On the other hand, labor union membership in the public sector is marginally better than that in the private sector. The US Bureau of Labour Statistics (USBLS) notes that in 2012 “…public sector workers had a union membership rate (35.9%) more than five times higher than that of the private sector (6.6%)” (USBLS 2012). This is a huge drop considering that in the 1970s when labor union movements were at its peak, membership stood at about 29% (Global Research 2013). The composition of the labor movements’ membership shows diverse membership levels among different professions, states, races, ages, and genders in the US. The USBLS (2012) notes that local government employees such as teachers, police officers, and fire fighters form the majority of the public sector membership at 42% in 2012. On the other hand, blacks and aged workers are more likely to be in the labor movements. Challenges facing labor unions in the US Many challenges face the labor unions in the US leading to their declining membership. Such challenges include globalization, changing work force demographics, declining popularity, and employer strategies amongst other factors. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the law has arguably been one of the greatest supports for labor movements and its greatest obstacle in equal measure. The ensuing sections will trace the regulatory environment in labor movements and how it has contributed to the declining labor movement in the US. The section will also attempt to give out solutions to the problems. Evolving labor laws and their effects on labor movements Strong labor movements in the US can be traced to the 1930s in the passing of labor movement friendly laws. The labor laws passed in the mid-1930s in favor of labor unions were collectively known as the new deal labor law reforms. Central to these new labor law reforms was the National Labour Relations Act (Wagner Act). This new law had a dramatic effect on the labor movements in the US. According to Wright (2009), the Wagner act was critical in the following way. The central elements of the act included the establishment of clear rights of workers to form unions, protections for organizing activities and machinery for preventing employers from engaging in unfair practices and bad faith bargaining. The act established The National Labour Relations Board (NLRB) which had the responsibility for enforcing these protections and investigating abuses (Wright 2009, p.1). The Wagner Act made it relatively easy for the workers in any industry to form unions and negotiate with their employers. Workers wishing to form a union only needed to sign up cards informing of their intention to do so. After attaining a majority in the signing of the cards, the union was deemed to have legally been formed and had the powers to negotiate with the employer. Several successes achieved through the Wagner act have been undermined labor laws passed after that. The passing of the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947 had the effects of eroding the gains achieved by the Wagner Act. The Taft-Hartley Act had the effect of increasing items that unions were prohibited from doing. These included “…wildcat strikes, solidarity or political strikes, and secondary boycotts among other things” (Wright 2009, p.7). However, one item that stood out in the Hartley Act that significantly undermined labor unions was the freedom to pass “right to work” laws. We will write a custom Essay on Challenges of Labour Movements Membership in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The right to work laws had the effect of reducing the finances available to the labor unions therefore greatly weakening them. The right to work laws allowed individual employees not to join unions despite a majority of their colleagues have joined the unions (Warner 2013). This, in essence, implied that individual members could benefit from the work of the unions without having paid membership fees. In this context, many workers didn’t see the need to join the unions. In 1933 the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) was enacted. There are several key provisions of the NIRA that had a profound effect on the labor movements in the US. Following a similar fate as the Wagner Act, the act initially contributed to the growth of labor movements before having negative effects. Central to the NIRA legislation was the concepts of “fair compensation,” “fair prices” and “fair wages” (Watcher n.d). Watcher (n.d) explains the logic behind the NIRA legislation in the following way “…trade associations….were empowered to recommend codes of practices for their industries. The codes, once approved by the National Recovery Administration (NRA), were legally binding on all firms in the industry” (Watcher n.d, p.25). However, for the terms to be legally binding they had to allow and agree to support the labor unions. In this context, Watcher (n.d) notes that: The intent was to allow corporations to charge “fair prices” rather than competitive prices so that they, in turn, could pay “fair wages” rather than competitive wages. While the codes were binding in theory, they presented such an unworkable enforcement burden that, in practice, they were largely voluntary. In effect, the primary enforcement mechanism was the Blue Eagle, the prize awarded to companies that complied with the industry codes. The Blue Eagles could be displayed publicly to advertise the company’s good standing with the NRA (Watcher n.d, p.25). The passing of NIRA had a huge effect on the membership of the labor movements in the US. After the passing of NIRA, there was massive recruitment in which about 1.5 million people were recruited. Also there was an addition of “…340 new federal and local charters…” (Watcher n.d, p.25). However, despite the success of NIRA, the gains that were made were soon eroded by the negative exploitation of the rules. Not sure if you can write a paper on Challenges of Labour Movements Membership in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Companies began exploiting the notion of fair prices by inflating the prices for their own profitable gain. This led to a situation where the firms that practiced fair prices in good faith were boxed into a disadvantaged position from the cheating companies. Modern legal challenges threatening labor movements in the US In the modern times, there are legal challenges that threaten the recruitment of members into labor unions. However, unlike in the past where the pressure emanated from the domestic markets in the recent past there have been challenges from the international markets. These pressures emanate from the effects of globalization on the labor markets. There have been emerging concerns on legal treaties that the US signs on the international front that have repercussions on the domestic front. The labor movements often feel the need to join in the discussions to safeguard the interests of the local labor market. However, in several instances, such intervention has led to division of leadership within the union with various factions supporting opposing ends. An example of globalization effects on the labor movements in the US includes the responses to the ratification of North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). NAFTA was signed among Canada, Mexico and the United States that came into effect in 1994. The labor unions in the US opposed several provisions contained in the NAFTA agreement. The labor unions in the US felt that there was a need to include basic standards in the agreement that would be enforceable in the domestic and international courts. However, these intended provisions were opposed by Mexico which was part of the negotiations. This led to a division in the leadership of the labor unions with some wishing continue pressing for the changes and others agreeing with Mexico. Such divisions within the leadership of the unions had the effect of lowering the stature of the unions before potential members. The way forward There are several ways in which the labor unions should deal with the issue of mobilization into the labor movements and especially so among the youth. These solutions lie in the mobilization of members, civic education, clean leadership, youth participation in leadership, and constructive dialogue between the unions and employers amongst other measures. In the context of mobilization, there is need to embrace new platforms in the propagation of the union membership that resonates well with the young target group. One of the platforms that can be embraced by the union leaders is the use of social media such as face book and twitter to propagate these ideas. Face book has about 155 million users in the US (Social bakers 2013). The use of face book as a medium of propagating recruitment of labor union membership would resonate well with the youth. Also critical in boosting labor union membership is the need for doing civic education among the existing and potential members. In this context, the education will focus on the gains made through the labor union membership and what is at stake. There is a need for education to focus on modern challenges in workplaces that are better addressed through labor unions. There is a need to have the young people within leadership positions in labor unions to boost their membership among the young people. This is especially so because it is only the young people who may be in a position converse and convince their age mates to join them in the movements. There is often the perception that the leadership of the labor unions must be relatively old. These old labor union leaders have negative consequences on the labor movements’ subscriptions among the youth as they are not attractive. Another major way of boosting the membership of the labor unions is to clean up the image of the leadership of the unions. There is a need to clean the image that makes labor union leaders from being viewed as corrupt and dishonest people. There is a need to portray the leadership as honorable and desirable in a way that appeals to the morally sensible workers. In this context, there is a need for the labor union membership to ensure that they act ethically at all times. Finally, there is an increasingly need for the labor unions to have constructive dialogues with employers whenever the need arises. There is often the tendency of the labor unions playing to the public gallery by being over bearing in nature and making unreasonable demands. The labor unions need to employ good faith bargaining and constructive dialogues in their discussions with employers with a view of reaching a win-win situation. Conclusion It is evident that whichever way that you look at the issue of labor membership recruitment levels in the US, there is a need to embrace radical and modern ways of attracting youth membership. These modern ways must address the modern challenges and tailor their needs to match the said challenges. References Global Research. (2013). The Decline of Trade-Unions in the US and Canada. Retrieved April 09, 2013 from http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-decline-of-trade-unions-in-the-us-and-canada/25161 This article has been critical in understanding the reason for the declining trade unions in the US and Canada. The article makes comparisons between declining labour union movements in the two countries and gives possible reasons for the declining labour movements in US and Canada. Social bakers. (2013).Face book Statistics by Country. Retrieved April 09, 2013 from http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics/ This article was critical in the evaluation of the face book statistics in different countries and was thus useful in demonstrating the potential of face book in reviving labour union membership in US. Turner, L. (2001). Reviving the labour movement. Retrieved April 09, 2013 from http://www.gurn.info/en/topics/global-trade-union-strategies-union-renewal/organizational-innovation-and-change/trade-union-growth-and-decline/reviving-the-labor-movement-rank-and-file-mobilization-in-the-us-britain-and-germany This article has been critical in giving possible measures for reviving labour movements in the US. The article articulates measures that have been undertaken in other countries and the level of success of such measures. USBLS. (2012). Union members — 2012. Retrieved April 09, 2013 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/union2.pdf The article was useful in articulating the demographics of labour union movements in the US divided among different work groups. The article also gives the labour union membership in various years. Warner, K. (2013).The Real Reason for the Decline of American Labour Unions. Retrieved April 09, 2013 from http://www.counterpunch.org/2013/01/24/the-real-reason-for-the-decline-of-american-labor-unions/ This article gives an in-depth explanation on the reason for the declining labour union movements in the US. The article deviates from the norm and looks at unorthodox reasons behind the declining labour union membership. Watcher, M. (n.d).The Rise and Decline of Unions. Retrieved April 09, 2013 from http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/regulation/2007/7/v30n2-2.pdf The article gives a historical insight into the factors contributing to the rise of the unions and the factors that in the recent past has contributed to the declining labour movements’ membership in the US. Wright, J. (2009). Labour Unions. Retrieved April 09, 2013 from http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~wright/ContemporaryAmericanSociety/Chapter 21 – unions – Norton August.pdf This article has been instrumental in understanding the labour union movements in the US.

Public Personnel Administration’s Legal Challenges Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Legal Oversight and Judicial Doctrines Strategic Civil Service Reforms Affirmative Action and Diversity The Bureaucracy and Democracy Representative Bureaucracy Conclusion Reference List Introduction Public personnel administration comprises the acquisition, development, utilization, and compensation of the workforce in the public organizations. Problems that arise from globalization, shifting technology, and customer demands, among other factors, characterize the modern business environment. This set of circumstances requires well-informed public personnel. This essay provides an insight into challenges such as legal oversight and judicial doctrines, strategic civil service reforms, affirmative action and diversity, representative bureaucracy, and democracy that are encountered in public personnel administration. Legal Oversight and Judicial Doctrines Issues that pertain to legal oversights and judicial doctrines have been challenging the public personnel administration due to tremendous changes that occur in information technology, globalization, and market economies. Most people in the public domain are reluctant to accept various public administrations as they are fond of adopting active and aggressive roles in organizations that assume radical reforms regarding government accountabilities (Farazmand, 2007). A credit is given to the public in the current society that has raised the bar for policymakers to perform a high level of productivity and quick actions in the public administration (Farazmand, 2007).The legal oversight authorities have ensured that the public personnel administration acts according to the stipulated laws since everybody, including the private sectors, only act genuinely if the public upholds transparency (Farazmand, 2007). According to Kellough and Selden (2003), many organizational unions have no relationship with the state of reforms that exist in the public personnel administration. Such reforms include the decentralization of activities, management of labor and partnerships, and strategic management, various job classes, and payment levels (Kellough

MDC Water Properties Responsible for The Result of The Experiment Paper

online homework help MDC Water Properties Responsible for The Result of The Experiment Paper.

What makes water so important to life?Some may argue DNA is the most important molecule to life while others may argue that certain proteins are. However, many would argue water is the molecule needed for life to survive and thrive.So, what makes water so important? Its has properties that allow it to interact with many other molecules necessary for life. The nature of the three atoms in a water molecule, H2O, and how they interact allows water to be a polar molecule. Common sense tells you that it’s impossible to boil water in a paper bag, but this classic parlor trick was a favorite of the Victorian magician. As you might imagine, the secret lies in yet another amazing property of water. Instead of using a paper bag, this modern day version of the demonstration uses an ordinary balloon, some water and a candle. It’s a combination that’s guaranteed to make people stand back. Follow the directions below after watching the video.Open the Claim Evidence Reasoning _CER_ CH2.docx Claim Evidence Reasoning _CER_ CH2.docx – Alternative Formats Make a claim to answer the question: Which of the water properties is responsible for the results of the experiment?Information presented in the video and the rest of the chapter will provide EVIDENCE to support your claim or you may find evidence that make you change your claim. Which you can!! As long as the evidence supports the new claim.When all of the evidence has been collected, you will explain the reasoning for your claim using the evidence as support.The completed CER will be submitted in the next section of this chapter.
MDC Water Properties Responsible for The Result of The Experiment Paper

Several Definitions Of Good Job Satisfaction Psychology Essay

When we use the phrase “job satisfaction” it means one’s positive feelings and thinking about his job. It includes his feelings about all the aspects of the job such as monetary aspects like salary and earnings and also mentally aspects like the environment of the job, coworkers behavior, the social level of the job and things like that. An employee might be satisfied with one aspect and be dissatisfied or be indifferent with another aspect. For example, someone may be very satisfied with the job environment, but his salary may not satisfy him. His reaction in this situation depends on the importance of each aspect for him and the overall satisfaction of his job. In the following of this context I’m presenting several definitions of job satisfaction, several models it and suggesting how to increase the job satisfaction of the employees according to literature. Definition of job satisfaction Many studies have done in this area and there are several definitions of job satisfaction which each focus on some aspects of job satisfaction. According to Smith et al. (1975), job satisfaction means “the perceived characteristics of the job in relation to an individual’s frames of reference. Alternatives available in given situations, expectations, and experience play important roles in providing the relevant frame of reference”. Locke (1976) explained job satisfaction as “. . . a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences”. Cranny, Smith, and Stone (1992) explained job satisfaction as ”an affective (that is, emotional) reaction to one’s job, resulting from the incumbent’s comparison of actual outcomes with those that are desired (expected, deserved, and so on.)”. Brief

Sociological Theories of the Impact of Sport and Physical Exercise on Society

Ever since we were young, we have been told sport and exercise is good for society and everyone should take part in sport and exercise in some way or another for the health benefits it brings. However, sociologists have many different views on sport and exercise and these views are presented within multiple theories including Structural Functionalism theory and the Marxism (Conflict) Theory. Both theoretical approaches are related to a structural view of sociology and as scholar, Anthony Giddens (1996) states there are observable patterns within society that shapes the individual. The structural view of society belongs to the macro-perspective which looks at society as a whole (Marshall, 1998, pp. 378-379). Below I examine each theoretical approach in turn, outlining the strengths and weaknesses according to scholars who apply their trade in the sociology of sport. The structural functionalism theory is based largely on the views of Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons and Robert Merton. Spencer (1898) describes society similar to the human body as he states that society has interrelated parts which must work together to ensure the biological and social needs of that particular society is met. Durkheim (1893) further applied Spencer’s theory and stated that society is held together by shared values, languages and symbols. Furthermore, Durkheim (1893) stated that society is similar to an organism and within said organism each component plays a necessary part. Without one part working none can work. One of these components is sport. Coakley (2001) stated that sport is one of the interrelated parts which contributes to the development of people and society. There are many protagonists of this theoretical approach who celebrate the many functional attributes that sport has to offer for example Molnar, Coakley and Cashmore. An example of this development would be the transfer of values and motivation seen within sport being transferred to everyday life. The Structural Functionalism theory does not only have negative aspects, but it also has positive and beneficial aspects, especially when applied to sport. Firstly, in support for the structural functionalism theory Blake and Taylor (2017) state that sport in society brings people and communities that usually do not associate together and creates a feeling of allegiance. Resulting in more contributing members of society. This can be seen within mega events such as the London Olympics which resulted in approximately 29.4 million people coming to the London Olympics to show support for their nation (Girginov, 2013). Furthermore, it is shown that sport also improves life skills. For example, ‘underachieving young people who take part in sport see a 29% increase in numeracy skills and a 12-16% increase in other transferable skills.’ (Sport England [Online], 2018). Secondly, sport and exercise has been proven to result in many health benefits such as a reduced risk of over 20 illness such as cardiovascular disease and some cancers (Sport England [Online], 2018). Furthermore, Ahmadi (2009) states that taking part in sport and exercise can also save between £1,750 and £6,900 in healthcare costs per person. In support of this Hills, King and Byrne (2007) suggest that if we take part in regular physical activity such as an organised sport it is easier to take part and be motivated. Therefore, resulting in the reduction of risk. In addition to physical health benefits, sport also has many mental health benefits. Carless and Douglas (2011) and Paluska and Schwnek (2000) state that regular physical activity has many benefits. Including an improved mood, reduced stress and an increased self-esteem. This is supported by a study conducted by Penedo and Dahn (2005) where the participants were asked to rate their mood after a period of exercise and after inactivity. The results showed that the participants felt more awake, calmer and more content after physical activity. Thirdly, sport reduces the number of crimes committed by young adults and also makes the community a safer place. In support of this point, there has only been 16,500 first time entrants to the youth justice system (Between April 2016 and March 2017). This is an 85% decrease over the last 10 years (Youth Justice Statistics England and Wales [Online], 2018); (Nichols, 2010). Furthermore, Brosnan (2017) stated that “A 10% increase in sports participation leads to a fall in person crimes of 1.3 and 1.56% while a 10% increase in sports participation rates leads to a fall in property crimes of between 0.64 and 0.73%.”. In addition to the decrease in crime rates and increase in community safety, sport also has economic value. In 2010 sport and sport related activity contributed £20.3 billion to the English economy (Active Humber [Online], 2018); (Nauright and Schimmel, 2005). However, besides all the positive aspects of the structural functionalism theory. The structural functionalism theory also has many negatives. The first negative of the structural functionalism theory is that the theory does not recognise that sport has negative consequences and this leads to exaggerated accounts of positive consequences (Coakley, 2007). An example of this is that it assumes that there are no conflicts of interest between the different social groups (Molnar, 2014). A recent example of sport conflict is when Millwall and Brentford football fans began fighting prior to the match (Metro [Online], 2018). The second negative is that the structural functionalism theory does not recognise the inequalities within society and sport (Loy et al, 2004). A popular example of this is that females do not receive the same pay as male athletes. The United States Women’s National Team are paid 40 times less than their male counterparts in 2014 (a cumulative $15 million for the women’s teams, and $576 million for the men’s) (Coakley, 2007). Furthermore, 40% of all sports participants are females. However, according to the Tucker Centre for Research on Girls and Women in Sport they only receive 4% of all sports media coverage. Thirdly, the structural functionalism theory does not recognise the negative affects sport has on athlete’s metal and physical health (Molnar, 2014). For example, the Anxiety and Depression Association of America states that body dysmorphic disorders affect 1 in 50 people. While 8% of people suffer from mild anxiety and depression (Faculty of Sport and Exercise Medicine UK [Online], 2018). These metal health conditions can result in the athlete resorting to taking anabolic steroids to try and meet their goals and also meet expectations placed on them. An example of this is when Jon Jones was caught taking turinabol before his fight to try and have an advantage against his opponent. In contrast to a structural functionalism view of sport, Marxists outline different meanings to sport. The Marxism Theory is often known as the interpretation of the thoughts and views of Karl Marx (1813 – 1883). Karl Marx emphasized the leading role of the economy in society as a whole as well as in societal parts, known as superstructures. These superstructures are non-economic aspects of society, i.e. culture, religion, social life, education, religion, politics and social institutions (Sperber et al., 2013). Marx stated that within society there was two classes: Bourgeoisie (Upper Class) and Proletariat (Working Class). He further stated that the Bourgeoisie are powerful and wealthy while the Proletariats are poor and have no power thus resulting in conflict due to the inequalities (Mandel, 2002). These social classes and inequalities can be seen throughout sport. Which leads to the first point that sport can lead to overtraining and poor recovery. Richardson et al (2008) stated that one of the main causes of overtraining is over-invested parents and coaches. Richardson et al (2008) further stated that to ensure the athlete is safe and having efficient recovery parents of athletes should have very little input to the athletes training. While the coach ensures they are coaching for the athlete’s interest and not for theirs. An example of a coach not coaching for the athlete’s interest is when Raquel Pennington requested that the fight was stopped at the end of the fourth round. However, was denied and told to carry on which resulted in her being further injured (New York Post [Online], 2018). Secondly, sport can lead to people building a poor attitude and ultimately leading to a mental illness such as body dysmorphia or anorexia. For example, McMullen (2014) states that “hard training and healthy eating can cross the line to exhaustion and eating disorders”. In support of this the Anxiety and Depression Association of America states that body dysmorphic disorder affects 1 in 50 people (1.7% to 2.4% of the general population). Furthermore, Gulliver et al (2015) administrated a self-report survey to 224 female elite athletes to measure mental health symptoms. Overall, 46.4% of athletes were experiencing symptoms of at least one of the mental health problems assessed. This data clearly supports the statement of sport can lead to metal illnesses. Finally, sport can lead to young athletes confusing commitment with exclusivity which can be detrimental due to the limiting effects they have on the young athletes. Live Strong (2018) stated that although learning the importance of focus can benefit young athletes it can also be negative as some young athletes can become unwilling to participate in other activity’s resulting in them not being able to broaden their horizons and becoming well rounded athletes. Although the Marxists perspective is aware of the inequalities in sport, it also has negatives. The first negative of the conflict theory is that it is based primarily on economic conditions and therefore when the theory is applied the importance of political, cultural and other factors are often reduced (Craig et al, 2010). In other words when the conflict theory is applied to things such as sport. The economic factors often overlook other factors such as gender, ethnicity, age, disability and religion. The second negative of the conflict theory is that it ignores the possibility that sport participation can be a personally and socially empowering experience (Coakley, 2001). For example, when the conflict theory is applied to sport the negatives of sport is the main focus and the positives such as: improved health, improved mental health, increase in self-esteem and confidence. Thirdly, the conflict theory ignores the possibility that sport in capitalist societies can and may involve experiences that give individuals and groups power. Conflict theorists talk about how sport is organised to maximise the control that wealthy people have over the other members within the society. Furthermore, the conflict theory approach does not acknowledge that sport can serve many interests within society and denies that any participation in sport can be a personal creative and liberating experience. Resulting in members of the society to be inspired and seek economic changes that will promote equality within the existing capitalist societies. To conclude the argument that ‘Sport and exercise are good for society’ the structural functionalism theory provides evidence that sport has a beneficial role in society. Whereas the conflict theory provides evidence that sport has a negative role within society. Although both theories have negative’s the points made by the structural functionalism theory outweighs any negatives brought about. Reference List Ahmadi, H. (2009). Complementary effects of sport on health. Durham, Ct.: Eloquent Books. Barnes, D. and Forman, M. (1998). Exploring diversity. 2nd ed. Needham Heights, MA: Simon