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The first known use of the adj… cheap mba definition essay help Java

The first known use of the adjective ‘divisive’ in the English language has been recorded as in 1642, at the outbreak of the English Civil war as allegiances were divided between supporting the king’s Cavaliers or the Cromwell’s Roundheads.

To this day Cromwell is a divisive figure, who we can either consider a brutal military dictator, a liberal hero for religious toleration, or a class revolutionary supporting political freedoms and fighting back against the ruling aristocracy. However, when all is considered, it is evident that despite inspiring the beginnings of a more democratic England, he was a merciless and suppressive ruler who hypocritically became King in all ways but name.Firstly, Oliver Cromwell can be seen as a brutal military dictator. This can be seen by his attitude to Ireland, where his solution as leader of the English Parliamentary forces to the issue of the lack of support for the new republic (the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland) was to crush the unrest and massacre Irish citizens. The exact number of deaths resulting from this campaign are highly disputed, however the decrease in the Irish population range from around 50 (The History and Social Influence of the Potato, Redcliffe N. Salaman) to 83 percent (The Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland, John Patrick Prendergast). Whilst it could be argued that the ruthlessness of Cromwell, particularly in Drogheda, would have saved lives in other parts of Ireland, as it would have encouraged the citizens to surrender to his army, this was not always the case.

During the siege of Wexford, Cromwell and his men burnt and pillaged the town, killing an estimated 2,000 soldiers and 1,500 townspeople, whilst negotiations were still ongoing. This shows a lack of will to compromise and a disregard for the military tradition of quarter. The remaining Irish were told “To Hell or to Connaught!” This was a region in Western part of the Island of Ireland, and many others were deported to Barbados to work as slaves. This is known to be the greatest act of ethnic cleansing in the British Isles since the Norman Conquest. After this mass deportation and killings, by the end of 1656 80% of the Ireland was owned by protestants. Whilst it is clear that he cannot be blamed for future events or the actions of future leaders, this has been described as a key issue leading to further disputes and violence between England and Ireland. According to the modern US military, The most effective counterinsurgency campaigns “integrate and synchronize political, security, economic, and informational components that reinforce governmental legitimacy and effectiveness while reducing insurgent influence over the population.

COIN strategies should be designed to simultaneously protect the population from insurgent violence; strengthen the legitimacy and capacity of government institutions to govern responsibly and marginalize insurgents politically, socially, and economically.” Whilst the obvious response to this would be that rules of war have significantly changed since the 17th Century, it is equally clear that Cromwell failed in his objectives long term, and he did subvert war traditions of the time. Not only did he refuse quarter, but he undoubtedly was overly violent to satisfy his own religious opinions as well as the consensus of English Parliamentarians who would support this example of ethnic vengeance.Secondly, one must assess to what extent he can be considered a moral leader who championed religious toleration. One of the key reasons of the Civil War was people wanting to fight for more religious freedoms, and there was a genuine fear that Charles was subverting the Jacobean ‘middle way’ by imposing episcopacy on Scotland and enforcing a common prayer book. This meant that whilst many favoured a protestant stance for Britain, many also disagreed with the enforcement of religious policies on the nation. During Cromwell’s rule there certainly was more religious toleration than Britain was accustomed to under Charles, however there were still many areas where social groups were not tolerated, and he did charge those who abused this liberty were subjected to regulation.

There was still a state church, however it was not compulsory to attend, and private worship was largely tolerated. The first Civil Ceremony marriages were conducted in England, and the new government did not dictate policies on rites, ceremonies and sacraments. Many churches were left to decide how they wished to administer baptisms or the Lords Supper as long as they largely followed Protestant ‘godly’ teachings.

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