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The Evaluation of Evidence Linking Asthma with Occupation Essay (Critical Writing)

Asthma is recognised as one of the major non-communicable chronic respiratory diseases worldwide. The most recent approximate number of people suffering from asthma globally is about 235 million (WHO, 2013). The prevalence rate of this disease is increasing annually (Global Asthma Network, 2014). This air passage condition remains underdiagnosed, underreported, and undertreated; moreover, the exact causes of asthma are still unknown, but some of the primary contributing factors are chemical pollutants present in the air, as well as indoor and outdoor allergens (WHO, 2013). The cases of asthma caused by occupational factors compose the primary focus of this paper. Critical analysis of several research studies exploring this topic will be carried out to deepen the understanding of mechanisms of research on occupational asthma and its determinants. When it comes to occupational asthma risks, there exist JEMs or job exposure matrices designed for epidemiological studies and serve as a tool to assess the exposure to various workplace risk factors. Lillienberg, Dahlman-Höglund, Schiöler, Torén, and Andersson (2014) researched older and newer JEMs to find the differences in exposure assignment in them. The authors collected data from a large random sample and processed the data with the help of Cox regression models and Cohen’s kappa. The findings revealed a high degree of agreement between the established and the modified JEMs in the category of “any exposure”, but detected differences in regard to some particular types of exposure. The primary objective of this study matched the selected sampling technique and sample size; the authors used a large sample (over 13 200 subjects) because the assessment of the large-scale tool such as JEM was required. Since a substantial body of data had to be processed – the authors drew to statistical tools helping find agreement in the two matrices and distinguish the results in men from those in women. One of the major limitations of this study could be the preferred method of data collection – two questionnaires filled in by the subjects. When dealing with numerical and precise data, such a method can be a weakness due to the difficulty to test whether or not the answers provided by the participants were honest and fair. In order to determine the actual exposure statistics, the findings of this study would have to be compared to those of an expert assessment. Overall, the results of this study supported the initial argument of the authors in regard to the need for frequent updates and modifications of JEMs in order for them to reflect the most relevant and valid results. Another study focusing on the use of JEMs was that by Kim et al. (2016) there, the authors attempted to identify correlations between the patterns of asthma exacerbation and occupational exposures. Approaching this study critically, it is possible to notice that the size of the researched sample was rather large (over 1300 respondents), which increased the reliability, validity, and generalisability of the findings. Another strong point of this study design is its mechanism of comparison the reported asthma exacerbation rates to workplace exposure according to JEM – a scientifically confirmed set of assigned exposures. This approach made the entire design easy to repeat in a different area and with a different sample. Also, it helped name specific triggers of occupational asthma exacerbation, addressing which could help minimise the problem. Due to job specificity and specialisation, in many workplaces, occupational asthma is one of the major organisational problems. In contrast with the previous two sources, the study by Jonaid et al. (2015) is focused on the exploration of asthma triggers in a specific industry instead of covering the contributors generally. In particular, the authors investigated the contributors of allergic reaction in the workers of the bakery industry exposed to high molecular weight substances such as different types of flour and enzymes. The authors collected the data from 436 participants (a purposeful sample of bakery workers) and used medical surveillance evaluation in combination with self-administered questionnaires. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The results of the questionnaires were compared to the participants’ medical history. Further, with the help of multivariable logistic regression, the authors could identify the correlations between the occupational contributors to sensitisation and asthma symptoms reflected in medical histories. The authors found that based on the current health status of the workers and their levels of exposure to occupational asthma, they could predict the onset or exacerbation of the condition in the future. In addition, some other studies of with similar objectives used this type of design combining a questionnaire with the research of harmful exposures (Lofstedt, Hagstrom, Bryngelssona, Holmstrom,
Table of Contents Abstract Introduction Discussion Conclusion References Abstract Perception of intelligence among different communities varies to a great deal depending on the socio-economic and political factors. The Kpelle people of Liberia had a different perception of intelligence from the Zulus of South Africa. The best way of measuring intelligence in such unique communities is to base the measurements on the local parameters. Introduction Perception of intelligence varies from one community to the other across the world. While one community may value consultation when making decisions, others cherish creativity or even the ability to process information very fast. The parameters used to measure intelligence in one community may be very different from the parameters used in another community. In this assignment, the researcher seeks to compare how the Zulu people of South Africa and Kpelle people of Liberia perceive intelligence. The researcher will look at their perception towards issues such as domestic violence, initiations, and marriages. Discussion According to Matsumoto (2001), different African communities perceived intelligence differently. This scholar says that the Zulu people of South Africa valued communal work very much. They considered intelligence to be the ability to consult the elders whenever one is making a critical decision. The elders were the think tanks for this society because of their knowledge gathered from years of experience. This community still cherishes the need to consult the elders when making decisions even in the face of the current Westernization in this country. On the other hand, the Kpelle people of Liberia valued creativity in decision-making. Even though they also cherished the relevance to consult, their environment posed many challenges that needed creative ideas. Members of the society who were able to come up with creative ideas on how to solve the problems of the society were held in high regards. When their creative ideas helped in solving some of the environmental problems, the society members would consider them heroes. It may not be easy to use a universal test to measure the intelligence between these two communities. As Valsiner (2012) notes, each of these cultural groups defined their measure of intelligence based on the environmental factors. For instance, the Kpelle people of Liberia had different environmental factors from the Zulu people of South Africa. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When using cognitive abilities such as memory, organization, and visualization, the two communities compare very closely. These cognitive factors were particularly important in defense. They had to remember the militaristic of their enemies based on the experiences and organize themselves when it was evident that the community was under attack, and visualize some of the best strategies that can be used to counter the enemy. As Langley (2012) notes, such strategic approaches to solving problems were not restricted to addressing the threat of an attack. They were also important when addressing other social problems. One of the cultural practices that were common among the people of Kpelle is the marriage ceremony. In such important stages of life, the society considered intelligence to be the manner in which the couple engaged their elders in their wedding preparations. Although a young man was allowed to look for a life partner of his choice, he would be considered an intelligent young man if he involved his parents and elder members of his community in investigating the background of the preferred bride. This is very different from what was traditionally practiced among the Zulu people of South Africa. Among the Zulu people, the parents arranged marriages. Intelligence in this case would be the ability to accept the choices made by the elders because it was believed that they could see far into the future (Matsumoto
Introduction With the different readings made, the researcher will intend to list or summarise a working bibliography. ‘The process of reviewing a literature involves making judgement about what to include and exclude from your literature review and then reading what other researchers have written about your subject and writing about it in a way that demonstrate you understanding.’ Writing the literature review for the dissertation will convey the researcher’s knowledge and ideas that have been established on the topic, and will be discussed. The literature review will be an essential tool, as this will indicate that the researcher has understandings of a field of study and their relevance for their inclusion. It connects the work to a greater field of knowledge and, in more immediate terms, it demonstrates the awareness bringing the work in a wider context. The researcher will also find an added benefit since some information about the subject will be found before starting the research work. This will bring the reader up to date with current literature on the topic, and framing the future research. The literature review will also influence the work as a foundation of research, identifying relevant and appropriate material. It should also inform and underpin the research, identifying the ‘gap’ that the researcher is attempting to address. The literature review will also help to position the work in the context of previous research and creating a ‘research space’ for this piece of work. (Hart:1998:14) The Theoretical Framework In competitive markets, companies must always seek to gain market share. The standardisation of brands and products often leads to higher productivity and lower production costs, and communication. With identical packages available on the shelves, the consumers can easily identify visual codes of brands, thus strengthening their identity and reputation worldwide. Moreover, standardisation of lifestyles, driven by consumer mobility and the development of information technologies and communication, encourages the internationalisation and standardisation of products. Faced with globalisation and the saturation of some markets, the wineries are induced to expand internationally. However, managing brands internationally, and more specifically internationalisation of the packaging is far from being easy. Due to the saturated wine industry, it is more and more important to focus the wine industry on marketing strategy efforts toward the product and the consumer to maintain market share and sustain the wine customer attention. The Packaging This is a very important marketing promotion tool to attract customer, and is now regarded as an essential ‘P’ of the marketing mix. According to Hall and Mitchell (2007), the wine marketing mix decisions consist of the four P’s with an additional quartet of Packaging, People, Planning, and Positioning. Some studies have taken different approaches to the packaging as a marketing tool. Paine, Frank Albert has developed a definition of the packaging as: ‘The art, science and technology of preparing goods for market and sale'(1992:34) To add, further in his book, the author defines another kind of definition as: ‘Packaging is a means of ensuring safe delivery of a product to the ultimate user, in sound condition, at minimum overall cost'(1992:52) Packaging is well-known to be as a key element of the branding process as it communicates the brand equity of the company. According to Kotler (1999 : 28): ‘The package is the buyer first encounter with the product and is capable of turning the buyer on and off’ It can make the perceptions of qualities, reliabilities, and value in a product, as well as loyalty, confidence, and self-expression to the consumer (Aaker, 1996). We can make our conclusion about the packaging as a commercial activity. This is a crucial factor for companies in order to ensure the promotion of their product. The packaging will aim this communication of information. Through the brand, the packaging has become way of communicate messages to the consumers. ‘Packaging has actually gained in importance in the marketing mix as consumers closely scrutinize more products on the retail shelf before purchasing.’ (Brand Channel: 2009: August) ‘Packaging is taking on increasing significance and extending beyond the obvious necessity of providing for protection, transportation and storage.’ (Giles: 1994: 73) Trends And Future Of Wine Packaging It is interesting to note that the packaging of a product is the most ephemeral in the product life. Indeed, some companies must constantly adapt to trends and market developments. A company will prefer a change in the packaging rather than the product on its own, and this change will allow sales to grow in profitability. Therefore, we say that the packaging is a way to change media. Wineries are seeking to find a new way of attracting consumers, develop new relationships with the consumers and establish and sustain a strong brand equity that will stimulate the buying process. With the ‘general decline in consumption and a change in drinking habits; […] from daily wine consumption towards more occasional drinking of higher-quality wine underpinned value growth’ (Datamonitor 2008:October:18), it is hardly surprising that the relationship between wine and packaging has attracted considerable attention in recent years. The packaging is particularly relevant in the decision-making process. In the field of the wine packaging, the shape of the packaging, the design, drawing and colour on the label is meant to attract the attention of the potential purchaser, differentiating the product from other competitors. It influences the majority of purchases made in large and medium-sized store, with consumers increasingly fickle and demanding. The International Journal of Wine Marketing’s article refers to the importance of the packaging in the wine industry suggesting that: ‘It reaches out beyond the point of purchase to make statements about its purchaser’. (The International Journal of Wine Marketing: Thomas: 2000:12) Researchers Wine Intelligence’s latest quarterly Consumer Intelligence report confirms evidence that the wine is not important ‘choosing cues’. The results of this survey indicates that proportions of consumers who consider the aspects of a wine as ‘top of mind’ cues when choosing which bottle of wine to buy would be the Grape variety (74%), Promotional offer (66%), Country of origin(63%), Glass colour (10%) and the bottle weight (7%). When consumers are willing to purchase wine, the decision making will involve asking themselves several questions including what type of wine it is, how much the wine is, and if the brand is known. These sources of information are important for consumers. The packaging is the media that the buyer will evaluate before purchasing the wine. Companies tend to simplify the decision making process, removing the grapes varieties and the vintage, and positioning the product within the reach of most mainstream consumer. Developing innovative wine packaging will be an investment making the brand distinctive, standing out on the shelves and simply trying to compete against existing products on the market. Therefore a focus of the packaging elements is the new strategy for these wineries, in terms of marketing efforts. The packaging is one of the tools in marketing for wineries to get the right picture about the business, and help the perception and positioning in the market place. A Bet On Innovation For Wine Industry The strategies of the company are not only to look to volume, but acting for the long term. Innovation has become essential for wineries wishing to take their brands to above preserve their margins and differentiate from competitors. A third of sales of consumer products are achieved with products that did not exist three years before. (J.J. Urvoy et S. Sanchez:2007: 135) The consumer demands are increasingly strong and we can notice the need for companies to generate new needs incentives to innovate through packaging. The wine packaging is facing a new trend of packaging, based on innovations becoming increasingly complex. Packaging innovation can drive wineries to access the premium product category. Packaging innovation can move your business from a commodity driven product into a premium product category. (JoAnn Hines: Australian institute of packaging) ‘Innovative packaginggas been a key feature of premium brands in the last decade’ (Datamonitor :2009) The convenient, practical, easy use and inexpensive packaging is obviously the most important factor with consumers when they purchase, however in the wine industry offer few possibilities. Therefore, even if innovation in packaging is one of the most important tasks in marketing, it is nevertheless one of the most difficult. Few innovations survive if they do meet a real consumer need. Thus, the packaging does have a role to play in innovation. A packaging, suitable for the use of the consumer and its expectations in term of packaging, will probably become the best retention tool. Adapting The New Way Of Consuming: In order to be differentiated, wines seek to appeal and attract consumers. The key success to this packaging design revolution is to meet the consumer’s needs looking for trend. This is the case of the Maleta winery who decided to centre their marketing efforts on their packaging design. The winery has developed unique type of packaging for each wine, which aims to spoke directly to the target consumer according to a price range. ‘After auditing their winery, existing brand, competitors, and global beverage packaging design trends we decided on a strategy that would brand the wine, not the winery.’ (Jump Branding
Ordinarily, human resource professionals across the world spend most of their time trying to understand how best to handle employee relationships in order to protect both the employer and the employees (EEOC, n.d.). Considering that there have been numerous incidences at the workplace requiring the intervention of a legal process, I am strongly convinced that common sense and compassion have slowly given way to litigation. Unlike in the past, where employers and employees dealt with each other through common sense and compassion, the present-day work environment is generally characterized by so much conflict and misunderstandings that have compelled organizations to turn to legal action so as to address workplace problems and protect their public image. For most organizations, conflicts are created by poor communication and failure to tolerate differences that are often noticeable when people with varying ideologies work together. Other conflicts may stem from the challenges that are often faced by employees when it comes to balancing between work and social life. This is especially true in organizations where management has not fully embraced the use of technology and consequently, employees are always required to be physically present at their workstations. For many employees, this is very stressful and creates an imbalanced lifestyle. Unfortunately, this stress spills over to the workplace affecting employees output as well as quality of relationships at work. If not handled well, disagreements between management and other staff may lead to legal action. Generally, great business relations are initially created between employers and employees through the operations of the human resource department. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In most cases, expectations are very high that individuals who join the organization as staff will do their work diligently guided by common sense and showing compassion to other employees as much as possible. Over the years, however, the use of common sense and compassion at the workplace fails to prevail and employment laws and regulations begin to take center stage. As a result, most organizations in the United States, as well as other places in the world, are today forced to get familiar with legal, safety, and regulatory requirements that are related to employee rights and privileges at the workplace. In doing all these, human resource professionals are always seeking to protect their organizations (DOL, n.d.). To a great extent, legal action is critical in ensuring that the U.S. is able to protect its workers from any form of discrimination or maltreatment. The various regulatory bodies that exist in the U.S. thus have a common agenda of providing guidelines to be followed by employers in order to safeguard the interests of the U.S. workers and to ensure that no worker is treated unfairly by any employer. Among others, regulatory organizations concerning themselves with employment issues include the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the United States Department of Labor, the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. Generally, EEOC plays a major role in ensuring that laws and regulations meant to protect employees against different forms of discrimination are enforced by human resource professionals (EEOC, n.d.). According to EEOC, it is inappropriate to discriminate employees based on their religious backgrounds. We will write a custom Essay on Common Sense and Compassion in the Workplace Replaced by Litigation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All employers in the United States are therefore expected to accommodate employees without paying attention to religious affiliations. To comply with the requirement outlined by EEOC, all human resource professionals must do everything possible to ensure that no single employee in the United States is subjected to discrimination at any level. It is, therefore, obvious that all individuals tasked with the responsibility of looking into the needs of other employees in organizations must be fully aware of all the laws and regulations in the United States that concern the treatment of workers (EEOC, n.d.). Above all else, human resource professionals must follow keenly, rules and regulations as set by the government of the United States. The U.S. Department of Law, on the other hand, provides guidelines to be followed by employers when making decisions regarding wages and working hours, safety and health matters, and employee compensation among others (DOL, n.d.). The Americans with Disabilities Act effectively requires employers to justify job requirements and criteria for every employee regardless of their physical ability or disability (Perritt, 2003). For most organizations, once a contract between an employer and an employee is signed, they both have an obligation towards each other. The onus, therefore, is on the human resource department to ensure that everyone in the organization faithfully follows existing laws and regulations so as to ensure that the organization does not get sucked into lawsuits in the future. In case of any laxity in implementing rules and regulations as set by the government and other regulatory bodies, an organization may end up with a very unhealthy work environment coupled with costly legal processes that may plunge the organization into huge loses (Perritt, 2003). Not sure if you can write a paper on Common Sense and Compassion in the Workplace Replaced by Litigation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In view of the arguments presented in this paper, it is quite obvious that common sense and compassion in the work place has been replaced by litigation. References Department of Labor (DOL). Summary of the Major Laws of the Department of Labor. Web. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). (n.d). Religious Discrimination. Web. Perritt, H. H. (2003). Americans with Disabilities Act Handbook, Volume 1. New York, NY: Aspen Publishers Online.

history week 6 n 7 Critical thinking

history week 6 n 7 Critical thinking.

I’m working on a history writing question and need guidance to help me learn.

Option #1: Mexican-American Interaction: The Mexican PerspectiveThe most dramatic event in the history of relations between Mexico and the United States took place a century and a half ago. U.S. historians refer to this event as “The Mexican War,” while in Mexico they prefer to use the term “The U.S. Invasion.”In a paper, discuss the annexation of Texas, the Texas Rebellion against Mexico, and the Mexican-American War from the Mexican perspective. What were the underlying issues in the conflict, from the Mexican perspective? Why did Mexico believe it was justified in its actions? Conclude your discussion by explaining the outcome of the war.Directions:Your paper should be 2-3 pages long, not including the required Title and References pages.Format your paper according to APA style, following the CSU Global Writing Center (Links to an external site.).You can see a sample paper here (Links to an external site.).Your paper should include an introduction, a body with at least three fully developed paragraphs, and a conclusion. It should contain a fully developed and supported thesis statement.Include a minimum of two academic sources (journal articles, books, etc.) other than the textbook for the courseAPA 7TH EDITION AND NO PLAGARISM PLEASE=================================================================Option #1 and Option #2: Portfolio Project Draft OutlineCreate a draft outline of your Portfolio Project. Be sure to designate which option of the Portfolio Project you have decided to complete. Submit based on following directions:.Directions:Include a Works Cited page that lists all your sources according to the CSU Global Writing Center (Links to an external site.).You may use this resource (Links to an external site.) for your outline. Types of Outlines // Purdue Writing LabYou should have at least five sources, including at least one primary source and a scholarly journal article, to support your paper. You should fully cite all the sources (and/or images) in your outline using APA format. You may decide to strengthen the outline with additional primary sources, scholarly journals, and secondary sources but the primary source and scholarly journal need to be included in your final draft.Include with your submission a discussion of your findings and describe any problems you have overcome or need to overcome to have a successful project.APA 7TH EDITION AND NO PLAGARISM ..
history week 6 n 7 Critical thinking

MGT 401 Saudi Electronic University Extensive Supply Chain of Starbucks Questions

online assignment help MGT 401 Saudi Electronic University Extensive Supply Chain of Starbucks Questions.

Description of the company ‘X’- It is a company from your choice; – From real national or international market;- It is publicly traded company;- Produces and commercializes more than one product;- Sufficient information about the strategies of the company, its functions and product lines are available;- This company should have at least one partnership with other company (es) (alliances, joint venture, arrangement…).Assignment Questions 1. Briefly present your selected company (name, industry, nationality, location, size, activities, products…) (Max 200 words). 2. Determine the opportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses of your selected company by completing the SWOT matrix in the answer sheet. 3. Does your selected company have social responsibility? If yes, discuss its impact on competitive advantage of the corporation. (Max 400 words) 4. Based on the figure 4.3 (Ch4-slide no 18) and the textbook text relative to Porter’s Five forces of competition framework, assess the power of the buyers, suppliers and substitutes of your chosen company. How formidable are the barriers to entry and how intense is the rivalry among existing firms? 5. What is the competitive strategy used by your selected company? Justify. //Support your answer with different references.write your answer on the same word file I uploaded please.
MGT 401 Saudi Electronic University Extensive Supply Chain of Starbucks Questions

Macroeconomics chapter

Macroeconomics chapter.

 There is no difficulty moving around between stalls as you shop and choosing between farmers.Participants are price takers.Full information.Standardized good.No transaction costs.
Macroeconomics chapter

Rasmussen College SWOT Analysis Presentation Case Study Assignment

Rasmussen College SWOT Analysis Presentation Case Study Assignment.

Read the above case study and prepare the necessary documents as explained below. You have been called in as a Business Analyst Consultant for
Blackrocks. Review the case study and create a SWOT analysis
presentation for the Blackrocks leadership team. Your PowerPoint
presentation should include the following:Title slide.Overview of presentation/Introduction.SWOT Analysis.
Include internal or external factors that relate to:
Current business environment.Building of teams.Management’s role in strategic planning.The importance of a strong corporate culture.Leadership/Motivation.Communication.

Create effective solutions to address multiple weaknesses and/or threats.Create recommendations to capture on multiple opportunities.Conclusion.RUBRIC QUESTION1. Introduction provides an overview of the problem and
demonstrated a clear understanding of the current problem and used
direct examples from the case study and included additional research.2. Correctly includes SWOT analysis factors for all
specified areas clearly using strong supporting research for each
section from the case study and additional research.3. Correctly identifies effective solutions based on SWOT
analysis factors to address weaknesses or threats using strong
supporting research for each section from the case study and additional
research.4. Includes recommendations to effectively capitalize on
multiple opportunities from SWOT analysis using strong supporting
research for each section from the case study and additional research.5. The conclusion summarizes the problem, SWOT analysis,
solutions, and recommendations for the presentation using case study
examples and additional research to support findings.
Rasmussen College SWOT Analysis Presentation Case Study Assignment

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