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The Effect Of Agent Orange On Vietnam History Essay

Actually the situations of the effects of Agent Orange on Vietnam fill with a lot of disagreement and uncertain result. There are unclear information about the exact amount of Agent Orange and other herbicides sprayed and exact location that the United States were used in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. However, there is limited information about the long term effects of Agent Orange on the environment and people of Vietnam. The unclear information and disagreement of the Agent Orange effects come from one main problem known as ”Fog of war”. When the herbicides were used, the US military were regardless about potential long term environmental and health effects of the widespread use of Agent Orange in Vietnam. As the same to the US, both the South Vietnamese and North Vietnamese governments deleted all the detail about the troop deployment in order to keep secret in war. As the result, current Vietnamese government has less clue of where to clean Agent Orange and dioxin. To have direct information about Agent Orange exposure is not available, nor the indirect information can be seek out. Soil sample were taken from location that has been suspected to test dioxin level. Not only to the soil but also blood and tissue samples can be taken from Vietnamese nationals over the country to test how much dioxin is present in their systems. Present day, few parts of these studies have been done and still continue to finish them all. However, the research of using Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam and the resulting exposure of Vietnam people to dioxin is still in its limited, it can give a few tentative agreements from existing studies. First, there are many areas in southern Vietnam was sprayed with Agent Orange and other herbicides during the Vietnam War, with difference levels of dioxin. Second, millions of Vietnamese were directly exposed to dioxin at the time the herbicides were sprayed during the Vietnam War, and millions more have been exposed to dioxin that remains in the soil and waterways of southern Vietnam until now. Third, blood and tissue studies of Vietnamese nationals results the higher than normal levels of dioxin in their systems that proof people have been exposed to Agent Orange, but methodological problems give difficult explanation of data in discussion. Forth, research in Vietnam on the long term health effects of exposure to changing levels of dioxin is limited, so it is difficult to establish certain conclusion about the concern between dioxin exposure and a changing of health problems that is happening among the Vietnamese people with unusually high frequency. History of the Use of Agent Orange in Vietnam During the Vietnam War, Agent Orange was chemical herbicides used from 1961 to 1971 by the U.S. military which cooperated with Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to reduce military enemy cover in thick forest areas. We didn’t know for sure why they call it ”Agent Orange” but we knew that the Agent Orange were invented under Department of Defense (DOD) contracts for military use in Vietnam by several companies and Agent Orange was one of 15 herbicides used during the period of Vietnam War. However, Agent Orange was the most extensively used herbicide. Soon after the war, a research showed that remaining Agent Orange contamination levels ranging from 0.05 to 17.0 parts per million (p.p.m.). Clean-up efforts The process to the clean-up of the dioxin in Vietnam due to the spraying of the herbicide called Agent Orange from the United State during the Vietnam war is a bit complicate because of the vast area of spraying and time condition plus the resource support. Another school of thinking came up that the Vietnam annual heavy rain may wash away the dioxin from those spared area. Moreover, due to the political factors that Vietnamese and the United State delay to consideration on the topic of cleaning up the dioxin from the some identified area such as the air base use by the Operation Ranch Hand due to the of the status of permanent normal trade relation (PNTR) in 2006 with the United States, the membership in the World Trade Organization in 2007. We can see clearly that after the obtained the permanent normal trade relation status and became the member of the World Trade Organization, Vietnamese government seem to take up the issue on cleaning-up the dioxin with the United State as bilateral relation. In The process of cleaning-up the dioxin started from the Da Nang air base with the cooperation between the Vietnamese Ministry of Defense, the U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EAP) and a group called the U.S. Vietnam Dialogue Group on Agent Orange (dioxin). In 2008, Vietnamese government estimated the cost of the clean-up process on Da Nang is about $14 million. After that, the Vietnam dialogue group announced on February 1, 2008 that the first two stages of the cleaning the is around $1.2 million. Vietnam’s assistance to the victims Estimation by Vietnam government showed that at least there are 2.1 to 4.8 million victims of Agent Orange exposure. The Vietnamese government through the provincial government agencies conducted a program in order to support people who have problem with medical condition related to Agent Orange exposure. On July 24, 1998 there is a fund established by the Vietnam Red Cross (VRC) so called the Agent Orange Victims Protection Fund. Moreover, there are also some other national organizations such as the Ho Chi Minh Youth Union, Vietnam Lawyers Association, Vietnam Woman’s Association, Vietnam Association veterans, Confederation of Vietnam Labour Unions, and Vietnam Farmer Association contributed to central fund to provide support to the victims of Agent Orange exposure. Only the provincial level alone, there are staggering amounts of 57 Agent Orange Protection Fund. According to a source, from 1998 until 2004 the programs to provide aid to people who were exposed to dioxin (substance in Agent Orange) received 50 billion dong which equal to $3.1 million from the provincial fund and 23 billion dong which is equal to $1.4 million from the Vietnam Red Cross. In 1999, there is a program created by the Vietnamese government in order to overcome the many different consequence of herbicides such as the Agent Orange which were used by the United State in the Vietnam War. They subjected to provide support to environmental remediation and health care to those people who experienced the diseases related to the Agent Orange exposure. With the association with committee 33, Vietnam’s Ministry of Health create a program called the AO Central Payment program to provide support in form of cash to people who experienced the diseases related to the Agent Orange exposure. The Vietnamese government categorized People who experienced the diseases related to the Agent Orange exposure were in 3 into three groups to receive disability stipend of up to $20 per month or 300,00 Vietnamese dong. They are: People who not completely or completely lost the ability to work. Children with deformities which a part or some part the body has not developed in the normal way or normal shape. Orphans with deformities. The estimation of Vietnamese government on the annual of providing the disabilities stipend in around $20 per month to 2.1 to 4.8 million victims of Agent Orange exposure is about $500 million to $1.2 billion. That was a staggering amount of cash to the Vietnamese government. Implications for Bilateral Relations Vietnam – U.S. relations become more important on the security trade and economic over in 10 years and it has gained high status over the long history of war issues in Vietnam. Even though a war legacy issues in the U.S. difficult and held up efforts to become normally friendly again after a period of dispute relations between the two countries, the perceived mutual benefits of bilateral trade currently bring more influence on overall U.S.- Vietnam relations. Nevertheless, there will be the risk that the direction of war legacy problem -such as the status of Vietnam’s victims of Agent Orange-could weaken or delay further progress between the two countries. It’s very important for Vietnamese government to take care of the Vietnamese who suffered from the Orange Agent. After year of requesting for assistance clean up in Vietnam, the U.S. had provided and assistance in cleaning up dioxin to the illnesses. Within Vietnam, nevertheless, with the support of the medical conditions to the victims, there had been identified one million people in the country that got the support from the medicine but it’s not equal to the number of the estimated has shown that 2.1 million-4.8 million people who were suffer from the Agent Orange. Much of that concern is focused on the physical problems of Vietnam’s children who have medical conditions associated with direct or indirect exposure to dioxin. Some observers think the Vietnamese people’s generally positive attitude about the United States could change for the worse if the U.S. government is perceived to be insensitive or intransigent about Agent Orange and its associated problems. The past policy of the U.S. government seems to have been to ignore legal responsibility for health assistance. The U.S. has been unwilling to provide medical and money assistance to program specifically place at purported victims of Agent Orange. Despite, the new U.S policy, the government help to assist the victims and it might take several years before all of the major dioxin “hot spots” has been remediate. On the other hand, Vietnam is now very pay attention in negotiating a trade agreement (FTA) with the U.S. while they are now finding the acceptance into the U.S. generalized system of preference (GSP) program, which would remove tariffs on U.S. imports of selected goods from Vietnam. In additional, maybe because the growth of China influence in Southeast Asia, Vietnam has been looking for its security relation with U.S. It’s likely to cause trouble or inconvenience for future military conflict between the two countries because there’s concern in the U.S. if the United Stated government were to apparently accept some legal or moral responsibility for the Vietnamese “victims” of Agent Orange. In this view, for the U.S. government act seen as humanitarian and not an admission of culpability because of the U.S. government remains support to any assistance provide after effect of Agent Orange.
Answering Paper#5.

*Answering Paper #5
1. Since Great Britain does not have a written constitution, which body determines, in effect, whether a law is
constitutional or not?
2. What explains the presence of judicial review in the United States, and its absence in Great Britain?
3. Who decides in Switzerland whether a law is constitutional or not? 1. On MS-Word menu bar, click Home – Times New Roman – 12 font; Layout – Margins – Narrow and adjust Indent zero for all (Left, Right, Before, and After); and Paragraph – Alignment Left – Line Spacing zero.2. Please edit your answering paper again if it’s longer than two pages. I wanted you answer to all three questions smartly within two pages.
Answering Paper#5

Dominican Republic Central America United States Free Trade Agreement Essay.

For the final paper, I would like you to use the theoretical framework we learn in Part I of the course to Analyze a Trade Agreement of your choice. This analysis should include the relevant historical and political context and what the theory tells us the outcome of a trade agreement should have been and how the actual experience stacked up against this. In the first Homework Assignment I asked you to identify the treaty you would like to analyze. In the second Homework Assignment I asked you to identify key provisions of the treaties, and in the third Homework Assignment I asked you to identify the key sectors affected and how the treaty is likely to affect prices in these sectors. Therefore, if you have completed your homework assignments so far you have already written about a 1000–1250 words of your paper! If you are working alone, I expect the paper to be about 3000–4000 words, and if you are working in a team, I expect the paper to be about 4000-5000 words. This does not mean you necessarilyhave to write a minimum of 3000 or 4000 words. These word “limits” are my assessment of how many words you would need to properly analyze a treaty. If you can do the job effectively in fewer words, that is fine. I will be grading on the content of your analysis far more than the length of your paper. If your analysis falls short and you have not utilized your minimum word limit, I would have to give you a lower grade than you would receive otherwise. If you are working in teams, this means that you have economies of scale in doing the paper together. Therefore, I will be more stringent with my grading as I will be grading a group project while others are working alone.
Dominican Republic Central America United States Free Trade Agreement Essay

Cuyamaca College Wicca ?Religion and Culture New Religious Movement Project.

Religion and CultureNew Religious Movement ProjectFor this project, you will pick a “new” (originated in the last 100 years or so) religious movement to study and write a short paper on. You can choose a religious movement from any of the ones listed below, or if you have an idea for a different religious movement, just let me know! The list below is definitely not a complete list! Possible Religious Movements Include:Jews for Jesus Snakehandling Churches Branch Davidians Buddhist ChristianityKabbalah Messianic JudaismHare Krishna Self-Realization FellowshipBlack Liberation Theology Nation of Islam Rastafarians SanteriaScientology Christian ScienceHeaven’s Gate WiccaChurch of Satan Jehovah’s WitnessesUnification Church TheosophyGhost Dance Native American ChurchSoka Gakkai Cao DaiCore Shamanism Falun GongRaelism The Satanic Temple You will then write a 1250-word (minimum – you can always write more) paper that answers the following questions:1. When did this religious tradition start? Was it started by a single individual? Give a general overview of the origins of this religious movement. 2. What are the tradition’s doctrines/truth claims? (i.e. what do they believe about the world, its origins, God or another higher power, what happens after death, etc.)3. Sacred Texts – Do they have any sacred texts or stories? If so, what are they? 4. Ethics – what is this religion’s view of the good life? How are practitioners encouraged to behave, live their lives, and treat others?5. Ritual – are there any rituals that are performed in this religious movement? If so, what are they? 6. Society – who can become an authority figure in this tradition? Is it restricted to a certain gender?7. Your overall impression of this religious movement, including your conclusions on the following:Do you think this movement qualifies as a “religion”? Why or why not?Do you think that this movement will grow or fade away in the future? Why?What did you find most interesting/surprising about this religion?*Your paper must include a bibliography that has at least 4 sources. Your sources can be books, online sources, or news articles, but they MUST be from a reputable source! If your tradition has a sacred text or texts, you can use those as a source. But for other sources, please make sure that it comes from an academic, unbiased source. A good rule of thumb is to make sure that any website you use has a “.edu” address or that your news article is from a major, respected publication (The New York Times, The Washington Post, The New Yorker, The Atlantic, Time Magazine, etc.). Also, Wikipedia is not an acceptable source for your bibliography! You can, however, start your research by looking at the organization’s Wikipedia page. Then scroll to the bottom of the page to see the Wikipedia page’s own bibliography! These are all sources that you can check out on your own and get your information directly from those sources!
Cuyamaca College Wicca ?Religion and Culture New Religious Movement Project

Matanzas High School Effects of Unhygienic Practices & Outbreak of Infection Letter

Matanzas High School Effects of Unhygienic Practices & Outbreak of Infection Letter.

You will be writing a persuasive letter on behalf of a community you belong
to. Identifying a community to which you feel you
belong. For this homework assignment, I’d like you to do some reflective work, thinking
about your various identities and interests, in order to identify the community you’d like
to argue on behalf of for this project. •What are some of the ways that you identify? For this, you could think generally
about your race, your religion, your culture, etc. or any other set of practices,
belief systems, or interests that you think play a role in how you navigate the
world around you. • Pick one of these identities that you’d like to focus on for this project and describe
the community you are part of as a result of this identity. What are some of the
characteristics of this community? What are some of the things that unify it? • How do you feel that you relate to or fit into this community? • And finally, what are some of the issues or challenges that this community faces?
What are some arguments you might want to make on behalf of this community
in your letter?
Matanzas High School Effects of Unhygienic Practices & Outbreak of Infection Letter

This is for MIT’s System Design and Management master’s program and here is intruction from them `Why do you

write my term paper This is for MIT’s System Design and Management master’s program and here is intruction from them `Why do you wish to join the SDM Program? How does this fit with your future plans? (300-700 words)` Please read what I did and rewrite the ackward blocks and make suggestions on edits Here is what I already wrote

De Anza College Precolonial Period in Africa Research Paper

De Anza College Precolonial Period in Africa Research Paper.

1.Power and Agency in Precolonial Africa 7/2-52. Sources of Conflict In Southern Africa 7/63.“Kalahari Archaeology and the Bushman Debate” 7/74. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa 7/85.The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa 7/96. Colonialism as a System For Underdeveloping Africa 7/137.Cecil Rhodes’s Ideas of Race and Empire 7/148.Colonialism and the Lost Political Institutions of Igbo Women 7/159.Leopold’s Ghost 7/1610. Ideology and African Political Culture 7/2011. Impacts of Colonial rule 7/2112. Sacrifice as Terror 7/2213. An archaeology of the failures of modernity in Ethiopia 7/2714. Egypt in Future Tense 7/2815. Using ICTs to act on hope and commitment 7/29
De Anza College Precolonial Period in Africa Research Paper

Presidential town hall talk

Presidential town hall talk. I’m studying for my Powerpoint class and need an explanation.

I’m doing just Taxes, talk about how corporations doing taxes and how corporations are taxed , would you keep the tax the same if yes then you gotta give good reasons why it should it stay the same and if not then give good reasons and how will it better…etc ,Soo basically imagine you in presidential debate or whatever and I have links that you can use, 3-4slides
This is my final exam presentation

Corporate Taxation
Presidential town hall talk