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The effect of advertisement on people especially children and students

Abstract Advertisement is all around us, we can’t run away from it. One of the most important aims of advertising is to persuade consumers to buy a certain product. In general advertising have a negative effect in people’s mind. The product is done to be so effectively on people, so sometimes they are attracted to a product. And after they buy it they realize that the thing they saw in the advertisement is not really true. Advertisement has many effects on people and some of them are health and safety risks from false fact advertising, subliminal advertising, and deceiving children advertising. The false fact advertisements are deceiving people and lead them to buy products which it will affect negatively on them in the future. The most important audience for advertisement is children. Children are being controlled without knowing with the advertisement that is shown mostly on the TV. They are having problems like obesity because of the powerful attraction of advertisement. The third role of the advertisement is subliminal advertisement and it sends ideas to people especially children and students which is inappropriate for them and effect them in the future. Itani 3 The word media was first used in the 1920s, and since the 1950s, amidst the high level of industrialization, mass media, radio and cinema, have been highly influencing politics. Mass media consists of all media technologies, including televisions, internet, radio, and newspapers, which are used also for mass communication. One of the messages the media transmits is advertising. Advertisement is an action to get the public attention towards a product or business through electronic media, or paid announcements in broad cast. Advertising can be done for a product, idea, person, or an organization. However, its importance lies in its containing only one single message that all the audience members would interpret alike. Advertising is a very important part of marketing. It is all around us, we can’t run away from it. Where ever you look you see an advertisement; in your home you watch TV, and on the street seeing billboards. These days, TV and its advertisement are part of most families’ daily life. It persuades people to buy their products. Customers get influenced by several types of advertisement to buy a product. These types are shown in different methods, like TV commercial campaigns, print media campaigns, billboards that are put on the streets, posters, product placement in films and TV programs, newspapers, magazines, and the internet. Studies on advertisement showed that TV ads are the most influential type of advertisement because most people watch TV, and because TV has the ability to transmit messages through sound, motion, and sight. Nowadays, commercials advertise their products that don’t really function the way shown in the commercial. Advertisement programs should be for the people’s benefits not for the company. Consumers should be aware of risks in health and safety from false advertising, customers and children deceiving, and subliminal advertising. Itani 4 The economy is an important reason to keep advertisement in any country .Without spending every year hundreds of billions of dollars on advertising, many companies will lose money and many people will lose their jobs. On the other hand people are suffering and spending a lot of money on their medical care because they are being poisoned or had a disease because of the false and deceptive advertisement. Smoking advertisement is the most popular advertisement in the TV shows. It encourages people especially the teenagers to start to begin smoking. Smoking is so dangerous; it has many dangerous effects on heath. It causes many diseases like cancer which has no final cure. Smoking commercials are paying a lot of money to grab the attention of the people by their extremely nice advertisements. And people who smoke a lot don’t realize the detrimental effect of smoking until they become ill and get obliged to pay more money on their health care. In Australia (2004- 2005) smoking related diseases killed 14,900 Australians. This means that 40 deaths occurred every day. The major cause of that death was tobacco diseases including cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart diseases. Smoking kills more men than women, and rates were high among the teenagers, young people, and people of lower level of education. We have many advertisements on the TV that are fake-false fact and deceive us and affect our health. Like nowadays, many people without any educational degree advertise for a fake unhealthy medicine for many diseases with a lower price than the real medicine. These advertised product fall under several names like Amana care, Zein, and others. Many of these “so-called” herbal products contain chemicals some of which were tested to be carcinogens. And, recently it was found that a large number of weight-reducing medications that are advertised under Itani 5 “100% natural products” contained medicinal chemicals that are known to cause many side effects. Unfortunately, despite these facts, such products continue to be publicized on TV where naïve people get seduced to buy them. Advertisement has many audiences, but it mainly concentrates on two which are children and students. Warren (2008) argues: “Over the last 30 years, the percentage of U.S children which have over weight and obese has more than tripled”. The average time that children spend on media was 5 hours a day. This means that obesity and overweight comes from the extra use of media. Food products use a large portion of the television advertisement. Studies on food advertising have concluded that it is largely comprised of unhealthy foods and appeals uniquely suited to children. Commercials of food advertising are playing a big role in making children become obese. They are using the developed graphics to show the food in an excellent way to grab the eye of the audience. Warren (2008) argues: “With the holistic processing strategies employed, fun and entertaining images of food are easily understood by young children”. Advertiser should promote new initiatives to encourage healthy diets and increased physical activity of children. How can people know the news of the new technology and a lot of varieties without looking on the advertisement? Advertisement is important in our social life, particularly in keeping us updated by indicating new product or replacement if the old ones. It also needs a feedback from the customers regarding any product. On the contrary, many commercials are deceiving people by manipulating the standards of products. It means that sellers are manipulating something that in realty is wrong. Like the hard disk drive product, they show it that it fits 300 GB but in reality it is less than that. They play a psychological role to make people think that the commercials are making products or selling it in a way to make people benefit from it. For example medicine advertisements are shown in way to let people think that they don’t need a doctor for health problems, it’s enough to listen or see the advertisements of fake medicines. Nowadays, television advertising is showing only the positive parts of the products, but the negative things of the product that effect the human body are hidden. Like the hair color advertisement, they show it shiny and in an excellent way, but when people buy it and the instruction are read and it don’t have that it also cause side effects on skin depending on different skins, which is not shown in the advertisements, this will lead to false labeling on products neglect the reality between the customer and the commercial. Moreover people face the main problem for beauty products. Sometimes because of the ad seen on television people may be attracted towards a product that is not much important to their life of those may create negative impacts on the body. It is important to look at the advertisements because it adds to our beauty. It also increases the use of certain product and acquiring more orders. Advertising need new customers to increase the brand recognition. Broyles (2004) says that: “What is seen as subliminal advertisement nowadays began in 1957 by a movie theater”. Many of the perfumes, shampoos and others accessories ads delivers subliminal sexual messages as all the given who appear in these ads in behave and address in a seducing manner. Children and students are growing up with a bad behavior because of these sexual messages. Many people face problems from beauty products. Sometimes because of the advertisement that is seen on the TV attract people to buy it and it is not important to their life and also may create negative effects on their body. Many advertisement like shopping effect people especially women to buy clothes even though she don’t need it but she was attracted by the advertisers. More than that people with little minded that don’t have money go and borrow it to buy the product that they think they need. Kilbourne (2000) says that: “advertising has a great impact in all of us, but we don’t realize that”. Advertisement seen every day, so people should choose the right ones and know which is good and bad for them. There must be supervision from the parents on their children.
Immigrants and Minority Groups Residing in The United States Discussion.

I’m working on a history writing question and need an explanation to help me study.

The historian Roger Daniels stated that, “the commitment to equality has both waxed and waned in the American past, and there is every reason to expect that such a pattern will continue in the twenty-first century” (Daniels 160). Do you see any commonalities between the anti-immigration sentiment in this document in our modern day society? What about our current immigration stances are similar/different?Roger Daniels, Not Like Us: Immigrants and Minorities in America, 1890-1924. Chicago: Ivan R Lee, 1997.
Immigrants and Minority Groups Residing in The United States Discussion

Application of Malcolm Knowles’ Theories to Teaching Practice

Application of Malcolm Knowles’ Theories to Teaching Practice 6N3326 ASSIGNMENT 5 Consider and discuss how you might apply the theories of Malcolm Knowles to your current or future training work. “The art of teaching is essentially the management of these two key variables in the learning process – environment and interaction- which together define the substance of the basic unit of learning, a “learning experience””( Knowles n.d. p.56). The words and insights of American education theorist Malcolm Knowles have inspired educators all over the world. The practice of adult learning has attracted many theorists, psychologists and critics, each contributing their perceptions and principles of adult learning. In the late 1950s, Malcolm Knowles popularised the difference in “the art and science of teaching a child”, referred to a pedagogy (Knowles, Holton and Swanson, 2005 p.36) and the integrated framework of educating adults termed as andragogy (Knowles, Holton and Swanson, 2005 p.58). His influence on informal adult education still resonates in adult learning today. I believe that the trainer has an immense impact on how a student learns. Understanding the needs and requirements of the adult learner will influence the effectiveness of my training. In this essay, I would like to address Knowles’s concepts and determine how I can apply his recommended practices to my future work and strengthen my transaction as a trainer with the trainee. I will also consider the concepts of another prominent theorist and how I might reflect aspects of those concepts as a facilitator. Traditional pedagogy methods of teaching for adults have been used for many years and still exist but have proven to have many problems. Adults have been frequently resistant to the strategies and the methods were insufficient to motivate adults (Knowles, n.d. p.40). Knowles describes adult learning as ‘a process in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes’ (Knowles 1975 p. 18). He defines that crucial psychological point of becoming an adult as the time we “arrive at a self-concept of being responsible for our own lives, of being self-directing” (Knowles, Holton and Swanson, 2005 p.64). Knowles’ Andragogical Model identifies a number of principles: 1. The need to know. Adult learners need to know why education or skills are needful to them before they invest time. Knowles explains that the first task of a trainer is to help the learners become aware of the “need to know” (Knowles, Holton and Swanson, 2005 p.64). If adult learners have clarity of why they are learning and understand why this learning experience can impact their life positively, it should encourage dedication to the process. I write that as my own experience as an adult learner. I will apply this concept to my own teaching practice. In the design of every learning programme and lesson plan, I will write a detailed course description. This description will give an overview of the aims of the course. It will also state measurable and observational learning outcomes. Learning outcomes that begin with, “By the end of this lesson, the learner will be able to …..”, gives the trainer an opportunity to state clear reasons why this lesson will be beneficial to the learner. The overview will outline the course, descriptions of the target group, course duration and the training methods that will be used. This overview should build enthusiasm and expectations for a positive learning experience. While the information will be essential for myself as the facilitator, it will also be very useful for the trainee and their “need to know”. 2. Self-concept of the learner. Becoming an adult comes with the self-concept of being responsible for our own lives and the choices we make. “This concept starts to mature during the adolescence phase and by adulthood, would have developed a deep psychological need to be treated by others as being capable of self-direction” (Knowles, Holton and Swanson, 2005 p.65). Knowles stated that “adults, will no longer see themselves as merely a full-time learner”. They are now producers and doers as they fulfil their life working, raising their families and living as responsible adults (Knowles 1975 p.45). Adults recognise their abilities to direct their own lives and beliefs. So how would this development in adulthood effect learning as an adult? Knowles stated four implications that involve self-concept and influences the adult learners experience. The first is the learning climate. He reiterated that the self-concept of being an adult has several consequences regarding the requirements of an environment that will encourage learning (Knowles 1975 p.46). The environment for learning should be one that is comfortable for adults. Furnishing, amenities and decoration should be carried out with the needs of adults in mind. The setting should be one in which adults feel “accepted, respected and supported” (Knowles 1975 p.47). The trainer has a large role, to establish this adult learning environment. As adults will enter this environment each with their own self-concepts, as a trainer my attitude towards my students will be paramount to establishing this environment of learning. In the Andragogical Curriculum for Equipping Facilitators, the addressed various learning climates. The “the climate of mutual trust” states that people learn more from those they trust. Facilitators should avoid presenting themselves as an authority figure but as a relatable human beings in which mutual trust can be built (Henschke, 2014). From the methods of teaching and the classroom environment to the psychological aspects such as trust and respect, facilitators should make this aspect of learning as important as the lesson material itself. A setting that meets the needs of the learner makes learning easy and enjoyable. The second implication addresses the diagnosis of needs, which involves including the learners in the process of self-diagnosis of their needs to learn. The process of performing and getting feedback from the trainer can help learners identify areas in which they need to grow. This process is followed by the planning process. With adult self-direction and self-concept in play, Knowles implies that humans tend to feel more committed to an activity to the extent that they have participated in planning it (Knowles 1975 p.48). In the last implication, Knowles describes, Conducting learning experiences which implies that the teacher-learner process is the mutual responsibility of both trainer and trainee. The teacher’s role is to be a helper in the process. (Knowles 1975 p.48). This largely contrasts with pedagogy learning in which the teacher is fully responsible for the teaching process. Taking all of these concepts into consideration for my own teaching journey, the framework of my course should greatly consider the elements of teaching that is influenced by the self-concept of adult learners. A comfortable, positive, informal learning environment with amenities (water, notepads, pens, and learning resources etc), respect and inclusion of all students, appreciation for trainee experiences and contributions are just a few of the initial steps to take. 3. The role of the learners’ experiences. One major difference between pedagogy and andragogy is the experiences that adults have accumulated through their life, whether good or bad. Adults, naturally because they have lived longer than a child, have acquired knowledge and gained a wealth of experiences. Knowles stated that “adults derive their self-identity from their experiences. It is these experiences that define them and give them value.” (Knowles 1975 p.50). As a trainer, I believe this trainee contribution makes the classroom environment intriguing for all. The more diverse the trainees are in their occupations, cultures and abilities, the more experiences you have in one learning setting. Allowing trainees to share their experiences, produces a resource-rich environment not only for the students but for the trainer as well. In my opinion, a good learning session consists of learning for both trainer and trainee. 4. Readiness to learn. Learning theories state that “adults reach a point in their life in which they recognise the value of education and are ready to focus and become serious about learning.” (Esthermsmth, 2017). As adults, go through life, timing and experiences bring them to periods of readiness for learning to meet new responsibilities. Knowles gave an example of a girl in high school not being ready to learn about infant nutrition or marital relations, but if she gets engaged after graduation, she will be very ready (Knowles, Holton and Swanson, 2005 p.67). Taking the time to listen and understand the trainees may give the trainer the opportunity to identify the milestone that prompted the learner to seek training. 5. Orientation to Learning. Knowles acknowledged that, children are subject centered when it comes to orientation whereas adults are life-centered in their orientation to learning. Adults are motivated to learn skills, values and knowledge that they perceive will help them with a task and tackle various problems of life (Knowles, Holton and Swanson, 2005 p.67). I could incorporate this concept into future training by designing projects that relate to “real life” tasks as much as possible. For example, a graphic design assignment could involve rebranding a logo for a real company. Practical exercises that would be replicas of real-life tasks in the workforce may be deemed more beneficial to the adult learner. 6. Motivation. Motivators for adults could be external (such as a better job or a promotion) but the main motivators would be internal pressures such as the desires for a promotion, self- esteem, quality of life and greater self-confidence (Knowles, Holton and Swanson, 2005 p.68). Unconditional Positive Regard is a term coined by humanist Carl Rogers. By providing unconditional positive regard we help clients accept and take responsibility for themselves and their actions (Tumulty, 2019 Notes). I feel I could incorporate this concept of motivation into my teaching with unconditional positive regard. Positivity grows motivation. Positivity also starts from the top. If I can exemplify positivity as a trainer, that would encourage positivity from the trainees toward each other, the training programme and themselves. Knowles wasn’t the only theorist who positively influenced adult education practices. He often mentioned humanist psychologist Carl Rogers in his writings, as their beliefs in the approach in which adults should be taught have many similarities. Rogers was a prominent 20th-century psychologist who believed every human had the need to grow, learn and achieve their potential (Zimring, 1999). Roger’s theory for adult education is based on experiential learning which addresses the needs and wants of the learner (, 2019). His belief in human abilities influenced his concepts which includes: setting a positive climate for learning, clarifying the purposes of the learners, organising and making available learning resources, balancing intellectual and emotional components of learning and sharing feelings and thoughts with learners but not dominating (, 2019). As I mentioned earlier, it is Rogers that introduced the term “unconditional positive regard”. He stated that positive regard is implemented ‘to the extent that the therapist finds himself, experiencing a warm acceptance of each aspect of the client’s experience, as being part of that client, he is experiencing unconditional positive regard.’ (Zimring, 1999). I have gathered from studying the principles of Carl Rogers that everyone has the potential to learn and be accomplished in the learning process if the learner has the external and internal motivators to learn. The learning environment should be a free environment, in which views and feelings can be expressed and heard with empathy and understanding (Zimring, 1999). I can apply the many aspects of Carl Rogers to my work as a trainer, especially the concept of unconditional positive regard, in which trainee experiences are not judged or treated with bias but regarded positively as a contribution to the learning process. As a facilitator, I must be ready to listen and able to show understanding and empathy in an open and free environment to encourage learning. One of the most important matters throughout this study is understanding how the adult learner approaches education. The traditional methods of pedagogy will not fulfil the expectations or needs of the learner when applied to the adult learning environment. The Adult has a different set of needs that develop and define who we are. I believe that Knowles and Rogers’s concepts are conducive to learning. As a trainer, understanding the andragogy needs will be the foundation for every learning programme I design and implement. Andragogy is about learning as a whole person, both physically and cognitively, in which both play equal parts in the outcome. I have a better understanding of myself as an adult learner and therefore I have a more positive perception of myself as a facilitator of adults on their learning journey. Bibliography Knowles, M., Holton, E. and Swanson, R. (2005). The adult learner. 6th ed. Burlington: Butterworth Heinemann. Knowles, M. (n.d.). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy. Englewoods: Cambridge Adult Education. Knowles, M. (1975). Self-directed learning: a guide for learners and teachers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Esthermsmth (2017). Andragogy – Adult Learning Theory (Knowles) – Learning Theories. [online] Learning Theories. Available at: [Accessed 15 Feb. 2019]. Henschke, J. (2014). [online] Available at:

analysis”– you will see visual analysis happening in many of the examples above. If you have never taken an art or art history class, you might not be used to looking for detailed visual features or parts of an image. Doing visual analysis is simply breaking down the different components or elements of art to consider how they work together to create an overall image, and talk about what affect they might have on you as a viewer. The discussion post assignment for this week asks that you write about these formal elements of an artwork and consider what the work does, how it operates, in a particular context. Here is a useful guide to the basic elements of art to help.

essay helper free Post one image of an artwork you learned about to the Discussion Board thread for this week. It may be a work you read about in detail or an additional example you found. Describe the artwork in detail—conduct a close visual analysis, describing the work’s form and stylistic qualities. Then, explain what the form of the work tells us about what it means in its particular context. How does the way the image or object looks, or how it is rendered by the artist, create particular visual effects? And how does this relate to the lives of African Americans in the 19th century? MUST BE AFRICAN AMERICAN ART!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Teenage Parenthood Its Effect on Their Children

Teenage Parenthood Its Effect on Their Children. Teenage pregnancy cases figure are on the rise nowadays. Teenage pregnancy lead to teenage parenthood. Teenagers are minors and not competent for bearing another child mentally, physically and financially. teenagers who engage in parenthood at adolescent stage of life tend have incomplete education, low standard of employment and have broken marriage. As a side effect, the teenage mothers and child faces the outcome. Besides that, the young mothers pay less attention to their child, less tolerant to their child’s disobedience, very negative parenting styles approached towards the children and more prone to hurt their children’s. Infants of teenage parents are at increased risk for low birth-rate weight, low cognitive development and educational attainment, behavioural problems and teenage parents themselves. keywords: teenage parenthood, adolescent, pregnancy On year 2010, the Star newspaper exposed the teenage pregnancy statistics. Between the month of January to April, the reported number of teenage pregnancy in Malaysia by the welfare department was 111 (“Teen pregnancies”, 2010). On the newspaper report, statistics shows that teenage pregnancy occurrence have been increasing throughout the years in Malaysia. In year 2008, the number of reported cases was 107 and in year 2009 was 131 cases. One thing to be considered is that, the number of unheard cases is unknown figures. Not only in Malaysia, but this immoral phenomenon have been rising in many countries too. Teenage pregnancy can be defined as conceiving of infant in a young women who is below legal adult age which varies according to countries (Kaplowitz ,2006). Teenage pregnancy is just the beginning of a major complication. Teenage pregnancy eventually pilots a pregnant teenager to teenage parenthood. This transition considered to be a negative development because teenage parenthood leads to many other problem and links to one another problem and goes on. Parenthood can be described as a state of being a parent (Cambridge Dictionaries Online). In specific, parenthood is a condition where involvement in the Childs growth, raising and responsibilities relies. Parenthood doesn’t only evolve based on the biological relationship. Teenagers are not considered as adults because they are still young to bear a child and be ready for a family and to raise a kid mentally and physically (“Teenagers are not ready”, 2010). They are also kids which need guidance. They have no stable economic status and depend on their parents; therefore it’s impractical for teenager to be encouraged to get heavy with child. They get pregnant and misguided due to the emotional and hormonal changes happening at that period of time. When teenagers are kids and different style of parenting is needed to raise them, is it realistic for them to raise a kid and fit into parenthood? How will these teenage kids’ kids would be? Causes of Teenage Parenthood First of all, there should be fundamental cause for every phenomenon. There are many campaigns run by government, non-government organisations, schools and other sources regarding the fallbacks of teenage pregnancy and teenage parenthood. Thou this phenomenon are increasing. There could be some instinctive causal factors which direct children’s towards this phenomenon. One of the reason which leads to teenage pregnancy is single parenting. Kids living with single parent caused by divorce or separation are unchangeable factor. These kids tend to have greater chances to engage in early pregnancy compared to those who demised one of their parents. Children of single parents also tend to engage in sexual intercourse earlier compared to children’s of normal family. Female children’s are likely to become teenage parents because their parents either have authoritarian parenting style or neglectful parenting styles. Besides that, greater communication between parents and the female child also relates to higher chance of prevalence on early pregnancy. Not only that, female children’s who also communicate their sexual behaviour with their parents also tend to engage the least in sexual activities which evade early pregnancy. Also, kids who don’t grow up with their biological parents are more likely to become teenage parents. (Wellings, Wadsworth, Johnson, Field and Macdowall, 1999). Besides that, According to, Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998), it can be concluded that female teenagers low in educational intention expected to have higher chance to turn out to be teenage mothers than their highly-accomplishing colleagues. In a recent study, researchers reported that one out of three adolescent mothers withdraw from school before conceiving (Maynard, 1995). Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998) also claims that female teenagers who grow in poor economic status by single parent also lead to teenage parenthood of the child. More to the point, parents’ low educational level also pilot to teenage parenthood of the female teenagers. Adolescent member growing up in poverty housing area and single mother house-holds are also at greater possibility in engaging in teenage parenthood. Poverty plays an important role in leading teenager to early pregnancy and parenthood because these life experiences on poverty such as withdrawal from school, common unmarried parenthood examples, unemployment and lack of educational chances serves as underlying origins to teenage parenthood especially on females. These life experiences causes narrow life alternatives to the children which can be said leads to early pregnancy. Besides that, adolescent pregnancy associates with other immoral behaviours as well such as alcohol and drug use. These activities are also to be said as the central cause of direction towards sexual activity (Paikoff, 1995). In a study done by Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998) the main reason leading to pregnancy is the least knowledge on sexual education. Adolescent childbearing important behaviour is one’s own decision. One have to decide whether to use the birth control methods or not, and must make a choice whether to abort the child or not or to raise the child or put the child for adoption once the child is given to birth. In conjunction with statistics, teenager didn’t use any contraception method on their first sexual interaction. Teenagers use contraception but in an unsuccessful manner. It can be said that they are trying to avoid pregnancy in a way but unaware of the right method. Deficient in understanding concerning reproduction and contraception, inadequate admittance to family planning and health services and insufficient capability to forecast and to be ready for sexual activity are the causes of unwanted early pregnancy and child birth among low revenue adolescents. Beyond that, research has stated that teenagers who have very low emotional support tend to be more active teenage motherhood. Teenagers attain emotional closeness through early sex and motherhood. A study done by East and Jacobson (2001) has exhibit the effect of teenage parenthood on the parent’s siblings. The outcome clearly shows that the sisters of teenage parents are much involved in the drug abuse cases, becoming alcoholic, heavy partying and more prone to getting pregnant at teenage themselves. All these behavioural problems are classified as precursors to becoming teenage parents. At the beginning of research, siblings from both genders are taken as research subjects and females were more affected by their elder’s pregnancies than male. This might be due to their feeling of envy which pushed them to outbid their elders. They also spend a great deal of time in assisting their elder siblings to raise the baby. This exposes the siblings to early parenting and they unconsciously are prone to become teenage parents themselves. Moreover, siblings from the same sex are much more close to each other which make the elder sibling as a role model to the younger ones. In case of elder sibling being a mother, the younger ones look up to this too. From the research, it can also be concluded that siblings with teenage parents are more sexually active and significantly loses their virginity more than those with no teenage parents. They also have low level of interest in education and are greatly involved in disciplinary complaints than normal kids. This may contribute to early pregnancies among siblings with teenage parent siblings. To simplify, siblings of teenage parents are unconsciously accepting their elders attitude or decision to have baby’s at early stage of their life, thus they lose in treats in all other aspects such as maintain good social image and achievement in educations. Role of Adolescent Parenthood In Katz-Wise, Priess and Hyde’s (2010) research role of mother and father is clearly explained. Gender-roles are the visible psychological change in individuals as they move to parenthood. Women’s biological task in parenthood such as breast feeding together with social norms places females as the homemaker. Men, plays a minor biological part in parenthood and often known as the worker. According to the individual’s perception towards their role in parenthood, females understand their part as something they “are”, whereas the males understand their fatherhood character as something they “do”. The research also claims that the fathers role in parenthood is seem to be more as “helping” than “sharing” the parental tasks. Since males are only need for parenthood as source of income, teenage males tend to wear out easily of their commitment as father. Besides, they only distinguish their role as what they “do” which shows less commitment on parenthood. This leaves kids under the parenting of mother, which then puts the females to be the provider for the household. They start working and loose attachment with their kids. Less attachment leads to problems to the kids. A study by Wellings et all, (1999) shows that, 4% of men and 13% of women have engaged in teenage parenthood. This difference is caused by the unawareness of men regarding the existence of their child, thus the females has to bear all the responsibility of raising the child. Teenage parenthood is not advisable because it is a pregnancy before full economic independence which direct towards poverty. Every negative consequences faced by teenage parents are mainly related to poverty and socio-economical imbalance. This can be explained by the income of adolescent family is very low. This is due to the single parenting, as in the mother only sourcing for the family income. This shows females are more responsible in parenthood caused by early pregnancy. The female’s responsibility comprises of emotional support, attachment, and economic provider. For a young teenage female, it is hard to pull it all together. Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998) characterise Father’s role as very important in parenthood regardless of age of the father. They state that paternal attachment shape the child’s growth and development. , it is found that teenagers who are attached in some way with their biological father or stepfather were good in their education, behaviour and emotional performance than teenagers from weak fatherly conditions. Another interesting factor is that, lost of involved fathers affects the child more negatively than no fatherly bond at all. This shows the importance of fathers in parenthood. Besides, roles of male teenagers in teenage pregnancy are not clearly implicated. Aspects like making abortion and adoption have arrived in insignificant research concentration. Thou, researches happen to hollow out the causes of absents of male adolescent in teenage parenthood. One of it is financial responsibility of male teenagers also increases for the teenage female and the baby they produced. Since male teenage parents also drop out of school to take care of the family, the only type of job they are available to is blue-collar jobs. As the blue collar job opportunities decreases in urban areas, directs to declining marriage rates, which leaves kid to have single parent. A recent study also shows male adolescent role in parenthood is negatively oriented. In that token, great number of adolescent mother provide testimonial to have suffered from sexual abuse and forced sexual interaction proceeding to their early relationship on sex and teenage pregnancy (Moore, K.A., Morrison, D.R., Glei, D.A., 1995). Effect on Children The role of teenage parent in parenthood has some serious effects on their kids. From the educational development, Kids of teenage parents tend to score very low on developmental tests. They also tend to perform very low in their education compared to their peers who were born to older mothers. This could be the effect of poor socio-economic status (Wellings et al, 1999). Besides that, children’s of young mothers also have break down in cognitive development which starts in preschool level and continues all the way through upcoming school years, contributing to continuity of getting unsuccessful grades. (Moore, Morrison, and Greene, 1997). In can be simplified that single parenting causes poverty and poverty links to poor educational attainment in kids too. Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998) stated that young mothers are known to be pleasant, thou they don’t talk so much, not of the loving type and friendly types to their children. Subsequently, adolescent mothers more likely to produce dull environment at home. They also find their children to be more complicated and to have impossible hope towards them. This low attachments and poor knowledge attainment of young parents kids leads the child to have attitude trouble. They tend to be more aggressive. As they grow, male teenagers have more tendencies to engage in criminal behaviour and imprisonment. Female teenager of young mothers engage in sexual activity earlier which lead to pregnancy (Moore et all,1997). Not only that, children of teenage mothers, especially the later-born have a higher chances to be harmed, abandoned and sent to homes. This is the effect of low attachment of mother and children. (Coley and Chase-Lansdale, 1998). According to Wellings et all, (1999) in Regards to biological factor and Health wise defect on infant due to teenage pregnancies are low-birth-weight of infants, prenatal mortality of infants and higher occurrence of abortions. Personal Development of Teenage Parents Low educational level and poverty doesn’t only have roots in causing teenage parenthood, it also follows up from early parenthood stage. Teenager’s motherhood put up with difficulties in performing efficiently in few factors. Their outlook is narrowed as unfortunate adolescent. These unfortunate involve lower psychological implementation, lower level of education achievement, marital instability and more children’s before marriage, unstable jobs, more welfare use, increased economic scarcity, even more greater health troubles for mother and children. Lower education level implicit among teenage motherhood because teenage mothers drop out of school after giving birth to child, thus leading to lower educational achievement. It is also has been found that giving birth before 18 years old contributes to less probability graduating from high school. (Coley and Chase-Landsdale,1998) By the same author, it has been found that, early child birth contributes to marriage instability. Teenage mothers have higher chances in engaging in early marriages due to many reasons. One of it is unstable economic status of early pregnancy make teenage mothers to get married to economically stable husbands in order to acquire economic stability. However, their marriage fails off rapidly in their 20’s and 30’s. Marriage of teenage mothers can fail for decreased susceptibility, lower motivation to marriages, less opportunity and other reasons. Teenage mothers act as single mother in their parenting lifetime limiting their activities and economic status (Coley and Chase-Landsdale,1998). Early parenthood gets in the way of their personal development such as lower psychological behaviours. During their teenage stage, they encounter obstacles in setting own identity, developing self-sufficiency and freedom from their parents to engage in psychological activities such as dating, education, peer relationships, and career options. Adolescent mothers need for these activities clashes with their parenthood tasks and responsibilities. These responsibilities don’t allocate time for usual teenage activities for adolescent mothers. These clashing phenomena between need and responsibilities can be implicit as conflicting demands. This conflicting demands leads to psychological distress which will be soon articulated in the course of depressive symptomathology (Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998). In regard to health defects on mothers, early pregnancy may possibly be unsafe to the mothers if pregnancy is not taken care of properly. Health defects faced by teenage mothers due to early pregnancy are illness like anaemia, toxaemia and hypertension to the child bearer (Wellings et al, 1999). Positive Effects Teenage Parenthood Moving out from home start a family by immature kids is a major movement form dependence to independent life style. When many researchers have found to prove it causes negative effect to the child, parent and society, there are few reaches claim it has positive affects too. Few mothers who have entered motherhood during their adolescent age have claimed to perceive motherhood as a prospect and accomplishment. These young mothers claim to find Great personal satisfaction in motherhood even though it involves many hard work, money, and tolerance in liberty (Rolfe, 2008). This article includes samples of women who became mothers before the age of 21 years old. These participants were also from weak financial neighbourhoods of England. Most participants were also from foster care background. These details make the research reliable however total of 33 participants are very low sample figure. Compared to previous researches, which shows negative effects has a reliable amount of samples in their study. Besides that study, young mothers expressed their transition to parenthood as a positive life-changing opportunity (Chase, Maxwell, Knight, and Aggleton, 2006). This transition is claimed to has made their life more complete. Becoming mothers, have encourage them to quit negative behaviours such as substance abuse. This transition also educated young mothers not to repeat unprotected sex. For neglected teenagers who have become teenage mothers, this transition gave them maturity, principle and identity in their life, which they didn’t, had earlier. Most mothers described sense of pride because they were able to be a better mother than their own mother by giving their children’s what they lacked. The denials of young mothers’ parents, which make them, find love thru their kids. This study has valid positive feedback but not everything can be satisfied with feel affection for. In order to provide care, one need money too. So they give up education to work. Therefore, there are negative consequences in the development of the young mother even they find satisfaction in their later part of life. Similar research finding by Tyrer, Chase, Warwick and Aggleton (2005) showed that father had positive feelings towards their children and explains transition to parenthood made them to be more mature and responsible where they give up on harmful activities such as drugs and troublesome relationship. In the same token, to raise a family, young men need to give up his study to earn money for the family. Conclusion Teenage pregnancy only have blissful conclusion in film like Juno. In reality teenagers are not compatible for parenthood as they are also kid. From reviewing past researches and studies, it can be understood that causes of teenage parenthood relies on the core factors such as poverty background, uneducated parents, single parent and other unalterable factors. The effect of teenage parenthood, on the other hand, contributes trail for the reoccurrence of teenage parenthood. In short cause and effect of teenage parenthood links to one another and equips to the increase of teenage parenthood occurrence number. Steps should be taken to change the core factors piloting young’s to teenage parenthood. Understanding among parents on the importance of attachment with their kids should be formed because being attached with kids prevents them from engaging in sexual behaviour at young age. Chances must also given to young parent to continue their education by giving financial support so that poverty can be avoided as poverty plays an important role in this issue. Mostly, every cause and effect of pregnancy has links to poverty. To conclude, everyone as part of the society, must help young kids to be on the safer track. Showing them and their parents the causes, the drastic effect of teenage parenthood and the role of parents to keep their children’s in the safer path, can decrease teenage parenthood cases. Teenage Parenthood Its Effect on Their Children

Fast Connected Components Labeling Algorithm Psychology Essay

Connected components labeling is an important operation in pattern recognition and computer vision [1], which is commonly adopted to detect connected regions in binary digital images. The labeling algorithm scans an image and groups its pixels into components based on pixel connectivity, and each component is assigned a unique label. According to the symbolic image, many features (numbers, areas, perimeters, centroid, enclosing rectangles, etc.) of objects in the image can be obtained in the later analysis. Therefore, labeling algorithm is widely used in target recognition and tracking, biological identification (such as fingerprint and face), automated inspection, character extraction, medical image analysis and other applications [2, 3]. Many labeling algorithms have been developed in the literature since the 1966[4], all of which yield to the same result: the number of labeled connected components is the same and consecutive labels can be achieved with a common enumeration procedure [5]. In this paper, we do not consider the parallel algorithms designed for specific processors, but the algorithms for ordinary computer architectures. Taking into account the number of scanning the input image while labeling, the labeling algorithms can be divided into the following three categories. Multi-pass algorithms [6, 7] scan the image in the forward and backward raster directions alternately and propagate the labels until no label is changed. Though simple, the main drawback of these methods is the number of scans depends on the geometrical complexity of connected components. And they may require a large number of image scans before reaching the final labels, which leads to a long execution time. To reduce the passing times, Suzuki [8] proposed a linear-time labeling algorithm based on sequential local operations and demonstrated by experimentation that the labeling of almost any arbitrary images is completed by no more than four passes. However, it is still time-consuming when the image is very large in size. Two-pass algorithms [4, 9-12] assign provisional labels to the foreground pixels in the first scan, and at the meanwhile, record the equivalence information among provisional labels. Then the equivalent labels are merged to determine the final labels. Finally, provisional labels are replaced by their representative labels while scanning the image at the second time. The differences between these algorithms lie in the way in which the image is scanned, the neighborhood is checked, and the equivalence information is resolved. Consequently, many approaches distinguished only in efficiency have been proposed, among which Wu’s search plus array-based union-find (SAUF) algorithm [13, 14], He’s fast connected component labeling (FCL) algorithm [15] and efficient first-scan (EFS) method [16] and Grana’s block-based decision tree labeling (BBDT) algorithm [5] are most efficient ones. One-pass algorithms label the objects pixels by scanning the image only once. They search out an unlabeled object pixel, assign the same label to it and all the object pixels connected to it. Whereas, unlike the label-equivalence-based algorithms that access the image in a regular way, one-pass algorithms usually process the image in an irregular pattern. Thus they are not suitable for hardware implementation because of many irregular memory accesses. For example, Abu- Baker’s region growing based labeling algorithm [17] usually needs to search the neighbor pixels repeatedly, and the stack data structure results in irregular access of pixels which has slow performance in practice. Chang’s contour tracing (CT) algorithm [18] search and label the pixels of one object contours and propagate the label to the internal pixels. It is the most efficient one-pass algorithm in literature, but is not suitable for images with objects of complicated geometrical shape and still slower than efficient two-pass algorithms, for example, the FCL method. In terms of efficiency, two-pass approaches outperform the others. Therefore, in this paper, we combine the efficient first scan method of He (EFS)[16] with the array-based union-find data structure of Wu (SAUF)[13, 14] to form a new faster two-pass labeling algorithm. Tests have been carried out on different datasets to evaluate the scalability and effectiveness of the hybrid algorithm, and the experimental results indicate that it is faster than the existing approaches when labeling the large images without too much label equivalences. Remaining of this paper is organized as follows. A brief review of three most efficient two-pass labeling algorithms so far is given in the next section. In section 2, the proposed combinative algorithm is described in details. Section 3 outlines the experimental conditions and discusses experimental results of our method as compared with the three algorithms in Section 1. And Section 4 is devoted to the conclusions. 1 Most Efficient Algorithms In this section, we introduce three most efficient labeling algorithms: EFS, SAUF and BBDT. For convenience, we assume that the input images are binary images (foreground pixels and background pixels are represented by 1 and 0, respectively) with zero borders and consider only the eight-connectivity. We useto denote the input image andfor the symbolic image. For the general label-equivalence-based algorithms, the mask used in the first scan is shown in Fig. 1. To speedup the labeling procedure, there are two common strategies. One is to reduce the average number of times for checking the processed neighbor pixels in the first scan, and the other is to resolve the label equivalences quickly by an efficient data structure. The mask used in general label-equivalence-based algorithms (is the current pixel) He’s EFS method process the foreground pixels following a background pixel and those following foreground pixels in a different way, which can reduce the average number of neighbors accessed from 2.25 to 1.75. During the first scan, for each current foreground pixel, we have already known whether the previous pixel is a foreground pixel or not, thus, it can be removed from the mask. Therefore, the mask used here consists of only the three processed neighbor pixels of the current foreground pixel in the row above,, and (that is, , and), as shown in Fig. 2. For processing a current foreground pixel following a background pixel, the same method as proposed in FCL [15] is used. While, for the current foreground pixel following another foreground pixel, the label of its previous foreground pixel is assigned to it, and the left thing needed to do is only to check whether this label is equivalent to the label assigned to pixel . To resolve label equivalences between provisional labels, this algorithm adopts an equivalent label set to hold all the provisional labels assigned to a connected component and the smallest label is taken as the representative label. When a new provisional labelis generated, the corresponding equivalent label set is established as, and the representative label is set to itself, i.e.. Whenever label equivalence occurs, say, andin the mask belong to different setsand separately, these two sets are merged together, and their smallest label is regarded as their representative label. They took three simple one-dimensional arrays to implement this process without using pointers, but the drawback is that when a set with more elements is merged into a set with fewer elements, the resolve procedure will cost much time. Anyway, EFS is a most efficient pixel-based scan strategy so far. Wu et al. [13, 14] proposed two optimization strategies to improve connected components labeling algorithms. The first strategy employs a decision tree (see Fig.3) to minimize the number of neighboring pixels accessed in the scanning phase, and the second one streamlines the Union-Find algorithm to track equivalent labels. In the forward scan mask,, andare all neighbors of , hence if is an object pixel, the other three pixels are not needed to be accessed. When the label equivalence information is recorded, it is possible to derive the The mask used in EFS method (e is the current pixel) correct label of (and therefore that of ) later. If is a background pixel, the order to check other pixels in the mask is given as a decision tree shown in Fig.3. Various tests demonstrated that this decision tree reduces the number of neighboring pixels visited from 4 to 7/3 on average, which is still bigger than EFS method. The decision trees used in scanning for 8-connected neighbors (a, b, c, d are neighbors of current pixels e as shown in Fig.1(a)) Whereas, as to dealing with the label equivalence problem, Wu’s array-based Union-Find data structure is more efficient than He’s label sets method for the images with large amounts of connected components in practice. To reduce the random accesses which are the main reason that affects the performance of most Union-Find algorithms [19], they exploited a single arrayto implement the Union-Find algorithm with path compression, a way of flattening the structure of the tree whenever a Find operation is used on it. For every pair of equivalent labels, a path compression is performed to compute their root, say, keep the element of arrayas the representative label of provisional label. It can be proved that their Union-Find approach takes a linear time (even in the worst case) to perform anyUnion and Find operations in the connected components labeling algorithms. Our experiments reveal its excellent performance in resolving the label equivalence problem. As far as we write, the BBDT algorithm [5] proposed by Grana et al. represents the state of the art for connected components labeling. They proposed an efficient modeling of the problem by means of decision tables. An automatic procedure to synthesize the optimal decision tree from the decision tables is used, providing the most effective conditions’ evaluation order. With the automatically generated decision tree, this approach scans the image using 2Ã-2 pixel blocks, which lead to significant performance improvements of the neighborhood exploration in terms of memory access times. The mask used in this paper is shown in Fig.4. The advantage of this scanning procedure is that four pixels can be labeled at the same time and much fewer union operations are needed. At the meanwhile, the decision tree algorithm can optimize the problem of increasing computational time caused by the standard procedure. However, this scanning method may check the same pixel multiple times, and a second scan is required to check which pixels in the block should be labeled. These additional works bring extra execution time. In addition, the program of this algorithm is more complex because of multiple alternative actions. The Mask used in 2Ã-2 BBDT algorithm. (a) Gives the identifiers of the single pixels employed in the algorithm, while (b) provides the blocks identifiers. 2 The Proposed Hybrid Algorithm On the basis of the analysis above and our own experiments, we find that He’s EFS method is faster than other pixel-based scanning procedure and Wu’s array-based union-find data structure is more efficient in the label equivalence resolution. Therefore, we combine these two fast strategies to form a new labeling algorithm. We use the mask shown in Fig.2 in this paper. In the first scan, for the current object pixel following a background pixel, its provisional label can be assigned by the following procedure: Procedure 1: if (b= =1) L[e]=L[b]; else if (a= =1) { L[e]=L[a]; if (c= =1 and L[e]!=L[c]) L[e]=union(L[e], L[c]); } else if (c= =1) { L[e]= =L[c]; } else { L[e]=NewLabel; R[NewLabel]=NewLabel; NewLabel ; } While for the current object pixelfollowing another object pixel, is assigned simply by this procedure: Procedure 2: L[e]=L[d]; if (b= =0 and c!=0 and L[e]!=L[c]) { L[e]=union(P, L[e], L[c]); } In these two procedures above, function is the same as proposed by Wu [15]. It always sets the root of the combined tree with the smallest label and changes all nodes on the find path to point the new root directly, i.e., the array element is the representative label of provisional label . Thus, the number of random memory access is greatly reduced and we can invoke the procedure to obtain successive final labels. After the first scan, all the equivalences between the provisional labels have already been solved. And then we can relabel the image through a second scan to get the final symbolic image. 3 Experiments and Discussions 3.1 Experimental conditions To evaluate the performance of the new algorithm, we make comparisons with most efficient labeling algorithms (BBTD, EFS, SAUF) described in Section 1. We got the programs of the BBDT algorithm from the authors’ web site, and wrote the others according to the original articles. All the algorithms’ codes implemented in C language are integrated into one project based on the program of BBDT algorithm, and compiled on Windows using Visual Studio 2008. The tests have been performed on a notebook (Intel Pentium Dual-Core T4300 processor (2.1GHz), 2GB Memory, Windows XP SP3 OS), using a single core for the processing. All algorithms produced the same consecutive labels on all images. Images used in this paper are composed of 80 digital photographs of 3264Ã-2448 pixels, 110 satellite images of different sizes collected from Google Earth, 720 random noise sequence images as described in [5], 109 Brodatz texture images of 640Ã-640 pixels, 80 fingerprint images of 256×364 pixels, and some other images obtained form the Standard Image Database (SIDBA), CCITT, and the USC-SIPI Image Database, as in [15]. All the images were binarized by means of Otsu’s threshold selection method. 3.2 Results and discussions Since all the labeling algorithms yield to the same result, we take the efficiency as the only criterion to measure their performance. All the data of execution time are average of 1000 runs. Firstly, we carried out the same comparison as [5] on the noise image dataset to evaluate the performance of the four algorithms. We can see from Fig.5 (a) that these four labeling algorithms are all linear versus image size, and that with the image size increases, the proposed algorithm runs more steadily than others. Fig.5 (b) indicates that our algorithm is superior to the rest when the noise density is low or very high (i.e. the geometrical shape of connected component is not very complex). Performance of four labeling algorithms on random noise images. (a) Gives result for noise images of eight sizes (32Ã-32, 64Ã-64,…, 4096Ã-4096 pixels) and for each size, 80 images with different densities (from 0.1 to 0.9) are used; and (b) shows the average execution time for the images of 4096Ã-4096 pixels with different foreground pixel densities. Various kinds of natural images with different sizes were used to test the performance of the four labeling algorithms, as shown in Fig.6 and Table 1. Fig.6 illustrates the performance for the images of different types, that is, fingerprints, texture images, misc images from USC, CCITT, digital photos and remote sensing images. It can be seen from Fig.6 that for the small images with many small connected components, these four algorithms have similar performance, and the new algorithm is just a little slower than BBDT algorithm, such as Fig.6 (a), (b) and (c). While for large images with many large components, our approach is superior to others, such as Fig.6 (d), (e) and (f). The time listed in Table 1 is the total execution time for each kind of images. We can see that proposed method gets a higher performance boost (15%) over the BBDT algorithm for large images with larger connected components, for example, remote sensing images and digital natural photos. While for the small images with many small complex components, BBDT algorithm is still the excellent. Fig.7 gives six selected images in our test, and the foreground pixels are displayed in white. Based on the results in Table 2, our algorithm is fastest for labeling large images. Performance for natural images of different types and sizes, expressed by millionsecond. For the image of different sizes, images with larger index are larger in size. Total execution time of labeling different natural images The main reason for the results mentioned above is that for large connected components, the advantage of the scan procedure is brought into full play. Because there are many long runs in large components, and the Procedure 2 in Section 2 is implemented more frequently than Procedure 1, which saves a lot of execution time by reducing the times of neighbor accesses. However, for the small images with many small complex components, Procedure 1 will be carried out more often, and Example images tested in this paper. Test results for images illustrated in Fig.7. (ms) much more neighbor pixel checks are needed in the scan stage, which slows down the new method. Furthermore, the path compression technique employed in the single array-based Union-Find algorithm works efficiently for merging equivalent temporary labels. 4 Conclusion In this paper, we study the most efficient connected component labeling algorithms and propose a new fast two-pass labeling approach. In the first scan, foreground pixels are assigned provisional labels using He’s efficient scan procedure, and once a label equivalence occurs, it will be resolved by Wu’s array-based union-find algorithm. In the second scan, all the provisional labels are replaced by their representative labels. Large amounts of experiments on various images of different sizes indicate that our algorithm is more efficient than existing most efficient approaches for images with high resolution and many big connected components. References¼š A. Rosenfeld and A.C. 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