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The Development of Education Policy in Malaysia

Towards the end of British colonialism era, a movement was created by the society including several group of educated Malay in restoring our colonial education system. The first Minister of Education and the second Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Abdul Razak led a special committee to make some recommendations. This comprehensive proposal was known as Razak’s Report 1956 that was to create a national education system to uphold the cultural, social, economic and political development such as make the Malay language to be the national language and primary mode of instruction in the system. To establish Education Ordinance 1957, the idea of the Razak’s Report became the basic feature. Besides, the government of Malaysia started to create several progressive changes especially of the curriculum in order to endeavour the Malaysian outlook. In 1960, a new special committee was recruited to create the Rahman Talib’s report in order to review and analyze the education policy which then became the basic feature in the establishment of the Education Act 1961. The national language was made compulsory subject in primary and secondary schools and in all training institutions by the Education Act 1961. This act also provide that a satisfactory grade must be achieved by the students in order to receive the certificate for public education examination particularly for the lower and upper secondary levels. Mahathir’s Report which was chaired by Tun Dr Mahathir Mohammad, who was the Education Minister at that time (later become the Prime Minister since 1981) was provided in 1979 by a special committee which after a six-year study, was then finalized. This report achieves national unity in a multiethnic society, enhancing the patriotic spirit, and generates skilled manpower for the development of nation in order to inspire a balance in every single aspects of education between rural and urban areas. In recent years, the guidelines in reforming the education system has been based on this report. Major changes in Education Policy of Malaysia As mentioned in the 46th ICE country report these regulatory frameworks were formulated and revised in line with the government policy of democratization of education. Five of the acts, namely The Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996, The National Council on Higher Education Act 1996, The National Accreditation Board Act 1996, The Universities and University Colleges (Amendment) Act, 1996 and The National Higher education Fund Board Act 1997. The education Act 1996 has some major changes in its regulation for the primary and secondary education has been reviewed for amendment by the Ministry of Education. The implementation of compulsory education at primary school level is the main purpose of reviewing this act. The Education Act 1996 was amended again in 2002 and 2003. This policy makes sure that every child in Malaysia beginning at age 6, regardless of sex, social and economic background, and residential locality has the right to primary education. For example, the delivery of mathematics and science subjects has always been in the National Language (Malay) called MBMMBI (Policy for Upholding the Malay Language, Strengthening the Command of English) in Malaysia. However, English language was made the medium of instruction for both of these subjects in 2002. Based on the rationale, a good command of English would enable students to access the internet and read articles published in English. However, the teaching and learning of science and mathematics which reverts to Malay language in national schools will become effective soon. The implementation of this latest policy of using teaching the two subjects in Malay language in Year One and Year Four in the primary school and Form one and Form Four in the secondary school shall start in 2012. Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, also the Education Minister said these two subjects in Chinese and Tamil national-type schools would be carried out in mother tongue respectively. Then, the cabinet today approved by empowering the Malay language and strengthening the teaching and learning of the English language at all levels of schooling. However, this change would not affect Form Six and matriculation students. Furthermore, another policy comes out with history will be a must- pass subject in Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) examination from 2013 along with the Bahasa Malaysia subject to enlighten the understanding of Constitution on nation- building process of our country. The Development of Education Policy in the United Kingdom In the year of 1870, elementary education fully paid by the government was introduced in England. After the elementary education stage, 80% of the students left school, which after 1918 finished at 14. Free secondary education was introduced in the 1944 Education Act. From here we can see that the UK education policy maker has a different aim. The main overall principle approach was pursuance of equality. Non-selective or ‘comprehensive’ schools were introduced progressively. However, in 1960, the comprehensive education became the policy of the government. These comprehensive educations can help to improve the prospects of children of average ability by reducing the discrimination or disadvantage on the basis of class. With the idea of equality and opportunity, the selective system becomes more dependable. Comparing to students that go to comprehensive schools, the working class students that went to grammar schools did much better in their education. Market Reforms In the 1980s and 1990s, successive Conservative governments increased the pace of reform and introduced so called “market mechanisms”. This mechanism in the UK education system can force schools to raise their standards. The 1988 Education Reform Act notices about a ‘quasi-market’ in education which introduced the market reforms and also the National Curriculum described in Section 3. Thus, there were widespread fear about poor and falling standard in education of UK about the concerns on widening access and educational in equality in 1980’s since too many individuals leaving school too early with little basic skills. The aim of the package of market-oriented reforms is increasing parental choice and improving the accountability of state funded schools. Parents could choose which school their child attended. Regard to student enrolment numbers to give schools the incentive to attract and admit more students, school funding became more closely to be linked. Some schools could take control of their own budgets or directly from central government which is opposed to being under local government control. Curriculum Reform UK introduced two other significant national policies to tackle the problem of poor literacy and numeracy. Firstly, in the late 1980s a standardized national curriculum was introduced for pupils aged between 7 and 16. The aim was to raise standards by ensuring that all students study a prescribed set of subjects up to a minimum level until the age of 16. The second policy reform, in 1998, was e National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies that involve all primary schools to allocate part of the daily curriculum to literacy so the pupils’ basic skills are developed. For the attempts to raise participation in post-compulsory schooling in the UK, there are two major policies. The first is the perennial (and often ineffectual) attempts at qualification reform, which enhances the attractiveness and labour market value of vocational qualifications. Moreover, the second policy was Education Maintenance Allowance, which paid a small means-tested allowance to individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds since they stayed on in full time education beyond the age of 16. As school leavers went on to undertake part-time high quality vocational training, so it resulted in well-respected qualifications with high value in the labour market. Conclusion Almost every day, education is a subject that is often discussed by people almost that it can affect the life of a wide range of population. People of the age ranging from 4 to 80 are said to be obtaining education at anywhere and anytime. Therefore, education policy plays a vital role in providing a good teaching and learning environment to these people. The education policies mentioned above has been changed leads to the existence of E-learning such as the Malaysia Smart School (SSP) project, which is an important flagship in Malaysia’s multimedia Super Corridor ICT Application and encourages the development of teaching and learning process. The Ministry of Education intended to make ICT to enhance teaching and learning, distance learning, video conferencing and Internet-links leading the government to pay extra attention on the maintenance or improvement of the standard in education.
MGT 320 CUD Destructive & Positive Sides of Charismatic Leadership Essay.

I’m looking for a project report for my organizational behavior subject. Requirements are below: 2. Destructive/ positive sides of charismatic leadership- comparative
analysis of case studies
• Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Lee Iacocca, Jack Welch, Kenneth Lay (founder and CEO of
Enron Corporation), Jeffrey Skilling (Chief Executive of Enron), Bernard Ebbers
(Worldcom Chief Executive), Leo Hindery (Chief Executive of Global) Crossing
Limited), Richard Scrushy (Chief Executive of Healthsouth) and Dennis Kozłowski
(Chief Executive of Tyco Corporation).
Minimum work requirements:
• At work, please refer to the following concepts: “charisma,” positive and destructive
behavior of the leader, “authority,” “leadership style.”
• Please justify the choice of a leader as a subject of work, characterize the selected leader
from the business world, describe the history of his/her career, description of leadership style The written project report will be submitted separately, a PPT to be presented in class as per
the schedule.
The format of the project is as follows:
• Apply the CUD assessment Template Topic Page -will be provided on Moodle
• Apply the below required structure and task requirements
Introduction: Introduce your topic explaining the importance of the issue or problem at hand and
then situate it in academic literature. The idea of the introduction isto also orientate the reader asto
what is going to be covered in your report (1 Page)
The Problem or Issue: Describe the problem or opportunity identified with the topic and
indicate how significant this issue is to the organization (half page)
Research Objectives: Describe what objectives are intended to be achieved with the research
study. i.e., what is it that you want to find out or know or investigate about the topic in relation
to the problem / opportune statement (half page)
Literature Review: Here you need to explain where your investigation fits in the wider body of
literature and perhaps inform a current debate in that literature. You should critically evaluate
carefully selected concepts, theories and ideas which might be useful for investigating your
research topic and taking it forward. For instance, if you are researching about motivation, you
will need to cover some of the concepts and models of motivation such as Maslow, Herzberg,
Management/leadership, teams, culture etc. I.e., review similarities, differences, strengths,
weaknesses, and implications of theories taking your topic into consideration. All sources must
be referenced using intext citations.
A key requirement here is to develop a clear argument, linking the literature to the issue,
problem, or questions that you have identified in the introduction; in other words, there should
be a critical link with the problem / opportunity statement / Objectives to be investigated and
the topics reviewed under this section.
You need to divide this section under different subheadings but remember the subheadings you
choose must be related to the title of your research and research questions. (3 pages)
Methodology: Here, you will describe the methods you chose to use in order to reach your
objective which is to find pertinent answers to the questions you developed in the topic
statement. (Half page)
Results: This section will contain all the pertinent information and any other relevant findings.
(1 page)
Discussion: An important section of your work. You will analyze the results of your study. You
will show a clear understanding of the nature and significance of your findings and relate it to
problem/opportunity statement / objectives. Your analytical skills will clearly be of central
importance to this section of your research. (2 Pages)
Recommendations: Based upon the critical analysis of your findings you will be required to
provide recommendations relevant to your results and in your opinion, will help improve the
field of Organizational Behavior. (1 Page)
Conclusion: Half a page to summarize your findings. (Half page)
List of References (APA Style): A list of the readings, books, articles, internet documents, etc,
used for the research project.
Other Task Requirements:
1. 1.5 spaced, 12.0 font size, Times New Roman.
2. Page count of 9 to 10 pages(excluding appendices, list of references, and cover page).
3. Submit softcopy of the written report via Turnitin on “Moodle.”
4. The citations of references in the text should be according to the APA referencing style. A
minimum of 10 references is required.
5. Late submissions will be capped at 60%.
6. Noncompliance to the required project structure and task requirements will be penalized
(Marks will be deducted)
Present project in a PowerPoint presentation.My choice of leader here is Elon Musk, Describing the companies that he own, destructive and positive sides of his charismatic leadership. Some wise and risky choices he made, all in all I just want a full report on this and I’ll be doing the PPT presentation on my own.
MGT 320 CUD Destructive & Positive Sides of Charismatic Leadership Essay

Fuel and Transportation Expense Fraud in Companies Essay

Harsh financial conditions and rising gas costs are two factors that drive employees to defraud their organizations. One of the tricks used involves sharing city-owned fuel credit cards and passcodes with family members and friends for personal financial benefits. An investigation conducted by city officials found out that several employees were already using the trick to supplement their income. In addition to carpooling and fuel conservation, fuel, and transportation fraud are other ways that employees are using to save money due to the high cost of fuel. Employees are resorting to fraudulent alternatives because the rising fuel prices are exerting great pressure on the financial situations of employees. Employees take advantage of fuel or transportation reimbursement program to make extra money from their organizations. The most common fuel reimbursement methods include fuel depots, fuel credit cards, mileage reimbursement programs, take-home vehicles, and a combination of the aforementioned methods. To detect fraud on fuel credit cards, companies need to possess detailed information regarding the date, time, purchase price, and amount, as well as the location of purchase. Additional information needed includes mileage logs, the capacity of the vehicle, and the employee’s schedule. Information needed to conduct a review for mileage reimbursement programs include employee work schedule, mileage request for reimbursement, detailed report of locations visited, and records of employee expense accounts. Employees defraud their companies by reporting false mileage, failing to present reports until rates go up, and documenting longer routes than those taken. Many organizations ignore the likelihood that employees use take-home vehicle plans to commit fraud. Data need for conducting a take-home vehicle review includes vehicle policy, vehicle maintenance reports, fuel data, vehicle assignment, and assigned fuel card. Fraudulent schemes used by employees include allowing family members to use a company vehicle, using a company vehicle for personal business, using assigned fuel cards to fill up private cars, and using a take-home vehicle as a carpool vehicle. Employees also defraud companies through bulk fuel purchases. Information needed to identify such fraud includes the capacity of onsite tanks, delivery company information, detailed contracts showing the price, amount, and grades of fuel delivered, and tank usage reports. Schemes used by employees to commit fraud include delivering lesser grade fuel, using shorting techniques to steal fuel, delaying billing so that market rates can go up, and selling fuel directly from the depot. In large organizations, employees use a combination of fuel and transportation fraud schemes because of the availability of numerous reimbursement schemes. Possible fraud schemes include siphoning fuel from company vehicles, including personal gas receipts on rental cars that were returned empty, fueling personal cars using company fuel cards, and requesting mileage reimbursement when using company vehicles. Companies need to collect as much data as possible when reviewing reimbursement charges form employees. Employees are usually defensive when asked to explain certain inconsistencies or anomalies in their reimbursement charges. Therefore, companies must conduct thorough investigations. The controls that an organization has put in place regarding the management of fuel and transportation reimbursement determine the level of fraud in the organization. Employees will always take advantage of reimbursement programs to defraud their companies for personal gains. To avoid widespread fraud, organizations need to conduct proactive reporting and detective analysis as well as liming reimbursement programs to one department or division of the company. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More

PSY 620 Ashford University Behavioral Analysis Annotated Bibliography

java assignment help PSY 620 Ashford University Behavioral Analysis Annotated Bibliography.

For this this Annotated Bibliography, you will research at least five peer-reviewed articles published within the last ten years to support your analysis of one of the following topics:Behavior Analysis (previously known as behaviorismThe topic you choose should be based on the area in which you would most like to develop your knowledge. Your choice should also consider your current interests in psychology and support your future career or personal goals.There are 4 components to this assignment:Introduction: Include your chosen focus area and your motivation for choosing this area to study furtherThe Annotated Bibliography itselfA ConclusionA list of APA formatted references.The Choosing Your Focus paperMust be a minimum of 1250 words, no more than 1500 words, and formatted according to APA style (Links to an external site.)(7thedition) as outlined in the Ashford WritingMust begin with an introductory paragraph that clearly states the chosen construct and your motivation for choosing this topic.Must clearly discuss each article in your own words using critical thought.Must end with a conclusion that synthesizes the findings within the articles as they relate to your chosen content.Must include a Reference section.The Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)guide offers additional guidance on correctly formatting references for the annotatedMust use at least five peer-reviewed sources.The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your your instructor.
PSY 620 Ashford University Behavioral Analysis Annotated Bibliography

Cultural Globalization: Advantages and Disadvantages

February 14th is an important day for lovers. When this day most people will buy roses and chocolates give to the person they like. We called this day Valentines Day. Valentine’s Day is from Europe. However, China also has a festival like Valentine’s Day that is Double Seven Festival. Double Seven Festival is a Chinese traditional festival, in this day most of the girls would go to pray to get a better love. Nowadays most Chinese people do not know what need to do now. This situation tells us the traditional culture is losing. With the reform and opening up in China, lots of new cultures crowed into China. These cultures get into China, a lot of Chinese are interested in these new cultures. Because of this, Chinese culture with the world is getting more and more closed. Nowadays, most Chinese teenagers forget what we should do, when we are in some traditional festival. The major reason of this problem is technology, such as television, internet and transport. Maybe we will lose our traditional culture in the future. So we must to know some advantages and disadvantages of globalization and which thing can affect our culture. To be honest, we do not want to lose our traditional culture. So there are some ways to save our culture. In this ways, we may make the world know more about our culture and learn it. So protect and spread our culture is what teenagers like us should do. Background Information As we know, there are 56 ethnic groups in China; China has a large number of cultures. The Hui nationality is major one of this. Islam from the middle Tang dynasty was introduced into China, by Song dynasty to Ming and Qing dynasties; it has a history of more than 1300 years. By some research that more than 2000 cities and counties in our country, more than 95% of the Hui nationality lived. Hui clothing apparel and han the same generally, men with white hat, women wear a white hat and hair all packaged in it. Now most of the Hui nationality only when hui festival wearing like this. Another one is Miao nationality. Since 1949, Miao has been an official term for one of the 55 official minority groups recognized by the government of the People’s Republic of China. Miao main living in the south of China, in the province of Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, and other places. According to the 2000 Population Census, the number of Miao in China is estimated that there are about 9.6 million. The Miao nationality includes Hmong people as same as other culturally and phonetically related ethnic groups who do not call themselves Hmong. These consist of the Hmu, Kho (Qho) Xiong, and A Hmao. The White Miao (Bai Miao) and Green Miao (Qing Miao) are Hmong groups. Nowadays, some young Hmong people do not speak Hmong or only know a little Hmong. Because of this, we know that our culture is losing. The major reason of this problem is globalization. With the rapid development of science and technology, globalization has not only to promote the development of our economy but also changed our culture. However, the impact of globalization on traditional Chinese culture not only disadvantage but also advantage. Disadvantages of Globalization There are three main aspects in the impact of globalization on culture. One is demise of the traditional festivals, than is limit our cultural innovation another one is control cultural autonomy. This problem can make our losing our culture. These problems can make the loss of our traditional culture so we must pay more attention to this problem. First of all, demise of the traditional festivals is the major effect. In the process of globalization, with the expansion of the cultural exchange and spread of western culture is like the flood into China. However, the reality tells us that as the western festival culture was introduced into China, more and more Chinese people have a special liking to those foreign festivals, and some traditional festivals of China’s national culture are possible, even forgotten. Such as Double Seven Festival and Valentine’s Day is similar but many Chinese people know how to do in Valentine’s Day, do not know to do in Double Seven Festival. Because of this blind obedience and discomfort, which leads to the process of globalization, the traditional festival in the Chinese culture is facing great danger, and even some traditional festivals towards a decline. Next is limiting our cultural innovation. In the process of globalization, we in the production of a large number of advanced high-end technologies imported from abroad. But too much reliance on foreign science and technology, we will actively introduce embodied in, and less on their work in the digestion and absorption. Such as, too many products we just copy this not to learn its specific principles. So we just followed the footsteps of other countries did not go beyond those. These are reflected in the process of globalization, the culture shows lack of innovation. Another one is controlling of cultural autonomy. The process of cultural globalization will inevitably lead to world culture full range of conflict in the world field “, occupy a leading global cultural transmission performance for the US-led Western culture in the position of the dominant culture. This situation makes the Chinese people pay more attention to the Western festivals. If this situation continues, we will not have our own traditional festivals. So we need pay more attention for our traditional culture. Advantages of Globalization As we all know, globalization is a double-edged sword. It not only to brought some of the threats and challenges, but also brought us a number of development opportunities. There are two benefits of globalization, one is strengthened, and it attaches great importance to the government for culture. Another one is show the world the Chinese traditional culture. So these two things can accelerate the development of our country. Improving the government’s emphasis on culture is a main benefit of globalization. The process of reform and opening up, Chinese government issued a series of measures in national cultural preservation and development, through the cultural legislation, protection system and policy, cultural management, and other means, effectively resist the globalization to culture risk, for example, from central to local government departments, actively take advantage of our unique national culture to declare world cultural heritage. In legislation, the Chinese government has Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn festival, Qingming traditional festival of the national legal holidays. And as Beijing Beijing folk culture rescue project spend large sum of money; Sing “big cultural province” construction in Hebei province. Nanjing has a history of 2,500 years, held in April 2004, the world’s historical and cultural city of Expo. These are reflected from the side, the government began to pay attention to China’s national culture. At same time, show Chinese traditional cultures to the world are another point. China as an Oriental ancient civilization with a history of 5000 years, appears to have been in the west is a full of mysterious place. Since the “Marco Polo mind” has been popular in Europe, Westerners have been the Chinese national culture has a great interest. With the ever-accelerating process of globalization, foreign exchange and dissemination of Chinese culture rapidly. For example, China has been established in many countries in the world “Confucius institutes”, the world set off a wave of Chinese hot already. More and more foreigners are attracted to China’s national culture unique charm. This shows also happens to be that “the more national, the world”, the harmonious thought of ancient Chinese Confucian culture, to solve the conflict of international relations at present stage, also has a great significance. Many Chinese classical philosophies contain simple dialectics thoughts, and in comparison, western philosophy also showed unique charm. In the process of globalization, through international exchanges and interaction of culture, China’s national culture has on the world stage showed a dazzling brilliance! Conclusion The Chinese nation has a long history of 5,000 years, the culture of grandeur to the development of human culture in the east, and even the whole world widely profound influence, this is enough to worth us forever proud. However, we want to know, the Chinese culture is one of the world culture is very important and extremely characteristic of strengths of Chinese and western culture. We have a lot more than western things, there are also many less than western. Under the international background of the globalization, the development of our national culture is facing the severe test, and full of new opportunities. All in all, it is necessary for us to grasp the cultural globalization, in the spirit of courage to open both absorb useful to Chinese national culture essence of western culture, and emphasize the inner spirit of national culture value, make the national culture and foreign culture blend in the new development opportunity, realize the modernization of Chinese national culture.

ELAC 715 Quantitative Analysis and Managerial Decisions Discussion

ELAC 715 Quantitative Analysis and Managerial Decisions Discussion.

Discussion 3: Quantitative Analysis and Managerial Decisions in an OrganizationBased on examples from one of the recommended articles selected by you, the lecture notes, the text, and other sources, discuss one or several of the themes: quantitative analysis and decision making, decision making process as a step-by-step analytical approach, types of decision-making environments, decision tree analysis. With the help of one or several of the recommended tutorials for Module 3 and decision methods covered in Lectures 5 and 6, discuss your experience and plans for applying analytical methods in your Assignment 2 or in your current (or targeted) profession!!!!!!!!!!300 words, reply two students.Adding a question you want to ask about these readings at the end. recommended articles (select and review one of the following articles):HBR, Management is Much More Than a Science – The limits of Data-Driven Decision Making, Martin R at al, Sep-Oct 2017, pp. 129-136MIT Sloan Management Review, How to Test Your Assumptions, Fjeld, J, Winter 2018, pp. 89-90MIT Sloan Management Review, The Five Steps All Leaders Must Take in the Age of Uncertainty, Reeves M at al, Fall 2017When Data Creates Competitive Advantage and When it Doesn’t, Hagiu, A., HBR 2020 January–February
ELAC 715 Quantitative Analysis and Managerial Decisions Discussion