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The Council Of Trent

Throughout the early 1500s many Europeans sought to reform the structure and traditions of the Catholic Church. Riots and protests gradually spread to various parts of Europe causing many authorities including the Catholic Church to panic. The Council of Trent was called in 1545 by Pope Paul III to respond to these concerns and to the Protestant Revolt. It included an ecumenical council made up of all of the bishops of the Catholic Church, which discussed the various concerns presented. This document analysis will not analyze The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent in its entirety. This analysis will focus upon the fourth session written in 1546, and the twenty-third session, including the oration delivered in the last session in 1559 through 1563. The Council was a means to reinforce the authority of the papacy and to fight back against the rise of Protestantism. The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent increased papal authority, as it was intended as a warning for all other forms of Christianity that the authority and legitimacy of the Catholic Church was not to be questioned or threatened. The Council of Trent was vital in the consolidation of papal power. The Council of Trent gives us insight into the power of the Catholic Church in the mid 1500s. Although its numbers had been dwindling, the Catholic Church had the ability fight back in force. We can assume by the authoritative language of the Council of Trent that the Catholic Church greatly feared the growing strength of the protestant movement throughout Europe. The power of the church is evident by the aggressive language in the document such as “no one dare or presume under any pretext whatsoever to reject it” and by authorities describing those who do not follow the canons as an “anathema”. An anathema in essence means condemning someone to hell. Even after the charges by reformists such as Luther and Calvin, the Catholic Church still had the influence to directly threaten and condemn Protestantism. The Council of Trent legitimizes under Catholic law, papal authority to do whatever necessary to prevent the spread of Protestantism and bring former Catholics back to the church in numerous ways. First, The Council of Trent increased papal authority by passing a decree concerning the publication of sacred books. The Council states that canonical books (the Bible) should be printed in its entirety as they are in the Vulgate edition. The Council states that “If any one receive not, as sacred and canonical, the said books entire with all their parts, as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin vulgate edition…let him be anathema.” The Vulgate edition included deuterocanonicals, which were books not available in Hebrew yet were deemed acceptable to be included in the Bible. The Protestants did not accept these books as canonical and called it biblical “apocrypha”. This gives us greater indication that the Council of Trent was among other things, a counter in reaction to the teachings of Protestantism. Secondly, The Council of Trent increased papal authority by legitimizing enforcement methods to stop the spread of any edition of sacred documents not verified by the Catholic Church. The Council states that “the Vulgate edition, be printed in the most correct manner possible; and that it shall not be lawful for any one to print, or cause to be printed, any books whatsoever, on sacred matters, without the name of the author…unless they shall have been first examined and approved by the Ordinary.” Moreover the council states that “Those who led…shall be subject to the same penalties as printers…they who have them in their possession or shall read them, shall, unless they discover the authors, be themselves regarded as the authors” This would have harsh implications as just having a copy of an anonymous biblical text would deem you legally responsible and subject to punishment. It must be noted that Luther published his Bible in 1534, which meant that the Council of Trent deemed Luther to be a threat to the Catholic Church. They soon took the necessary means to prevent its (and other bible translations) publication. This could also give us a greater appreciation of the significance of the Gutenberg Press which could produce multiple copies of works rapidly. The Catholic Church must have felt their power to centralize production of biblical texts was diminishing. The Council of Trent would legitimize the authority of the papacy that The Catholic Church’s interpretation of the bible would be absolute. Thirdly, The Council of Trent increased papal power by equating Catholic Church tradition with the scripture. The Council states that “Truth and discipline are contained in the written books, and the unwritten traditions which, received by the Apostles from the mouth of Christ himself…have come down to us, transmitted as it were from hand to hand.” This would have the potential to greatly enhance papal authority on which interpretation of the bible would be permitted. This would also be a direct counter to refute and denounce the protestant belief that man can learn everything he needed to know about God through scripture alone and his individual relationship with Christ. We can also notice from The Council of Trent, that papal authority to ordinate priests and bishops is consolidated. The Council states that those which are not officially ordained by the Catholic Church are “to be regarded as thieves and robbers.” The Catholic Church criminalizes protestant desires for the common people to elect their own priests and bishops. Moreover the Council enforces the legitimacy of their bishops who are chosen by the Roman pontiff. “If anyone says that the bishops who are chosen by the authority of the Roman pontiff are not true and legitimate bishops, but merely human deception, let him be anathema.” Again, this is an indication that the Council of Trent was a direct refutation of the growing protestant rituals which broke with Catholic tradition. Finally, The Council of Trent firmly placed the authority in the hands of the papacy to declare that “only those who are known for their virtues, not for their own ambition, who will serve the interests of the people, not their own, and who desire to be useful rather then invested with authority, will be chosen for the discharge of ecclesiastical offices.” This decree gave the church the authority to expel those who did not live up to the standards of the Catholic Church. This in an indication that the Catholic Church believed that it needed to reform itself in someway to convince the masses that they were taking steps to stamp out corruption. It could also be beneficial to consider to impact of the Council of Trent on the authority of princes and other secular rulers. The Council “deemed it proper that secular princes also be admonished of their duty; being confident that as Catholics whom God has willed to be protectors of the holy faith and church.” The Council of Trent gave princes the opportunity to potentially use the authority of the church to suppress supporters of the reformation. This is an indication that the Church was willing to work with princes to ensure the survival of Catholicism and the destruction of Protestantism. The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent is clearly a biased document and does not give us the opposing opinions of the Protestants throughout Europe. Furthermore, this document does not attempt to understand, or reconcile the grievances of the Protestants. Thus it makes no attempt to legitimize the criticism of the Catholic Church by Protestants, but to criminalize their criticism. It is written by an ecumenical council to legitimize in writing, their prosecution of what they deem to be blasphemy. However, we can assume that numerous people throughout Europe still valued the opinion of the Catholic Church. With the proclamation of the Council of Trent, Catholics saw their church take action against the rising power of Protestantism, and it would be safe to imagine that their fears would diminish following the publication of the Council of Trent. It is apparent throughout the document, that the Council of Trent centralizes the decision making process of the Catholic Church and its ability to persecute individuals who contradicted their strict interpretation of the Christian faith. It is evident after carefully analyzing the text that The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent increased papal authority, as it was intended as a warning for all other forms of Christianity that the authority and legitimacy of the Catholic Church was not to be questioned or threatened.
MGT 321 SEU Which Theory Of FDI Best Explain Volkswagens FDI In Russia Case Study.

Please read Case 8: “Volkswagen in Russia” available in your e-book (page no.619), and answer the following questions: Assignment Question(s) What factors underlay the decision by Volkswagen to invest directly in automobile production in Russia? Why was FDI preferable to exporting from existing factories in Germany? Which theory (or theories) of FDI best explain Volkswagen’s FDI in Russia? How do you think FDI by foreign automobile companies might benefit the Russian economy? Is there any potential downside to Russia from this inflow of FDI? Russia is largely dependent on oil exports to drive its economy forward. Given the sharp fall in global oil prices that occurred in 2014 and 2015, what impact do you think this will have on FDI into Russia? Volkswagen has signaled that it is going to stay the course in Russia, despite current political and economic headwinds. Why do you think it made this decision? What are the pros and cons of this decision? In your opinion, is it the correct decision?
MGT 321 SEU Which Theory Of FDI Best Explain Volkswagens FDI In Russia Case Study

Emotional Intelligence – Psychology Research Paper. Introduction Emotional intelligence is defined as the processes that are involved in the recognition, the use, and management of ones own emotional state and also the emotional state of others to solve emotion-laden problems and to regulate behavior (Salovey and Mayer, 1997). Emotional intelligence (EI) is one of the various categories of cognitive abilities; others are social, practical and personal intelligences. Emotional intelligence is distinguished from general intelligence because the later relies on hot cognitive-emotional process which is critical to individual development and the surrounding environment whereas the former operates on cold cognitive processes. Emotional intelligence describes the ability of an individual to regulate his impulse, to sympathize with others and also the ability to be tough and flexible in times of hardships. Emotional intelligence is considered a product of the quantity of communication that takes place between the rational and the emotional centers of the brain (Mackin, 2006). Emotional intelligence is linked to the following different types of skills: Self awareness: this is the ability of an individual to understand his moods and feelings; this enables an individual to keep sight on his thoughts and emotions which is instrumental in their understanding of why they feel or behave in a particular manner. Managing emotions: this helps individuals to exhibit their emotions in an acceptable and appropriate manner; it enables individuals to regulate their anger, fear and sadness. Motivation: motivation enables people to utilize their emotions in trying to realize their goals; it enables an individual to control their impulses and also to delay the gratification of achieving their goals. Empathy: empathy concerns how other individual feel. Social skills: this involves dealing with other individuals in social interactions, it concerns engaging in a conversation and analyzing other peoples emotions (Mackin, 2006). Relationship to School and Career Success Emotional intelligence has the ability to enhance success in life. It is considered that the higher the degree of emotional intelligence, the greater the performance of an individual in the areas of participative management, self-awareness, decisiveness, change management and also enables the individual to balance between private life and the work. Employers had earlier been using intelligent quotient to determine the cognitive ability of individuals and also their career success. This idea of using intelligence quotient has been heavily questioned and the significance of emotional intelligence as the best mode to gauge potential leaders has been favored (Witte, 2004). Emotional intelligence plays a critical role in the development of careers of individuals and also plays an important role in enhancing job performance of an individual; it has been established that as opposed to general intelligence, employees with high emotional intelligence are more effective and conscientious in the performance of their tasks. Emotional intelligence is the backbone for professionals, suppliers and planners. For a supplier, for example, emotional intelligence enhances their selling and negotiating skills. The social skills which are fundamental skill of emotional intelligence facilitates social synchronization in a work place which translates to high productivity and also make the employees a talented, productive and a cohesive work force. The fine tuning of individuals emotional intelligence fosters the ability of an individual to improve his effectiveness in the job market (PCMA, 2007). Students often go to school to realize academic success. The proponents of emotional intelligence like Mayer, Salovey and Goleman have argued that academic success relies on emotional intelligence and the ability of an individual to regulate his emotions. They argued that intelligence quotient is no longer the main determinants of academic success and a measure of individual intelligence but also factors like emotional and social intelligence and furthermore, luck plays a critical role in the success of an individual. An emotionally intelligent student is skilled in four main areas, which are “identifying, using, understanding and regulating emotions” (Abisamra, 2000, pg. 1). The relationship between emotional intelligence and achievement makes it instrumental in academic success. Achievement is closely linked to the emotional, social and human growth and it is therefore paramount in the study of the relationship between the performance of the student and the level of emotional intelligence (Abisamra, 2000). How to raise our EQ Emotional intelligence is very important in the life of an individual; it matters in the intellectual capability, happiness and success in life. Emotional intelligence is critical in the establishment of strong relationship, career success and the achievement of goals. Every individual has the ability to develop skills that can foster their emotional intelligence. Before learning on how to raise our Emotional quotient (EQ), it is imperative to understand that there is a distinction between human knowledge and behavior, there are several things that we may wish to know or we may like to do yet we will not do when we are under pressure and this concerns our emotional intelligence. EQ is not learned in the conventional intellectual manner but only on the emotional way and to learn about our emotional intelligence we need to engage our emotional parts like the brain. The improvement of individual intelligence can be achieved through the reduction of stress, individual’s connection to his emotions, perfecting the art of non-verbal communication, the use of humor and play when concentrating with particular challenges and also the diffusion of conflicts and confidence and are expounded below; Reduction of stress: when human beings are under the condition of stress, their rational thinking and ability to make decisions disappears. This is because stress overwhelms the mind and the body and interferes with our mental faculty with regard to our ability to hear, express and communicate clearly. Increasing intelligence involves our ability to calm you and to manage stress. Reducing stress can be achieved through; realizing when you are stressed, identify stress response and to discover the stress bursting. Connection with emotions: an individual should be aware of his/her emotions and how those emotions influence his/her thoughts and actions. Understanding ones emotions is critical in understanding oneself and others. This is critical in increasing our EQ. Non-verbal communication: a good communicator involves more than only verbal skills, it is important to know what we say and how we say and the non verbal cues we send out. Individuals should communicate clearly and be in position to analyze non verbal cues. Non verbal communication is emotionally driven and it may produce some sense of interest and trust and also generate fear and confusion, also non verbal communication demands attention. Using humor to face challenges: humor and laughter are considered the antidote to the challenges in life and they enable individuals put things in the right perspective. Laughter enables people to reduce stress and elevate the mood (Help guide, 2011). Conclusion Emotional intelligence has become a popular topic and a favorite research area of psychologists; it is an imperative area to learn since it is instrumental area in the understanding and the analyzing of human behavior both at work and at school. It is important in the development of an individual since it enables us to understand our emotions and when to suppress them. The understanding of emotional intelligence enables teachers and employees to devise some better ways of bettering performance. The field of emotional intelligence is not new in the 21st century due to the extensive research that has been carried out in that area. The ability of emotional intelligence to sharpen our understanding of how we define individual’s ability to perceive, identify and to manage our emotions and stress. Almost all individuals have had emotions that have challenge their cognitive understand but by having the knowledge of emotional intelligence it makes it important to develop pragmatic and measurable approach to individuals’ growth in the work place, at the school and at home. Emotional intelligence is fundamental than individual’s intelligence or rather the technical and cognitive skills and as an individuals, our success and the success of our careers depend on our ability to read people’s signal and learn how to react to it hence it is important to advance our emotional intelligence skills for us to understand, empathize and to negotiate with other parties especially in this Globalized world. For an individual to advance in life, he should incorporate both IQ and EQ. Emotional intelligence enables individuals to distinguish between performers at different level and also defines our ability to relate and interact with other people. References Abisamra, N. (2000). Emotional intelligence and academic achievement. Web. Help guide. (2011). Emotional intelligence. Web. Mackin, D. (2006). Emotional Intelligence. Web. PCMA. (2007). New direction in learning. Web. Salovey, PEmotional Intelligence – Psychology Research Paper

Representations of Sex and the City in 1960’s Pop Culture Essay

While speaking about the phenomena of Playboy and Bunnies, it is possible to agree with Hugh Hefner’s words regarding the triumph or power of sexuality in this context. However, it is important to state that women’s sexuality and men’s sexuality should be viewed differently when referring to the role of Bunnies in the development of this concept. The sexuality of Bunnies as “free-spirited” females seems to be promoted and accentuated. Their sexuality and attractiveness are emphasized to represent them as objects associated with provocativeness and pleasures. In this context, Bunnies’ sexuality is “artificial,” and women should address certain standards and rules in order to look and behave sexually (“Bunny Training”). On the contrary, Playboy has contributed to the development of men’s “real” sexuality because their “male gaze” is associated with their actual reactions to observed women and feelings of possession and domination. The phenomenon of Playboy has contributed to viewing women as sexy objects of men’s dreams. Kathryn Leigh Scott has noted that Bunnies were viewed as promoters of the sexual revolution, and their activities added to the social change (“The Bunny Years”). The reason is that women were represented as friendly and attractive. Still, it is possible to note that such ideas were developed to mask the “male gaze” and the problem of objectification in the male-dominated society. Therefore, sexuality should be defined as certain reactions to sexual objects, and this definition can be supported with reference to males’ visions of accentuated femininity. While stating whether sexuality is associated with power, it is important to note that the answer is “yes” when one speaks about men. Playboy or different sexual images emphasize the power of males in terms of sexuality as the public opinion regarding women and their right to sexuality is usually contradictory. On the one hand, women’s sexuality is promoted; on the other hand, it is condemned. While responding to the post on the phenomenon of Bunnies and sexuality promoted in the 1960s, it is important to concentrate on some key points: the perception of women’s sexuality with reference to Bunnies; the objectification and the male gaze; and the definition of sexuality. It is possible to agree with the author of the post that Bunnies were traditionally viewed as embodiments of female sexuality because their behaviors and actions were associated with women’s beauty, freedom, and control. It is also important to agree that the reason was in the fact that sex and sexuality were not openly discussed for many years, and such revolution in people’s views added to creating the phenomenon of Bunnies. However, the author’s ideas regarding the objectification of women and the male gaze are also interesting and important to be discussed. Some people agree that each social phenomenon has two opposite sides. On the one hand, women, and Bunnies, in particular, were declared to be free in relation to their sexuality. On the other hand, all their actions were directed to accentuating the power of men in the world of Playboy. Women were not free; on the contrary, their roles as sexual “objects” were rather obvious. The definition of sexuality proposed by the author is also interesting, and it seems to reflect the nature of this notion. Thus, it is possible to agree that sexuality is a combination of certain behaviors and people’s ideas or dreams about sex. It is also important to note that this idea of sexuality is closely related to the problems of objectification and suppression typical of the society where the image of Bunnies was promoted. From this perspective, the author’s discussion of the complex nature of sexuality in the society of the 1960s can be considered as successful and thought-provoking. Works Cited “Bunny Training.” Ex-Playboy Bunnies, 2017, Web. “The Bunny Years by Kathryn Leigh Scott.” Ex-Playboy Bunnies, 2017, Web. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More

Invasive Qualitative Diagnosis of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

essay help online Invasive Qualitative Diagnosis of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia.

RESEARCH ARTICLE REVIEW 1. Choose a peer-reviewed QUANTITATIVE research article on a topic of interest that could be incorporated into your role as an advanced practice nurse. You may need to review your undergraduate Research textbook for help. There is also an article suggested in the readings. (For example: use of a certain antibiotic vs. another antibiotic in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia). This article can not be a clinical article. It must describe the research conducted. 2. Write a concise summary of the research article (2 pages or less). 3. Evaluate the research presented for its scientific merit and applicability to practice. 4. Determine if the findings are statistically significant and/or clinically significant. 5. Discuss how this research will impact your practice as an APN. This total paper should be no more than 5-7 pages in lengthprovide 2-3 pages of content, and one reference pageI will make the cover page. all I need is the content, and reference page. please and thank you. I will provide the article, cite article and APA format. I have provided the main article, you may choose more references if it will help you with the paper. background for myself, I am an ICU nurse who takes care of ventilators on a daily basis, some patients are ventilated for more than 3 days, we give broad spectrum antibiotics to cover pneumonia and try to cut down on re admission after discharge. I plan on being a ER/ICU Nurse practitioner and what steps I would take to cut down on ventilator associated pneumonia with my prescribing or practicing.
Invasive Qualitative Diagnosis of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

ECON 113 UCI General Equilibrium Models & Reflection on Finances Discussion

ECON 113 UCI General Equilibrium Models & Reflection on Finances Discussion.

I’m working on a economics writing question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

This assignment is meant to promote better reflection and learning of the materials and you will be expected to submit answers to the three questions below after lecture (one page):1. What were the most important 1-2 new things you learned from the lecture and/or readings that you did not know before class? Describe one way in which what you learned connects to either a different subject/topic you are interested in, or a personal experience.2. What were 1-2 points discussed in lecture/readings that you are still confused/unclear about and would like some further clarification on?3. What topics/questions would you like to learn more about or discuss more based on content covered in the lecture/readings?Research on pedagogy shows that such reflection notes are highly effective at promoting learning and helps to make faculty and students accountable for what they have taught/learned in each lecture. They will be graded on a discrete 0-1-2 scale (2: thoughtful response that engaged with the content of the lecture/readings; 1: cursory responses that meet a minimum standard; 0: otherwise).
ECON 113 UCI General Equilibrium Models & Reflection on Finances Discussion

Social Science Essay

Social Science Essay. I’m stuck on a Social Science question and need an explanation.

Length: 6-8 pages/1500-2000 words (double spaced, 12 point font, 2.5 cm margins)
You are writing a ‘persuasive essay’ which involves some research. In addition to the relevant course readings, you will need to find and use two secondary ACADEMIC sources for this essay (not Wikipedia, etc.). You MUST use proper referencing techniques and engage in textual analysis of these sources. Failure to properly document and acknowledge your sources constitutes PLAGARISM and makes you subject to academic sanction.
Instructions Pick one of the essay topics below. DO NOT simply answer the questions in the order that they appear in the topic. The order of presentation is something you need to think deeply about: you need to plan out what you want to say and the order that it would be best to say it. You will be assessed based on how well you understand the concepts, issues and arguments raised in the course material. Return to your introduction after you have completed your draft to ensure that the order of presentation you outline here corresponds to the structure of your essay.
Formal Requirement:
Your title page must include your name, student number, TAs name, and submission date. You will need to find and use two secondary ACADEMIC sources for this essay (no Wikipedia,, etc.). Include a properly formatted bibliography at the end of your essay. Your essay must start with a comprehensive introduction which includes: i. The position the author takes on the key question; ii. Your thesis; and iii. An explanation of how your essay will be organized. Your essay must have a clear paragraph structure, each starting with a clear topic sentence.
Essay Topics:
1. Critically examine three of the progress traps discussed by Wright (hunting, farming and ‘civilization’). Drawing from at least two examples of civilizations that have collapsed, what are the lessons Wright seeks to draw for us? Using examples from the film, Surviving Progress, explain how the ideology of progress can obscure the fact that our civilization is in the middle of ‘the biggest progress trap in human history’?
2. Is capitalism distinct from slavery, or dependent on it? Why does Williams think Smith’s argument is irrelevant to the New World context? How does this challenge dominant ideas with respect to progress? Compare and contrast Williams’ analysis of the economic realities of staple crop production in the New World with the colonial moral ideal of ‘bringing light (civilization) into darkness (savagery)’ in Conrad’s work.
3. What is the difference between the ‘social division of labour’ and the ‘detail division of labour’, according to Braverman? How does the capitalist management of work (Babbage Principle, Taylorism) differ from pre-capitalist forms? What are the social consequences of the capitalist organization of production (consider Federici here, too)? How can we use Rice’s play to illustrate the effects Braverman describes?
4. What definitions of the corporation are offered in the film The Corporation and which best captures what it is? What are some of its ‘personality traits’, according to the film? How did the corporation get so much power, according to Nace? What are the key differences between the classical and the modern corporation? Using examples from the film, explain how its legal form give it greater powers than human subjects.
Social Science Essay