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The Concept Of Homeostasis Psychology Essay

The Concept Of Homeostasis Psychology Essay. Walter Bradford Cannon an American physiologist was the first person to come up with the concept of homeostasis. He also did research on the emergency function of the sympathetic nervous system and sympathin which certain neurons release and is an epinephrine like substance. Stress is a condition that can affect the both the biological system and the psychological, in the biological system what’s important is homeostasis which is the bodies attempt to maintain it’s internal environment regardless of the outside environment. An example of this would be body temperature or blood pressure, a lot of the biochemical systems try to maintain a state of equilibrium between themselves. External or internal stimuli are continually try to break up this homeostasis, such as a life threatening situation or even starvation. But then even trying to restore the equilibrium of the body using natural resources and using up energy in itself can cause stress. One of the problems is that body responses and environment are both seen as stress, one way around this is to refer to body response as the stress response and the environment as the stressor. In the stress response there are long and short term consequences for the body and brain, disease can be seen as a stressor as it can cause a negative outcome from the environment another outcome is to view any attack on homeostasis as a stressor. Homeostasis is a central concept when talking about stress as a biochemical process. Trying to maintain equilibrium a balanced state which is a very hard achievable condition and is actually more of an ideal, External or internal stimuli are constantly disrupting homeostasis and it is this factor that can lead to stress. A persons attempt to try and achieve homeostasis consuming natural resources and energy can also be seen as stress. It is very hard to accurately define stress as it is a vey subjective condition and every bodies experiences stress differently. Yet it still plays a very prominent part in our every day lives. In biological terms stress is explained in a stimulus-response measure similar to a psychobiological sensory system. the central nervous system plays a pivotal role in the bodies stress related processes. Pinpointing exactly which parts of the brain are involved in the stress response processes can be difficult. By operating in a network like fashion carrying information may help explain how stress and the negative effects are rooted in the dysfunction of the neural communication system.Stituated below the thalamus and above the brainstem is the hypothalamus which links the together the endocrine system and the body’s nervous system. There are numerous bidirectional neural outputs and inputs to and from different brain regions, through these systems the hypothalamus can regulate the hormones that it secretes into the blood streem.Which can have long lasting and far reaching effects on physiological systems like metabolism. The hypothalamus also secretes a corticotrophin releasing hormone which in turn triggers the pituitary gland and starts the stress response pathway. The amygdale which is part of the limbic system and has projections into and from the hippocampus and hypothalamus and locus coeruleus and seems to play a part in emotion processing. Also has been implicated when fear or anxiety is experienced in modifying the stress response process. the hippocampus also part of the limbic system and thought to play a part in the memory formation which can generate a stress response through prior memories and is also susceptible to chronic stress damage. In the Pons of the brainstem is where the locus coeruleus is located, this is where the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is synthesised. Norepinephrine has an important part to play in the sympathetic nervous system and it’s response to a fight or flight stress situation. Also located in the Pons of the brainstem is the raphe nucleus where serotonin is syntheses which as involved in mood regulation. Especially when stress is related to anxiety or depression. Then from the brain the stress response neural impulses are transferred down the spinal cord. This then activates the peripheral nervous system, and with the neuroedocrine blood hormone signals engage the body’s major muscles and organs in a fight or flight response. The endocrine system contains the adrenal gland a major organ which is situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal gland is responsible for the production of cortisol a major stress hormone which it releases into the blood streem.Cortisol is a steroid hormone and it’s main function is to distribute glucose to the main muscles and the brain in a fight or flight situation. Cortisol can also suppress the immune system. Than there is the General Adaptive Syndrome response theory, this theory is in three stages. The first is the alarm stage, which is actually divided into two phases, the first phase being the shock phase. In this phase a persons body may experience such conditions as hypoglycemia,an increase in hormone levels, enlargement of adrenal cortex,enpinephrine releases associated with high levels of physiological arousal and negative impact. During this phase a persons resistance temporarily drops below their normal resistance range and some circulatory shock may be experienced. Then comes the antishock phase in this phase the stressor has been identified and the body enters a state of shock. This is when the locus coeruleus and the sympathetic nervous system kicks in. Adrenaline is produced in preparation for the fight or flight response. This leads to increased blood pressure and more glucose enters the blood, More cortisol is produced by the H P A axis(Hypothalamus, Anterior Pituary,Adrenal cortex) in the neuroedocrine system. Resistance is the second stage and glucocorticoids are secreted activating the systemic response, these have a catabolic ,lypolytic and antianobolic effect such as increased fat, glucose and protein and amino acids concentrations in the blood. In high doses cortisol starts to act as a aldosteron which can increase blood pressure. There is a heightened sensitivity to stress. If the stressor persists the body has to try and cope with it, as the body cannot cope with the stressor indefinitely as resources are being depleted, the body enters the next stage either exhaustion or recovery. In recovery the body’s compensation mechanisms overcome the stressor effect. The high fat, glucose and amino acids blood levels help with the anabolic reactions and the regeneration of cells and the restoration of homoeostasis. In exhaustion the body’s resources are depleted and normal functions cannot be mainntained.The first autonomic nervous systems symptoms such as raised heart rate sweating etc may reappear. If the exhaustion phase is prolonged there may be long term damage such as ischemia, which can effect any area of body tissue and the brain. Causing dementia ischemic heart disease as ischemia prevents blood from reaching tissues of the body and the brain.Cholesteral also plays an important part in producing ischemia. The body’s immune system also becomes depleted and decompensation sets can result as the body functions become impaired. This can result in illness such as trouble with the digestive system, diabetes and peptic ulcers and cardiovascular problems depression along with other mental problems and even death. This stereotypical response pattern has influenced a lot of stress researchers,weaknessess soon became apparent. Firstly by Selye’s concept that stress is a reaction to a number of different events. This had the danger of combining all of the stress concepts as an explanation for all conditions such as threat anxiety conflict or emotional arousal. Because of this stress was losing it’s scientific value (Engel,1985).Another criticism was that the theories core assumption was that there was no actual causation of G A S. (Mason,1971,1975) seemed to show that the stressor Selye observed as effective were actually strange novel and unfamiliar to the animal and carried an emotional meaning. And that the animals state could be described as lack of control uncertainty and helplessness. When the uncertainty was removed there was no GAS was observed (Mason,1975).this then led to a more profound argument that instead of physiological stress,cognative mediation is almost always the cause of stress in humans (Arnold,1960;Jan,1958:Lazuras1966,1974).Selye also seemed to fail to explain the cognitive transformation from objective toxic events to being distressed which is an subjective experience. Also Selye didn’t take into account how people cope with stress. Both of these concepts are central to the Lazarus group psychological stress theories. According to the Lazarus theory there are two central concepts ,Appraisal this is an individuals evaluation of what is happening to them and coping their thoughts and actions and in how they manage specific demands Lazuras,1993).Since first presented as a comprehensive theory (lazuras,1966) the Lazarus stress theory has been revised several times (Lazuras,1991:Lazuras and Folkman,1984:Lazuras and Launier 1978).In (Lazuras,1991) stress is seem more as a conceptual concept, not as a specific pattern of behaviour, physiological or subjective reactions. Instead stress is more of a transaction or a relationship between the environment and the individual. The Concept Of Homeostasis Psychology Essay
NUR 39401 Purdue University Health Promotion Part G Learner Evaluation Worksheet.

Health Promotion Project, Part G: Evaluation ToolsWeekly Objectives 3 and 4 are addressed in this assignment.Needed document: Health Promotion Project: Part GNeeded document: Sample Learner EvaluationNeeded document: Sample Teacher EvaluationEvaluation of client outcomes and satisfaction with the educational experience is an important component of client education. You will develop two evaluation surveys to provide to your audience to complete once your presentation is finished. Once you have created the evaluation surveys, please submit for grading. There are two sample surveys attached.The Teacher Evaluation Survey evaluates your teaching effectiveness. After teaching your Health Promotion Project, distribute and collect results of this evaluation tool. You will use the results of this data in your reflection paper.The Learning Objectives Survey evaluates whether your health education resulted in the learner meeting the learning objectives. After teaching your audience, distribute and collect results of this evaluation tool. You will use the results of this data in your reflection paper.
NUR 39401 Purdue University Health Promotion Part G Learner Evaluation Worksheet

• Determine how motivational theory and performance management principles are related to employee performance at a given company.

• Determine how motivational theory and performance management principles are related to employee performance at a given company.. I need help with a Business question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

For this assignment, use the same company you researched in Assignment 1. Walmart
Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

Compare the difference between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Determine which is more strongly related to performance for your selected company.
Apply motivational theory and performance management principles to evaluate the company as a potential employer.
Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as academic resources.

• Determine how motivational theory and performance management principles are related to employee performance at a given company.

Sustainability in construction and environmental impact of the construction industry

online homework help Sustainability in Construction There are many definitions of Sustainability, it has been evaluated as “Sustainability is adapting the ways we all live and work towards meeting needs, while minimising the impacts of consumption and providing for people of today and not endangering the generations of tomorrow”. [1] At the heart of sustainable development is the simple idea of ensuring a better quality of life for everyone, now and for the future generations. It means achieving social, economic and environmental objectives at the same time. “It will give us a more inclusive society in which the benefits of increased economic prosperity are widely shared, with less pollution and more efficient use of natural resources”. [2] Sustainable development was defined by the Brundtland Commission (1987) as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Sustainable construction aims to provide ways for buildings to use fewer raw materials and less energy, cause less pollution and less waste but still provide the benefits that construction projects have brought throughout history. Most definitions stress that sustainability requires making decisions that recognise the connections between actions and effects in the environment, economy and society. Sustainability is often seen as an ethically and moral debate. “Social, environmental and economic needs must be met in a balance with each other for sustainable outcomes in the long term.” [3] Sustainable construction is meeting environmental and social responsibilities, and at the same time improving profitability. The key characteristics of sustainable construction are similar to those set for sustainable development, the end result is to reduce a firm’s detrimental effects on the environment. The industry is defined by a number of sectors, all who plan, design, build, alter or maintain the built environment. Also it’s subsidiaries, those who manufacture materials, suppliers, and end of life occupiers or owners. The entire life cycle of any structure, from initial concept to demolition must be encompassed in the definition of sustainable construction. Buildings and structures change the face of towns and countryside, and their construction, use, repair, maintenance, and demolition consume vast amounts of energy and resources compared to many other industrial sectors. [4] The environmental Impact of the Construction Industry The government has stated that the construction, occupation and maintenance of buildings account for around 50% of the UK’s total CO2 emissions. [5] The construction process and building use not only consume the most energy of all sectors in the UK and create the most CO2 emissions, they also create the most waste, use most non-energy related resources, and are responsible for the most pollution. In light of government plans to reduce the United Kingdoms CO2 emissions by 80% based on 1990 levels [6], the construction industry is at the forefront for reducing emissions in industrialised nations and the United Kingdom is no exception. Code for Sustainable Homes The code for Sustainable homes is a framework which has been put in place by the government as a step change towards producing more sustainable homes. The code is a result of a working relationship between the Building Research Establishment (BRE) and the Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA). The main aim of the code is to provide the construction industry a drive towards “continuous improvement, greater innovation and exemplary achievement in sustainable home building.” [7] The code enhances the use of Energy Performance Certificates which is a result of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). The Energy Performance Certificates are used in new homes whenever they are sold or leased and are an indicator of carbon performance of the home. There are 9 main design categories covered in the code as follows: * Energy/CO2 * Pollution * Water * Health and well-being * Materials * Management * Surface water run-off * Ecology * Waste

Accy6501 Marygold Case

Accy6501 Marygold Case.

The project includes researching and presenting a recommended plan of action to a management team that is faced with an AIS related business problem. Try to make the scenario as realistic and relevant as possible. You are an employee or a consultant advising management of a firm. You can fill in the blanks as you desire. A few requirements to keep in mind when selecting from the above options:Topics covered throughout the semester should be incorporated into the business problem and/or solutions proposed.In-class presentation (20 – 30 minutes) must include background information on the company, the issue faced, proposed solutions/enacted solutions, expected/actual outcomes.The topic MUST include a flowchart detailing the process described.Use of at least one technology we have reviewed in class is required (Alteryx, IDEA, Tableau, or Advanced Excel) to be utilized in either the presentation or solution.Zone contenant les pièces jointes
Accy6501 Marygold Case

Regional Integration: France and the EU Essay

The Benefits of Regional Integration European Union (EU) is one of the integration bloc found in France. EU is a profitable and political union with many states in Europe. EU has developed a single market with rules and regulations that govern all the member states. According to Gibb and Michalak (2000), the EU in France has developed a single market that allows free movement of goods, services, people, and capital, where it maintains common policies on trade. Traders and firms are able to move to other countries for trade. EU is also represented by the United Nations – other countries in the EU in Europe include Italy and Belgium. In France, the regional integration between the country and others has benefited the traders, especially in agriculture sector because there is increase in production and high quality of life for farmers. They have provided stable markets and affordable prices because of price controls for consumers. Trade between France and other countries in Europe that are in the regional trade agreement has improved education. EU has supported programmes such as the Erasmus programme, a university syllabus which started in 1980’s. This programme has supported many university students. They encourage knowledge and learning in education in other countries while offering equal degrees with the same standards. The EU in Europe has promoted use and knowledge of many languages. When France citizens trade in other countries, they are able to engage in other languages other than their mother tongue. Different cultures have been integrated that allows movement of workers within these European countries which are members of the European Union. Therefore, as a member of EU, France has a wider selection of goods and services from different nations at lower tariffs. According to Bliss (2004), integrations allow small economies to collect their resources and enables local firms to get into larger markets. This has increased the economic growth in France and has brought additional trade, improved quality of goods, and more imports and exports. Integration has also made good international relations because of the integrated market while also promoting good channels of communication. The Negative Aspects of Regional Integration Although regional integration’s aim is to improve the economic status of the countries in the EU union, not all the participants achieve the same benefits. Problems arise especially when determining whether participants have equal say according to the set policies. Some of the states appear to be more powerful than others. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barnard (2007) argues that economic disruptions in some of the countries cause unequal distribution of resources with some states becoming the net recipients and others becoming the net lenders. Some of the countries may not benefit because more focus is on the affected countries. France and other big states often complain about the smaller states claiming that they do not give same share of the European Union. Also smaller states have complained that they are ignored because of their economic status. Additionally, workers within the integration bloc face lower pays from their employers who threaten to export jobs. Companies in those integrated regions can loose their competitive advantage, especially when companies build better factories in lower-rated countries, making them as productive as those at their home country. When political crises arise, it is hard for the managing board to resolve those conflicts and this also includes immigration management and crossing of the borders. Furthermore, regional integration is deemed to weaken the sovereignty of a country. This is because when countries like France entered the EU, they agreed to abide by the rules and procedures governing the body, but some EU rules are in opposition to some member countries’ policies. The stiff polices restrict member countries from engaging in substantial economic development without consulting other countries in the system. Additionally, France and Germany are the most powerful members are the most powerful members in the EU with regards to security. This implies that the powerful nations have greater geo-political authority than small countries; therefore, the national integration is biased. References Bliss, C.J. (2004). Economic Theory and Policy for Trading Blocks and Integration. Manchester: Manchester University press. Barnard, C. (2007). The Substantive Law of the EU. The Four Freedoms (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Gibb, R.

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