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The Concept Called Electronegativity Philosophy Essay

The perception of the idea electronegativity will open up a whole new aspect of life. Electronegative can be regarded as the back bone of chemistry; and the major reason is not farfetched. We hear of bonding in any chemical reaction before we can think of any desired product, be it a cure, the fuels we use every day in our vehicle, or cosmetics or anything one can think of. The reason we get our products to precision is because we can predict how elements react; the nature of bonds that are most likely going to take place, which tells us state in which the product will exist, their properties and characteristics too. For us to get all accurate, electronegativity is inevitable. HISTORICAL BACKGOUND In 1809, Amedeo Avogadro an Italian scientist published a research he carried out that shows a relationship between neutralization that occurs between acids and bases, interestingly enough the same reaction occurs between positive and negative charges. So this led him to suggest that the neutralization reactions could be applied to all sorts of chemical interaction and this led him to propose what he called ‘oxygenicity scale’. This scale is on which any element could be placed. Its position is determined by the element’s tendency to react with other elements. This was done so that comparison can be made between properties of elements tested and those yet to be tested. Therefore, this was what led to the discovery of modern electronegativity scale. However, Avogadro’s method of determining oxygencity turned out to be easily affected by outside factors such as moisture and impurities. As a result, most of his experiments were inconsistent and inaccurate. It was in 1811, Jacob Berzelius published an article ; a modification of Avogadro’s work which he termed ‘electronegativity’ instead of ‘oxygenicity’. His publication was short lived as his theory failed to account for half of all possible chemical reaction and consequently it was disregarded in favor of more modern views of electronegativity scales. Although Berzelius did provide an almost complete listing of his measured electronegative scales which remarkably corresponds to Pauling’s electronegative scales. It was finally in 1932; Linus Pauling an American chemist came up with a development of an accurate electronegative scale which is still in use worldwide. According to Pauling, the concept of electronegative is measured along a relative scale that compares the degree to which atoms of different elements tend to attract electrons from their surrounding environment. Because electronegativity scale has no measurable constant value, the scale itself has been difficult to develop. In making his scale, he used fluorine as a standard for calculation of other electronegative. Fluorine is the most electronegative element. It had a value of four on the electronegative scale while element francium is the least electronegative scale which has a value of zero. DEFINITION OF ELECTRONEGATIVITY According to Wikipedia, Electronegativity is basically defined as ‘Electronegativity is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons towards itself’ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronegativity; however other definitions are as follows: ‘Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an element to attract electrons to itself.’ (Philips Matthews (1992). Advanced Chemistry. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. 107) ) ‘Electronegativity of an atom is the power of the atom in a molecule to attract electrons’.(Graham Hill and John Holman, Chemistry in Context, page114,1978) ‘Electronegativity is the relative ability of an atom to attract electrons. When bounded to another atom, the more electronegative element attracts a pair of electrons more strongly than dose the less electronegative element’. (Douglas C. Neckers and Michael P. Doyle, Organic chemistry, pg.6) ‘The ability of an atom in a given molecule to attract electrons to itself is called the relative electronegativity of an atom’. (Mensah, I. A et al, A-level chemistry volume I and II, pg 59) ‘The different affinities of atoms for the electrons in a bound are described by a property called electronegativity: the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself’. (Steven S. Zumdahl, 3rd ed. Chemistry, pg 345, 1993). ELECTRONEGATIVITY TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE Electronegativity of the elements exhibit trends just like other properties exhibited by element; ionization energy, atomic radius and so on. In a period Electronegativity increases on moving from left to right of a period. For example, fluorine is more electronegative than beryllium, chlorine is more electronegative than magnesium or sodium, bromine is more electronegative than cupper, iron or vanadium and so on. This is as a result of the increase in nuclear charge and therefore, the added electrons can be held more tightly. In conclusion, the electronegativities increase with the increase in the number of outer electrons. An example of this has been shown using the second and third periods. Period Two Elements Li Be B C N O F Electronegativity value 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Period Three Elements K Mg Al Si P S K Electronegativity value 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 3.0 From analysis, the graphs that will be obtained will be straight line and will have a constant gradient. In a group In moving down a group of the periodic table; from top to bottom, a new shell is added and the nuclear charge increases. Since the nuclear charge increases from top to the bottom, this indicates that the electronegativity of the elements that are located in the bottom of the periodic table should be more than that of element in the top. This is not the case though. The reason is because of the increase in the atomic radii as we move down the group. The increase in atomic radii increases the electron screening effect, and it is much more than the increase in the nuclear charge. As such, the elements at the bottom are less electronegative than the elements located at the top. Thus, as we move down a group, electronegativity decreases. In summary, by knowing the electronegativity of two atoms in a molecule, we can predict the type of bond: Electronegativity difference is higher than 1.7 (sometimes 1.9), it should be an ionic bond Electronegativity difference is between 0.5-1.7, it should be a polar covalent bond (explained in the next chapter) Electronegativity difference is under 0.5, the bond should be pure covalent bond Miroslav Erdelyi. (). Electrogativity. Available: http://chemistry-4end.blogspot.com/2012/02/electrogativity.html. Last accessed 9th november 2012. CALCULATING ELECTRONEGAVITIES Pauling Electronegativity Linus Pauling was the original scientist to describe the phenomena of electronegativity. The best way to descbribe his method is to look at a hypothetical molecule that we will call XY. By comparing the measured X-Y bond energy with the theoretical X-Y bond energy (computed as the average of the X-X bond energy and the Y-Y bond energy), we can describe the relative affinities of these two atoms with respect to each other. Δ Bond Energies = (X-Y)measured – (X-Y)expected If the electonegativities of X and y are the same, then we would expect the measured bond energy to equal the theoretical (expected) bond energy and therefore the Δ bond energies would be zero. If the electronegativities of these atoms are not the same, we would see a polar molecule where one atom would start to pull electron density toward itself, causing it to become partially negative. By doing some careful experiments and calculations, Pauling came up with a slightly more sophisticated equation for the relative electronegativities of two atoms in a molecule: EN(X) – EN(Y) = 0.102 (Δ1/2).1 In that equation, the factor 0.102 is simply a conversion factor between kJ and eV to keep the units consistant with bond energies. By assigning a value of 4.0 to Fluorine (the most electronegative element), Pauling was able to set up relative values for all of the elements. This was when he first noticed the trend that the electronegativity of an atom was determined by it’s position on the periodic table and that the electronegativity tended to increase as you moved left to right and bottom to top along the table. The range of values for Pauling’s scale of electronegativity ranges from Fluorine (most electronegative = 4.0) to Francium (least electronegative = 0.7). 2 Furthermore, if the electronegativity difference between two atoms is very large, then the bond type tends to be more ionic, however if the difference in electronegativity is small then it is a nonpolar covalent bond. (Matthew Salem (UC Davis). (). Pauling Electronegativity. Available: http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Atomic_Theory/Pauling_Electronegativity. Last accessed 10th November, 2012.) MULLIKEN ELECTRONEGATIVITY Unlike Pauling’s method of comparison, Robert S. Mulliken however, proposed a scale which is similar to that of Pauling by relating to the electron affinity EA and ionization potential EP. His values obtained were absolute so he needed convert them to normal values. Mathematically, X= Mulliken scale= (3.48X)-0.602 ALLRED-ROCHOW ELECTRONEGATIVITY Allen and Rochow, established their electronegativity scale by putting into consideration the charge on an atom. To calculate the electronegativity, the charge is measured per unit area of the atomic surface of that atom using. Here, Slater’s rules is very crucial, it is used determine nuclear charge experienced by valence electrons. However, surface area of an atom in a molecule is needed so that we can calculate the covalent radius. Mathematically, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Pauling_and_Allred-Rochow_electronegativities.png/300px-Pauling_and_Allred-Rochow_electronegativities.png The correlation between Allred-Rochow electronegativities (x-axis, in Å-2) and Pauling electronegativities (y-axis). The correlation between Allred-Rochow electronegativities (x-axis, in Å-2) and Pauling electronegativities (y-axis). SANDERSON’S ELECTRONEGATIVITY Sanderson’s electronegativity scale is based on idea on how atoms tend to attract other atoms or molecules to themselves taking into consideration the charge experienced by the valency electron from its nucleus This charge is what determines how the atom could attract other atoms in a chemical reaction. The size on an atom is inversely proportional to the nuclear charge. Therefore, if the nuclear charge is high, the atom becomes compacted and the atom becomes small. This was what built the grounds of Sanderson’s electronegativity scale. He proposed his theory which was that the tendency of an atom to attract or repel other atoms should be as a result of how compacted or compressed an atom is. He prove this mathematically, Electronegativity= Sanderson’s major contribution to chemistry was the principle of electronegativity equalization, which states that when atoms of differently electronegative combine chemically, they adjust their electronegativities so that equal values of the combined electronegativity is maintained. COVALENT BONDING In the absence of metals to donate electrons, the atoms of non-metals usually attain a stable configuration by donating equal number of electrons for sharing. This type of bonding is known as covalent bonding. FAJANS’ RULES Kasimir Fajans proposed some rules that predict the type of bond that is likely to occur between ions. He explained that when two oppositely charges ions come together to form a bond, the positively charged ion attracts the negatively charged one. But due to the positive charge in the nucleus, the bonding positively charged ion is being repelled and attracted at the same time. This continuous repulsion and attraction results to distortion of the negatively charged ion as result covalent bonding occurs whereby the positively charged ions share the negatively charged ions in order to attain stability Fajan’s rule http://oscience.info/chemistry/fajan’s-rule/ An increase in the degree of polarization of anion is favoured by: Large charge and little size of the cation. Large charge and large size of the anion. The intensity of distortion of an anion is related to its softness INTERMOLECULAR FORCES OF ATTRACTION DIPOLE-DIPOLE ATTRACTION ¤ CL F¤- ¤ H Cl¤- ¤ CL F¤- ¤ H Cl¤- ¤ CL F¤- ¤ H Cl¤- O¤- O¤- O¤- ¤ H ¤ H ¤ H ¤ H ¤ H ¤ H A dipole first, can be defined as the process of separating charge from a molecule. A dipole-dipole attraction however is defined as an intermolecular force of attraction developed between opposite partially charged ends of molecules. This can be explain best as; when the electrons shared between two atoms in a covalent bond which have high difference in electronegativity. The electrons be will be pulled more towards the electronegative element. This will make a more electronegative partial negative charge and hence creates a dipole. The chargers are mostly found between the ends two polar molecules. Dipole- dipole occurs when there is an unequal sharing of particles (electrons) between the atoms of a molecule. Dipoles are most prominent in polar molecules such as water and hydrogen fluoride. The bond between the partial positive charged walls of the polar molecule and the partial negative charged walls of one polar molecule is a very weak bond formed and it is termed as asymmetric distribution of charge. HYDROGEN BOND This type of dipole-dipole attraction involving hydrogen in one bond and highly electronegative bond in the other liquid contains hydrogen bond tends to have an usually higher boiling point than expected. Example is in water where the boiling point is suppose to be below 60oC it rises up to 100oC. this is as a result of hydrogen bond. VANDER WAALS FORCES ¤ H H ¤- = H2 H H¤ H H ¤- ¤ H H ¤- Vander Waals suggested that in the absence of difference in electronegativity between two atoms in a bond, a dipole does not develop. In such cases, effects of external forces can cause the molecule to become asymmetrical. The attraction will exist between molecules is instantaneous and weak. It was named after the founder; Vander Waals forces of attraction. RECOMMENDATION Electronegativity by analysis has proven to be the basics of any bonding between elements. Therefore, its application is boundless at homes, hospitals and industries. With a very sound knowledge of electronegativity, no seems to be impossible to achieve in the field of chemistry

Separation of the State and Religion Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Separation of the State and Religion Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The church and the state have always enjoyed a close relationship, but the treaty of Westphalia was signed in 1648 to separate the two following claims that the separation would spur social development, particularly in regards to enlightenment. Before then, the state implemented some of the rules and regulations that the church leaders formulated mainly because it has coercive power. Scholars and political leaders demanded the separation of the state from the church in Europe because people were forced to obey some the rules formulated without questioning their authenticity and legality. The divide generated claims that there needs to be a separate set of laws on religious morality, which are different from secular laws. Through secularization, it was the view of many individuals that the society would achieve democratic ideals, which is a precondition for modernization. Based on this, the development of universal human rights was possible. In the modern world, western scholars and leaders believe that the Muslim world can perhaps achieve modernity through secularization of politics, economic issues, and social life. Following the 9/11 attack on the American twin towers, many western leaders demanded for secular democracy in various Islamic counties in order to encourage reforms. Even though reforming the politics and economic systems is a necessity in the Islamic world, there is no concrete evidence suggesting that secularization is the only way. This paper evaluates the statement that separation of religion and the state is a necessary precondition for modernization. Separation of the State and Religion In the western world, the church and the state have been in constant conflicts since religious leaders influence political and economic activities. This aspect is absent in the Islamic world since Islamic laws guide the behavior of each faithful. Based on this, it is fictional to claim that the state ought to be separated from Islam if the society is to develop and modernize in the Islamic states. In the west, the church is separate from the state meaning that they simply enjoy close relationships, but they do not consult each other when it comes to making important decisions that influence the lives of the majority. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the Islamic world, Islamic law, popularly referred to as Sharia law, is used in resolving various conflicts, ranging from bequest, matrimonial issues, divorce, and contracts to punishing those against the established societal rules and regulations. In the 1950s and 1960s, several Islamic countries tried separating the state from religion, but the results were unpleasant since conflicts were widespread. A number of such countries embarked on efforts aimed at injecting religion into government. In the modern society, many countries in the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Europe are inserting sharia clauses into their constitutions, which make Islam the state religion (Whitman 86). In this regard, any establishment that goes against the provisions of the sharia law is always declared unconstitutional. This trend started in 1979 in Pakistan when Hudood Ordnance Act was passed. In 1980, the Egyptian government started the process of amending the constitution to include the provisions of sharia law in the country’s charter. The bill provided that the principles of sharia were the only recognized source of legislation in the country. In Iraq, the new constitution that was ratified after the 2003 attack provides that no law is supreme to the undisputed laws of Islam. Several political parties allied to the Islamic religion are gaining momentum in other countries perceived to exercise secularism, such as Turkey, Jordan, and Morocco. In 2002, the Islamist Justice and Development Party won elections in Turkey and it has been ruling the country up to date. In Egypt, the Muslim Brotherhood won elections democratic, even though it has been removed forcefully through a coup. The new trend whereby Islamic parties are gaining popularity in the Islamic states presents a challenge to the western policy makers. Western leaders and governments tend to claim that the participation of religion parties in the running of the government is dangerous and backwards since they suggest that the implementation of the sharia law is troublesome, as it interferes with liberation efforts and adoption of the universal human rights. The governments of Saudi Arabia and Iran endorsed authoritarianism is a valid system of government, which is seen as a denial of fundamental rights and freedom to the populace. We will write a custom Essay on Separation of the State and Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is agreed that reforms are needed in the Islamic world, but they cannot be achieved through introduction of secularization. Western leaders and Islamic regimes should try to reinterpret the sharia law since it is not inflexible and unchallengeable, but instead is hugely elastic and dynamic jurisprudence that can be applied to realize the objectives of the modern human rights structures. Western policy makers should stop supporting a traditionally and ethnically extraneous model of material governance and instead focus on encouraging aboriginal efforts that would lead to restructuring in the Islamic world and rejuvenate the sharia law. Therefore, the sharia law should be adjusted to reflect wishes and the desires of the majority meaning that tolerant and contemporary laws ought to be formulated in order to support respect for human rights. If western leaders and human rights activists continue with the current programs aimed at bringing about political and economic reforms, the populace will be unwilling to cooperate since such attempts go against the provisions of the sharia laws. Such policies would be considered illegitimate and many people would be reluctant to incorporate them into their own programs. It is factual that the modern Muslim world is a crisis since reforms are yet to be introduced six-hundred years after the Golden Age that was characterized by modernism, multi-ethnic lenience, and financial success. Citizens in the Arabic countries rarely enjoy their rights and there is no country in the Islamic world that boosts of true democracy. However, Islam cannot be attributed to the many problems that countries in the Middle East are facing. In fact, the type of Islam practiced in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Malaysia vary in a number of ways Conclusion The conflicts and lack of development in the Middle East are caused by majestic legacies, repressive regimes, prevalent poverty, illnesses, hostilities, and fight over natural resources. For any modernization efforts to e successful in the Middle East, western policy makers and leaders from the region must resolve the conflicts that are related to oil. The sharia law should also be developed to reflect the changes that are taking place in the modern society. However, the state should not be separated from religion since Islam is the unifying factor in the region. Not sure if you can write a paper on Separation of the State and Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the western countries, religious leaders have enormous powers that are used in influencing the government to implement certain policies. Therefore, the relationship between the state and religion is productive and there should be no attempt to revert the situation. Works Cited Whitman, James. “Separating Church and State: The Atlantic Divide”. Historical Reflections, 34.3 (2008): 86–104.

PU Founder of Chewy on Finding the Financing to Achieve Scale Article Discussion

essay writing help PU Founder of Chewy on Finding the Financing to Achieve Scale Article Discussion.

write minimum 600 words based on the instructionsBE VERY SPECIFIC TO REQUIREMENTS!Current Event Assignment – MKT 479The Department of Marketing has designed MKT 479 as a writing-intensive course. In order toassess your skill at writing, I need an individual sample of writing from each of you.What is this assignment? Each of you will choose a different article from a business journal andwrite a two-page analysis of the article. The first 1.5 pages summarize the article. The last halfpage explains your reaction to the article. You can use the last half page to explain - what you agree or disagree with from the article (and why). how the material in the article relates to what we discussed in class, the questions that you still would like to have answered.The article selected is attached. It is about chewy.com.
PU Founder of Chewy on Finding the Financing to Achieve Scale Article Discussion

How Do You See the World?

I was taught early on in life that God is the center of all creation and we should fear Him; for one day we must account for our life. I knew the bible existed, but I never read it. I was told stories out of the bible, but I did not understand the meaning of them. My parents were born, raised and educated through high school in the Catholic faith and neither parent continued on to higher education. My dad joined the Army and was sent to fight in the Vietnam War. My mom became pregnant with me after one year of college. Although neither parent will discuss this era of their life with me, I believe that my parents faced some terrifying events which pulled them away from their faith in God. I grew up in a world of emotional turmoil that would not be conquered until I was in my twenties. To this day, neither parent is close to God; however, I have experienced salvation through Christ. Moreover, my life is much better because of Him. As a survivor of unvarying mental and emotional abuse by my father and of consistent bullying I was subjected to during my teenage years in junior high and high school, currently, I have a tendency to be autonomous and not ask for help in fear that I will be rejected, ridiculed or pushed to the edge. Furthermore, the abuse I endured have long lasting effects such as lack of confidence, shy, withdrawn, confused, unfocused, and low self-esteem. After high school, I began drinking alcohol at parties and experimented with marijuana, not because I enjoyed the feeling, but because I fit in with a group of people I called my friends for the first time in my life. I met and dated my boyfriend for three years, lived in sin and became pregnant. I do not think I have ever admitted this before, but subconsciously, I believe I became pregnant on purpose. I grew up with the viewpoint that I would not bring a child into this cold, cruel, meaningless world with so much violence and disease. As it turned out, my daughter was a gift; a chance for me to make a life for me and her. Although I did not marry my daughter’s father, mostly out of fear that I would end up divorced like my parents, we remain very good friends. While he was studying for his Master’s program in college, he developed a personal relationship with Jesus and introduced me to an entirely different world that I grew up knowing. I too, developed a personal relationship with Jesus but it would still be a few more years that I would completely understand what that meant and it would cost me dearly. I continued to live a very sinful life and found myself dating men that treated me just like my father and bullies. I would do anything to win their approval. I just wanted to feel loved. In the year 2000, I met this man who I fell deeply in love with. He was the furthest thing from a Godly man as you could get. In 2002, he would end up stealing everything I owned and leave me to pick up all the pieces once he moved on. I lost my money, car, my house, my job, my friends, and nearly my daughter. I soon realized it was God letting me know that he was not pleased with my choices so he got my attention dramatically. This time, I turned my life over to God completely and asked him to drive and He has not let me down since. Volunteering had always been an escape for me. I volunteered with a youth group in high school so I searched for something meaningful I could do as an adult. The Jaycees, a current volunteer group I have been with since August, 2000 has been one of the single most fulfilling journeys I have ever been on. This international organization has opened my eyes to an entire world of both wonderful and tragic ways. I have had the opportunity to be friends with people I would not have otherwise met. I have helped third world countries by providing food, water, shoes, books, toys and malaria nets. I have helped people in my own community by providing financial assistance, food needs, rides to the hospital for medical needs, etc. All the while helping others, I was actually changing my own worldview. I lost my “It is all about me” filter and saw the world had bigger problems than mine. I loved Jesus more than anything and questioned the reasons why God allowed such travesty to occur in His world. To do more, I joined a small group through my church and became committed friends with them. In June 2009, I affirmed my relation with Christ for a second time by being baptized, two years later, my daughter affirmed her relation with Christ. Today, I see the world with a completely different set of eyes. Instead of the why me questions with no answers, I pray “what can I do to help someone today” prayer. I have discovered that I am somebody with value, choices, talent, and that I have an enormous amount of love to give and there is an entire world out there that would graciously accept it. My latest prompt from God was to return to school and discover new talents, make new friends and become educated the proper way. The Lord wants me to explore His world through His eyes which is what led me to the Christian College I am at today. Lord is revealing his plan for me like if it was an onion: only peeling one layer off at a time and as long as my heart and mind are wide open, the future holds amazing things for me.

Political Science homework help

Political Science homework help. Select two clients you observed or counseled  during a group therapy session. Describe each client (without violating HIPAA regulations) and identify any pertinent history or medical information, including prescribed medications.,Select two clients you observed or counseled  during a group therapy session,Select two clients you observed or counseled  during a group therapy session.,Describe each client (without violating HIPAA regulations) and identify any pertinent history or medical information, including prescribed medications.,Using the DSM-5, explain and justify your diagnosis for each client.,Explain whether solution-focused or cognitive behavioral therapy would be more effective with this family. Include expected outcomes based on these therapeutic approaches.,Explain any legal and/or ethical implications related to counseling each client.,Support your approach with evidence-based literature.,**NOTE: Please use the following information of my 2 clients from the group therapy session to assist you with the completion of this assignment. Discuss the 2 clients:, Client 1:, Group Name:, Conflict Resolution, Number of Attendees:, 4, Demographic Data/ MSE/ Behavior in Group:, G.D. is a 17 year old African American female. Client was cooperative, calm, had a coherent thought process and a clear and coherent speech. Also, client was focused, attentive, active and supportive in group participation. Client gave adequate feedback about resolving conflicts.,Person’s Served Mood:,Client had an euthymic mood and a neutral affect.,Goals/Objectives Addressed:,The goal was for clients to understand and verbalize ways in which they can resolve conflicts. The objective was for clients to state at least two strategies to resolve conflicts.,Therapeutic Intervention(s) Delivered in Session:,CBT and active listening were educated to clients in the session by helping the clients to understand how their negative thoughts about other people impacted their behaviors towards others and most likely increased their chance of having conflicts.,Clients were inform how their inability to listen to other people could result in misunderstanding and conflicts too. Group members were encouraged to develop positive strategies to avoid and resolve conflicts.,Person’s Response to Intervention and/or Progress Toward Goals and Objectives Today:,Client was receptive to positive suggestions during group session. Client made moderate progress towards goal and objective as evidenced by her stating the use of two positive strategies to avoid conflicts with people and also two positive strategies to resolve conflicts with them.,Plan/Additional Information:, Plan for client is for her to use today’s teachings to challenge any negative thoughts about others and to continue to implement positive strategies to avoid and resolve conflicts. Plan is for client to also remain compliant with her prescribed medications of Zoloft 25 mg and Lexapro 5 mg.,Client 2:, Group Name:, ,Conflict Resolution, Number of Attendees:, 4, Demographic Data/ MSE/ Behavior in Group:,I.H. is a 15 year old Hispanic female. Furthermore, client was cooperative, calm, had a coherent thought process and a clear and coherent speech. Further, client was focus, attentive, active and supportive in group participation. Also, client gave adequate feedback about resolving conflicts.,Person’s Served Mood:,Client had an euthymic mood and a neutral affect.,Goals/Objectives Addressed:,The goal was for clients to understand and verbalize ways in which they can resolve conflicts. The objective was for clients to state at least two strategies to resolve conflicts.,Therapeutic Intervention(s) Delivered in Session:,Further, CBT and active listening were educated to clients in the session by helping the clients to understand how their negative thoughts about other people impacted their behaviors towards others and most likely increased their chance of having conflicts.,Additionally, clients were inform how their inability to listen to other people could result in misunderstanding and conflicts too. Group members were encourage to develop positive strategies to avoid and resolve conflicts.,Person’s Response to Intervention and/or Progress Toward Goals and also Objectives Today:,Client was receptive to positive suggestions during group session. Client made moderate progress towards goal and objective as evidenced by her stating the use of three positive strategies to avoid conflicts with people and also two positive strategies to resolve conflicts with them.,Plan/Additional Information:,Plan for client is for her to use today’s teachings to challenge any negative thoughts about others and to continue to implement positive strategies to avoid and resolve conflicts. Plan is for client to also remain compliant with her prescribed medications of Abilify 15 mg and Lexapro 5 mg.**,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Political Science homework help