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What difference might it mean in practice in considering the church as an institution versus as a community? Institution connotes some kind of establishment, a structure, whether it is public or private, whatever the purpose may be. People always associate institution with the word political. The church, as an institution, can be said to be a tax- exempt institution, open to everybody. The word community gives a more sense of intimacy rather than institution. If institution can be associated with the word political, community can be associated with the word social.Community may be said to be a group of families, closely-related people, a small neighborhood perhaps, whatever the race or creed maybe. Church as a community can be said to be a group of people who gather often, the sole purpose of which, is to meet the spiritual needs of the people and to assist and help each other in their spiritual growth. The church can be interpreted to mean both an institution and a community. In viewing the church as an institution separate from a community and vice versa, the difference lies from the point of view of the person interpreting.For instance, a person questions the tax exemption of certain properties used by the church for religious purposes. This person, therefore, is questioning the church not as a community but as an institution covered by the tax- exempt provision of the Constitution. Give a meaning of sacrament as it applies to church. John Wesley said that sacraments are God’s channel of grace. It may be considered as an outward manifestation of God’s grace inside the human heart. (2005)Although a sacrament mean different things to different religions, sacraments, as it applies to the church in general, may be viewed as vessels through which God’s channels of blessings flow. God uses the church as his primary channel to communicate and reach out to people. Therefore, it can be said that the church itself is a sacrament. Reference Young Believer’s Discipleship Series. (2005). So. . . You want to be Baptized?. Retrieved April 7, 2009, from http://www. nph. com/vcmedia/2369/2369939. pdf.

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In horse racing, there are essentially three types of people; there are crooks who abuse or dangerously drug their horses, or who countenance this conducts from their agents, and those who dare the industry to come and catch them. Then there are the dupes who labor under fantasy that the sport is honest and fair. And lastly, those masses who are neither cheaters nor naïve but rather with honorable souls, who understands the crookedness in the industry but they do not want to fix the problem. It is important to expose the abuse of race horses in order to offer salvation to the unholy acts. Injuries and deaths are not uncommon occurrences in horse racing which has made some animal welfare advocates to argue how some changes are necessary in making the sport more humane. Although to some animal rights activists, the sport is not that dangerous and cruel; it is about whether individuals have rights to abuse horses in the name of entertainment. However, it is my view that by telling the truth, this industry can be set free instead of sitting back and pretending that this problem does not exist, or claiming that it is under control. The sport has to take the bold leap it needs to get to the other side, where animal activists do not picket racetracks and these will mean more money for enhanced drug tests. It will require legislative efforts to better regulate veterinarians and trainers. It will require stricter and swifter punishments for offenders, and an end to the insider’s code of silence (Huggins & Mike, 2014).

Horse racing is an ancient sport associated with nomadic tribesmen, who first domesticated horse and which originate back to 4500 BC in central Asia. Since that time, the sport has been flourished as sport of kings. Today, horse racing has become one of the few forms of gambling and which is legal around the globe including the United States of America. It has become one of the widely attended spectator game in the United States and also a famous sport in Ireland, Canada, Great Britain, South America, Middle East and Australia. In United States, the famous horse race comprise of the Thoroughbred horse racing between ¾ of a mile and 1 ¼ miles over a flat courses. Harness racing as well as Quarter horses is as well popular (Graham, Raewyn & McManus, 2016).

Thoroughbred Racing

The most celebrated horse races in today’s world is the Thoroughbred races, where jockeys at top speed ride at around a flat course. In these intense competitions, only the horses of thoroughbred breed can enter. This type of race started around three centuries ago in England, and who came up with ideas to breed a superior racehorse and which was their passion of royalty. Since then, many other regions have taken hold of the sport which includes Australia, America, Middle East and East Asia. Today anyone can come on track and be and be part of the sport of kings.

They weigh more than a thousand pounds and are supported by their ankles which are normally the equivalent size of a human’s and are forced and whipped to race around tracks at speed exceeding the fast 30 miles in an hour, made of hard packed dirt and carrying sportsmen at their backs. Injuries, abuse, race fixing and even many horse careers end up in the slaughterhouse (Gaunt & Harry, 2015).

Horses are trained or are even racing the time their anatomical skeletal systems are under growth and get to manage the racing competition pressures on a hard rocky track and at a high speeds. Study shows that at least one of the horse per 22 races suffered injuries which hindered him or her from concluding the race. Another study estimated that three thoroughbreds die each day in North America due to catastrophic injuries suffered during racing. Horses do not respond well to surgeries. Many are sold or euthanized in auctions to save further veterinary fee and other expenses by their owners for the horses who cannot race again.

Veterinarians and trainers keep hurt horses in the race at times they should be undergoing treatment and healing through administering them with a variety of permitted drugs to control inflammation and mask pain them. This has led to breakdowns as horses are normally in a good competing form when, in absence of the drugs, the inflammation otherwise will thwart them from trying. Illegal drugs also have been widely used as some trainers have been pumping racing horses exposed to a lot of unlawful drugs each and every day. With a large sum of money in line, trainers will do everything in attempting to make it possible for their horses to run faster.

Sometimes, after the horses get injured or stop winning, few of them get retreated to normal pastures, just because their owners are reluctant to make the sacrifice and pay for a horse which has no benefits. Many of them end up slaughtered in Mexico, Canada, or Japan whereby they are use for dog foods and glue. Their meat also is used for export to some countries in Asia such as Japan and France where they are consumed by humans.

Every person and also the government must participate or get involved in the efforts of helping to end this cruelty. As long as suffering continues, lobby against construction of new tracks and refuse to patronize the existing tracks. Give support to the PETA’s efforts of ensuring racing regulations and guidelines are reformed as well as enforced. Although thoroughbred racing will never be safe to animals, a ban of whipping, zero-tolerance drug policies and turf tracks only policies and reforms would proof a world of difference to horses (Georgopoulos, Stamatis & Parkin, 2016).

Annotated Bibliography

Graham, Raewyn, and Phil McManus. “Changing human-animal relationships in sport: an analysis of the UK and Australian horse racing whips debates.” Animals 6.5 (2016): 32.

Gaunt, Harry. A Philosophic Enquiry into the Animal Welfare Issues in the Sport of Horse Racing. Diss. Cardiff Metropolitan University, 2015.

Georgopoulos, Stamatis P., and Tim DH Parkin. “Risk factors associated with fatal injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses competing in flat racing in the United States and Canada.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 249.8 (2016): 931-939.

Huggins, Mike. Flat racing and British society, 1790-1914: A social and economic history. Routledge, 2014.