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The Chemistry of Batteries and Its Implications on Modern Society global history essay help homework

Batteries have proven to be the core of modern day technology, without batteries modern day technology and some electronics would have never existed. Nations that invest more in battery run technology tend to have a higher labor productivity rate. This is because battery powered electronics increase could potentially increase the productivity rate of labor and thus an increase in capital goods. Electronics have also been seen as the driving force of emerging economies, in fact almost all R&D expenditure in China is for telecommunications and electronics (Huwai, 2011).

For example China’s invest in research and development in electronic factory machines (Industry Innovation, 2007) allowed Chinese manufacturers to boost overall domestic production providing lower cost goods and allowing it to further compete in the global market. A rechargeable car battery (or an automotive battery) is a battery that supplies electrical energy to an automobile and allows us to start up the vehicle’s engine, lights and electrical necessities, cars.

The benefits of batteries in todays societies is incomprehensible, whether it be the use of batteries in smartphones to flashlights or even to car batteries, the use of batteries has helped developed and create a modern society that we live in. Without batteries smartphones and mobiles would have never been created and telecommunications would be nothing more than house phones and primitive electronic devices. The convenience of batteries is that they are portable and rechargeable allowing them to be carried with. In sense batteries is just an energy storage device that does not need to be plugged into an energy source to be functional.

Chemical energy is stored in the battery and when required the converted energy is released. A battery is made up of one or more electrochemical cells, each of which consists of two half-cells. In the redox reaction that powers the battery cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode while anions are oxided. In this world batteries seem to be the only convenient and portable technology available to power the thousands of different electronic devices that are used everyday.

Since its invention the battery has helped create orld-shaping convenient equipment ranging from the flashlight to common childhood toys to car batteries. Batteries have helped mankind accomplish innovative inventions throughout the previous century, and continues to do so, it has also contributed to the development of modern society by constantly powering new trends. However is there a price to all this, and if so, does the benefits of batteries outweigh the costs? Used dead lead batteries are almost always dumped into landfills that can severely damage the environment and the health of well-beings nearby.

In fact 20,000 tons of batteries were landfilled annually in the UK alone (Rebatt, 2007), and global lead battery production is approximated to be worth $36. 2 billion in 2010 and is steadily increasing (OakIsland, 2006) meaning that an increasing number of lead batteries are dumped every year. Toxic led batteries can cause dirt contamination that is provoked by the attendance of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or supplementary alteration in the usual dirt environment. Dumped batteries are a toxicant to the environment, which is the result of the continuous human choice of wealth over the environment.

Over 120 million people are affected negatively by this exposure of led, 99% of whom reside in developing countries (Rebatt, 2007). Scientific studies display that long-term exposure to even puny numbers of lead can cause kidney and brain damage, hearing impairment, as well as setbacks in children (Mary, 2009). Automobiles worldwide use over one million metric tons of lead every year, in which 90% are attributed to standard lead-acid vehicle batteries (HybridCars, 2011). However, there are other environmental solutions towards dealing with the disposal of lead batteries.

Instead of dumping thousands of tons of dead batteries into dreadful landfills, we are able to recycle these batteries therefore getting rid of the disposal problem. By recycling batteries a manufacture could potentially minimize the resources required in creating new batteries. However the process of recycling lead batteries is nearly as toxic as dumping them in landfills. Recycling procedures further discharges tons of lead into the environment. Lead is disappeared and emerging fumes are released into the air.

This toxic metal is next obtainable for human absorption as airborne, beforehand resolving in dust and soil (Marry, 2009). The fundamental base of reactions is the movement of electrons from one atom to another. Energy comes in different forms and the battery uses electrochemical cells to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy via electron transfer (Bellis, 2006). This allows energy to be used to create additional reactions. The battery uses the redox to create electricity portably without needed to be plugged into a continuous electric source.

Chemical energy is stored in the battery and when required the converted energy is released. A battery is made up of one or more electrochemical cells, each of which consists of two half-cells (Mary, 2008). In the redox reaction that powers the battery cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode while anions are oxided.

The 1900 Galveston hurricane

The 1900 Galveston hurricane.

 The 1900 Galveston hurricane is widely considered the greatest natural disaster (in terms of loss of human lives) in U.S. history. In this investigation assignment,  (If you ultimately agree with this conclusion, you can challenge it – but only with strong evidence. It would be a tough case to make!) You should go about your investigation by asking or developing questions like those we used when studying the Johnstown Flood. Investigation Conclusion: The Galveston Hurricane should be exclusively classified as a “natural disaster” one that effected the people of Johnstown equally without respect to age, race, ethnicity, or social class. Completion Checklist 1. Provided a compelling case that the Galveston disaster was one where its major tragic outcomes were the result of specific long and short-term human actions and decisions. 2.Your investigation paper should draw on the Larson book and include at least 10 additional primary sources (including at least three newspaper accounts).Who – (what groups) suffered the most during the flood and during its aftermath? At what specific points—if any—could the tragedy have been avoided or at least the death toll greatly reduced? What steps did people in Galveston take to restore order after the flood? What were the major themes that emerged in the New York Times and/or other newspaper coverage of the disaster? What was the role of government – local, state, and federal in the disaster? Who or what factors do you think is most responsible for the Galveston disaster? (Where should the blame be placed?) 4. Provide specific examples and, where appropriate, include short quotes or statistics as evidence to support your answers. 5. Edit the paper so that you have written in the Active Voice, Past Tense-No First Person. 6. Include a title, and paginated, and double-spaced in 12-point font. 7. At least 1750(1750 – 2250) words in length. 8. Properly cited material taken from the book or any additional sources using the Chicago Manual of Style footnoting. 9. Used the spell-checking tool. Papers submitted without proper Chicago Manual of Style footnotes will not be accepted for grading. If you want to build this into a full research paper – 12 to 15 pages – contact me and we can discuss options. A research paper would earn additional credit that can be used to offset lower grades in other assignments.

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