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The Changes To The Youth Justice System

there have been many changes to the youth justice system over the years, having varying effects on youth crime. To discuss whether this statement is true or not, we must look at the many government legislations and initiatives that have tried to lower crime. The twentieth century has seen a huge array of moral panics (defined as an over exaggerated response to a problem, justified or not) due to many social changes, such as alcohol, drugs, pop culture, football, music, film, television and video games; these are all seen as causes to youth crime. The moral panic began with the Mods and Rockers who had expressive subcultures during the 1960’s which led to skinheads, lager louts, yob culture, football hooligans, rave culture and today’s young offenders and anti social behaviour. The 1970’s brought more emphasis on the individual’s responsibility, the 1980’s brought corporatism where justice specialists had a greater influence on policies and in the 1990’s where youth crime has been heavily featured in the media and there has been the recognition of sub-criminal activity such as anti-social behaviour. Youths have been seen as ‘out of control’ in the twenty-first century because of societies strong sense of morality but this has weakened for young people, young people these days are constantly looking for fun and excitement, but youth crime cannot be labelled as a moral panic, according to the Telegraph [1] from 2005 to 2008, The number of under-18s convicted or cautioned over violent offences rose from 17,590 to 24,102 which is an increase of 37 per cent, however it could be argued that newspapers such as this are fuelling moral panics. The main changes to the youth justice system began with Labour’s win in 1997, but the system does have a history. The view on youth justice has changed dramatically since the beginning of the 19h century where children were treated as adults in court, the Reformatory Schools Act 1854 created special institutions to reform children in need of care through education; this was the first major legislation towards tackling youth crime. In 1908 The Children Act was passed which abolished imprisonment of juveniles and separated juveniles from adults and began a more welfare based approach to youth crime, juvenile delinquency had started to rise by the First World War and was seen as a problem, A social commentator in 1917 stated ‘their vulgarity and silliness and the distorted, unreal Americanised view of life must have a deteriorating effect and lead to the formation of false ideals, (cited in Muncie 1999:50)’ [2] . The Children and Young Persons Act 1933 then defined a child to be under the age of 14 and a young person between the ages 14 and 18, children under the age of 10 were deemed incapable of doing wrong and exempt from prosecution, this is known as doli incapax and it created a panel of magistrates to deal with youth cases, it also created loco parentis where the courts could act for the parent. During 1948 detention centres were formed, a very early version of today’s young offenders institutes and was a more punitive approach. Then came the Young Persons Act in 1969 was an important act and made many changes, it gave a bigger emphasis on the social worker and proposed that offenders under the age of 14 with care instead of punishment, police were also made to make use of cautions, however afterwards, the act was criticised for being too soft as rates of crime began to rise. Because of its many flaws, The Criminal Justice Act 1982 and restricted the use of care and custodial orders, Borstals were replaced with fixed term youth custody orders, new sentences were created and abolished numerous times afterwards until the Criminal Justice Act 1988 which rid youth custody and replaced it with detention in youth offender institutes. The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 brought secure training for those aged 12 to 15, The Crime (Sentences) Act 1997 extended community sentences and introduced tagging. Cautioning was revised in the Criminal Justice Act 1998 which restricted the use of reprimands and warnings. Before 1997 figures show that approximately 70% of all crimes were committed by a small number of young men and so with Labour’s win in 1997, their overhaul of the youth justice system had 3 objectives to deal with ‘Prevent youngsters from falling in to crime, provide the criminal justice system with more sentencing choices and focus sentencing on preventing repeat offending’ [3] . Those aged under 18 are sentenced differently from adults as the criminal justice system believe that they are less responsible for their actions than adults and that sentencing should be used for reform as well as/or instead of punishment, this did change however with the killing of James Bulger by two 10 year old boys in 1993 where the murder was so violent they were tried in an adult court. The case caused a huge nationwide debate on how to handle young offenders; much of this was fuelled by the media. The government began its reform with the 1998 white paper ‘No more excuses – A new Approach to Tackling Youth Crime in England and Wales’ this in turn lead to The Crime and Disorder Act 1998 which included: The Youth Justice Board for England and Wales to deal with young offenders and reduce reoffending, the Youth Justice Service for local authorities to tackle crime, Youth Offending Teams which included members from probation, social services, police etc., anti-social behaviour orders, new community orders, local child curfew and others, although this act did cover punishment, welfare, action plans, objectives and performance reviews, it has been widely criticised for being too harsh with parenting orders, curfews and ASBO’s. There is a clash between ASBO’s which exclude offenders and the Youth Offending Teams which has a more inclusionist approach. There have been concerns that most of these efforts do not tackle the root causes of crime nor do they influence good behaviour in youths. However this act has many advantages, there is a strong emphasis on the welfare of the child such as the early intervention and focus on parenting and the parent’s responsibility to the child, ‘the emphasis on restorative justice illustrates the persistence of welfare principles and the act has led to greater funding for the youth justice system [4] ‘.The Home Office website lists the main causes of youth crime as ‘troubled home life poor attainment at school, truancy and school exclusion, drug or alcohol misuse and mental illness, deprivation such as poor housing or homelessness and/or peer group pressure’ and these are the main areas of concern and focus points of the Youth Crime Action Plan of 2008 which set out the governments goals for the next year. The act led to huge amounts of money being spent on the youth justice system like never before, approximately £380 million which doubled to £648.5 million by 2007. Youth courts were established by the Criminal Justice Act 1991 and deal with those aged 10 to 17, Labour’s plans were to try and keep young offenders out of court and emphasised the use of ASBO’s community orders etc., however, the Centre of Crime and Justice studies performed an independent audit of the system in 2007 and found ‘the key priority was speeding up the youth justice process’ [5] resulting in missed targets for Labour. It claims that the majority of the budget was spent of custody and not prevention which is pointless if the government do not want youths in custody. As mentioned earlier, the Youth Justice board was introduced in 1998 and has changed the youth crime system, by trying to help young offenders, for example, accommodation and resettlement, alternatives to custody, education, training and employment and health and has set its self targets to reduce self-reported crime and the amount of children overall in the service, however as the independent audit states: ‘Despite regular commitments made by the YJB to reduce the number of children sentenced to custody, the latest targets have not been met. In fact, at present, performance is deteriorating, with numbers increasing by 8% since March 2003 against a target of a 10% reduction.’ [6] It could be argued that although the creation of the Youth Justice Board was a step in the right direction, it hasn’t nearly been as successful as it could have been and is failing. Next are the Youth Offending teams, set up in every local authority in England and Wales and is represented by people from the police and probation to health, education and social services. According to the audit, Labour used budgets from social and health care to fund youth crime prevention which according to the report is vital to keeping youth offending down; youth offending teams are not cut out for the social aspect of youth offending which led to missed targets and overworking. The report also found that youth offending teams can only regulate youth crime and cannot reduce it which should be reformed in policy. Although many changes have been made and a lot of money spent, there is increasing fear of gang and knife crime. To have a clearer view on this, we must look at statistics; the main supplier of these is the OCJS (Offending, Crime and Justice Survey) who in 2006 performed a self reporting offending survey to 10 to 25 year olds. For example Here we can see the proportion of 10- to 25-year-olds committing an offence in the last 12 months, at its highest on 26% of all 10 to 25 year olds are committing crime, which is less than a 3rd of all young people, according to the survey ’12 per cent of males aged from 10 to 25 said they had committed an offence designated as serious, eight per cent were classified as frequent offenders, and five per cent as serious and frequent offenders’ [7] . 10 to 25 year olds is a wide area of study which could include thousands of young people, of this of only at the most 12% are committing serious crimes, the statistics could be a lot worse. As stated in the summary: ‘(it surveys people aged) 10 to 25 living in the general household population in England and Wales. The survey does not cover young people living in institutions, including prisons, or the homeless, and thus omits some high offending groups.’ This is a relatively big omission, if they do not survey the people in prison who have been incarcerated of crimes; they are leaving out quite a vital part of their research. Also, the research is only a study which involves interviewing; they interviewed past interviewee’s from 2003 and 2004 and used new people. Yet if the survey was for 2005, they would only use new people, they also compare to the 2003 and 2004 surveys, which would suggest they are comparing the same people. As mentioned the survey is predominately made up of interviewing, it does not take police crime statistics into account which could give totally different results. According to the government report- Crime Action Plan: One year on Summary, they have been successful in reducing crime, re-offending fell between 2000 and 2007 by 24% The number of young people in the criminal justice system has gone down, by 9% from 2006/7 to 2007/8, more young people are taking part in their communities than using alcohol and drugs and there had been a 22% fall in ‘sharp object’ assault. The independent audit however disagrees with this, saying that the aim of reducing young offending in Crime and Disorder act has yet to be achieved and that self reported offending is not declining. In conclusion, I would agree and disagree with changes to the youth justice system have little impact on the youth crimes, in agreement rates of youth offending have declined, there’s is a lot more social support for young offenders, there has been the recognition of the causes of crime, with the creation if anti social behaviour orders, less children are kept out of court, the creation of young offending teams and the youth justice board is a huge change from the past and the government has actively tried to reduce youth crime with a much better funded system. However, in some aspects the statement could be true, some people believe that there is too much focus on welfare, and not enough on punishment, ‘New Labour had failed even to mitigate the continuing increased use of custody of young offenders, let alone reverse it’ [8] , The government seem to be focusing more on some areas than others. The independent audit found that the budget for youth crime was taken from education, health and social services which were themselves vital to young offenders; they found that most of the government’s targets had been missed; Youth offending teams are failing and cannot work efficiently. As the audit says ‘A decade on from the creation of the YJB and YOTs, and at a time of rising concerns about youth ‘gangs’ and violence involving guns and knives, the time has come to reappraise the role and purpose of the youth justice system and to consider what it can realistically achieve in addressing youth offending.’
Chicago Symphony Orchestra Discussion.

College or professional-level concerts. The concerts must represent performances by collegiate or professional musicians. (e.g., concert, performance, opera, orchestra, etc). For this term only, concerts/performances may be attended virtually, such as YouTube. To satisfy this requirement, students should submit 2 reports for 2 different concerts.•each report should be 2 pages in length (i.e., 500-600 words).•Reports should include reflection upon the aspects of music discussed in class (e.g., composer, time, period, genre, additional elements and characteristics)•Attach original copies of the programs or play bills for each performance — not required this term. Unless you attended a live performance, all you need to include this term is the web address to the web-streamed or YouTube (or another platform) concert that you attended virtually.•Reports may not be collaborative, and both should be original, unique submissions, by one author. Violation of this guideline will result in zero points earned for this assignment.•Use music characteristic terms such as dynamic, rhythm, beat, harmony, monophonic, polyphonic, etc.
Chicago Symphony Orchestra Discussion

The News Media Role in the Culture of Fear Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Fear How crime and violence generate unnecessary fears Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The contemporary era is characterized by new developments that keep on changing with time. The need to be updated has been satisfied by the vast news agencies available today. The broadcast of news is conveyed via channels such as the television, radio, and the social media among others. The messages delivered to the public come as news intended to inform recipients of new developments pertaining to an issue that has an impact on society. The news could be reports of a new disease outbreak, a disaster, war, or even impending natural calamities. The reception of such news has the potential of eliciting fear among the public depending on one’s understanding or relation to the news spread by the media houses. However, there could be some underlying issues that may facilitate the news media to portray the story in a fearful manner. This paper will examine how the media generates unnecessary fear to cover up other contemporary issues. Fear Glassner brands news magazines, politicians, television, and advocacy groups as “peddlers of fear” (72). He further suggests that the agents of news broadcasting go ahead and influence the masses towards spending millions of dollars in a bid to cater for the fear and worries evoked by the news. In this regard, more Americans today live in fear than they did in the past. The perceptions of danger in the contemporary world have surpassed the actual level of risk and danger involved or imagined. The implication of this aspect is that people live in a world where they expect the “Breaking News” pop-up on the screens of their television sets to appear at any given time. Therefore, people tend to be alert and considerate of any information communicated from the various news casting agencies. The public invests money, time, and energy as people strategize on how to deal with such fears propagated by the news media. The media shares sensational stories that grasp the attention of the viewers, readers, and listeners, thus evoking fear to some degree. The sensational stories come with captivating headings that persuade the audience to seek more information on the topic under discussion (Graber 180). When the public is bombarded with the sensational stories, ratings are expected to raise popularization of a particular story amongst the public, hence consequently generating more revenue for the agencies. The sensational stories then start trending, thus resulting in increased reads, views, and comments on various platforms administered by the news media. The underlying issue could be to rake in profits out of blog visits, sales increase for a particular product or service, and increased circulation of a particular news magazine. Consequently, the masses become fearful at the expense of the news spread by the media houses that may have some underlying agendas they intend to accomplish. According to Glassner, this aspect gave rise to the concept of the media effects theory (28). News of drugs, disaster, and crime tend to elicit fear when broadcasted by the various media channels of the contemporary society. According to Graber, such newscasts lead to more people turning to the news in a bid to learn about new developments (189). Since such stories are usually considered as sensitive, the public is more likely to be overwhelmed by the feeling of fear because the areas highlighted affect its social and economic aspects. For instance, news about increased number of youths indulging in drug abuse in a particular area may inflict fear among parents who would be worried about their children’s well-being. By highlighting areas that affect the masses directly, the media remains relevant since more people are attentive to the shared information. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Newscasts pertaining disease outbreaks are frequently received with fear due to the sensitive nature of health issues. The public becomes alert and vigilant on matters concerning their health implying that such news affects their well-being in a great way. For instance, on July 28, 2014, The NY Daily News published an article about the outbreak of Ebola, thus leading to fear and the implementation of restrictive measures across Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The news was received with great fear after the deadly pandemic ravaged the people of West Africa. Movement restrictions further show that the situation is disastrous, hence evoking more fear. The question arises when people try to enquire on the events that occurred before the outbreak. The media should have instead raised the underlying factors that may have led to a potential outbreak of Ebola. However, the media takes the frontline in sharing the news instead of highlighting precautionary and preventive measures before the outbreak. Therefore, the media becomes responsible for the fears inflicted to the masses, since it does not facilitate early warning systems and response to the public (Chiricos, Eschholz, and Gertz 355). This aspect is evident in the article where the writers describe Ebola as an infection that has no cure, causes sore throats, and vomiting, coupled with how quickly it spreads. Politicians have a great influence on what appears on the news in the contemporary world. Since politics is a fundamental institution of the society, any news that may portray political instability induces fear to the public. A politician may also use the news media to drive his/her agenda at the expense of the public. Political influence could be in the form of a proposal of controversial policies that have a huge bearing on the lives of the subjects. In essence, the politicians may use the media houses just to safeguard their interests such as wooing voters. Consequently, both the politicians and the news media become “peddlers of fear”. How crime and violence generate unnecessary fears Crime is usually overrepresented in the newscasts as compared to the actual crime rates on the ground. Glassner states that the number of homicide crimes, which accounts for 0.1 % of all arrests in the US, dropped by 27% between 2001 and 2008 (70). However, crimes committed by white-collar criminals rarely get to the news; instead, violent crimes are common at any one given time. In this case, the news media cultivate fear among the public by publishing reports involving gruesome crimes, but leaving white-collar crimes such as fraud and misappropriation of public funds that may be of great magnitude. The stereotypical patterns of crimes such as rape, homicide, and other bizarre immoralities are usually shared, thus leaving the crimes known by many especially in the homestead setting. Instances of rape in marriage, battering, and child abuse rarely find their way to the news media despite the identities of suspects and victims being known. The media houses tend to focus on the crimes committed by a certain clique of individuals, leaving the story about known suspects to go unnoticed just because they do not have the potential of inflicting fear on the public. Due to the frequent news about violence and crime, the public becomes less concerned with other forms of crime committed. For instance, fraud and cyber crimes involving enormous sums of money go unreported, thus rendering them less threatening since the media does not focus on such cases regularly. Terror attacks are usually disastrous and feared by many. The sensitivity of acts of terrorism cannot go unreported by the news media. For instance, on September 11, 2001, the Al-Qaeda, which is a terrorist group, attacked the US by conducting suicide missions using passenger jets on major buildings. News agencies were on the frontline in reporting the acts of terrorism, thus leaving the world sorrowful and fearful after the death of almost 3000 individuals. We will write a custom Essay on The News Media Role in the Culture of Fear specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although the media aired live pictures that created fear amongst the Americans, the agenda behind the attacks need to have been communicated (Chiricos, Eschholz, and Gertz 350). The news agencies need to have informed the masses of an impending terrorist attack by the Al-Qaeda considering that there were conflicts between the US government and the terrorist group. The fear emanating from the terror attack news could be minimized if there were early warning systems facilitated by the media. News involving crime provides excellent visuals and content for television and print coverage. In most cases, the victims of criminal activities are the elderly, children, and women. These individuals are considered as vulnerable to crime and violence; hence, when they become victimized, the public’s eyebrows tend to be raised. Such victims tend to cause sympathetic sensations to the viewers, listeners, or readers, hence, gaining more attention. For instance, news about sexual molestation and murder of children by their caregivers would potentially be the headliners gaining more airtime among various news organizations. Crime involving celebrities quickly finds a way to the media houses ready for broadcasting seconds after its occurrence. Showbiz programs have flooded television channels with the intent of letting people know what celebrities are up to (Graber 204). Since stars are considered as public figures, the newscasters prefer airing news involving celebrity crimes or violence in a bid to create the “fear story” (Furedi 111). The technique of coupling stories with issues like urban living has unmasked the ideas behind the perception of an effective environment. The media, in this case, tries to drive home the point that social economic and political moralities need to be dealt with since they hold fearful outcomes. According to Altheide, the media is a source of socialization that is very effective due to its ability to reach the masses within a very short time (649). By the infliction of fear, immoralities are pointed out; hence, people are expected not to engage in violent or criminal activities. Producing fear as a reaction is a tool used by the media to socialize and raise awareness about a situation that has a potential danger whether real or imagined. Conclusion The contemporary world perceives fear as a pervasive word adding meaning to everyday life, as more people are alert courtesy of the mass media. The public nowadays sees life as being fearful due to the increased number of newscasts that are headlined by criminal and violent stories. The news media has thus been in a position to capitalize on the weaknesses that the public has when topics that have elicited fear are broadcasted. Specifically, news regarding crime and violence has been overemphasized, thus creating more fear among the populous. Less prevalent societal problems receive more airtime as compared to the real issues affecting the society. The news media thus fosters fear of some social problems to the extent where other societal issues of importance fail to be addressed. Works Cited Altheide, David. “The news media, the problem frame, and the production of fear.” The sociological quarterly 38.4 (1997): 647-668. Print. Chiricos, Ted, Sarah Eschholz, and Marc Gertz. “Crime, news and fear of crime: Toward an identification of audience effects.” Social problems 44.3 (1997): 342-357. Print. Furedi, Frank. Culture of fear revisited, London: A

MGMT 601 AMU Autocratic & Democratic Leadership Style on Job Satisfaction Bibliography

best essay writers MGMT 601 AMU Autocratic & Democratic Leadership Style on Job Satisfaction Bibliography.

InstructionsSelect 10 scholarly articles (ALL ARTICLES MUST BE WITHIN THE LAST 10 YEARS) that will support your research paper. Write an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography takes each article and a short paragraph is written stating how the article supports your research paper. Each scholarly article is listed (in APA format) then the paragraph is written.This means I will be looking for 3 items for each source:1. The reference.2. A summary paragraph.3. A paragraph that states how the article supports your research paper.No reference list is needed because you are providing references in the assignment.
MGMT 601 AMU Autocratic & Democratic Leadership Style on Job Satisfaction Bibliography

Tourism as a Form of Neocolonialism

One of the most crucial areas within the literature is how power plays a part in the development of tourism. The specific balances of power determine how tourism can be developed in a region, and whether this is an indigenously motivated process or part of a neo-colonialist agenda. Butler and Hinch (2007:308-309) point out that power is usually not evenly distributed within most regions, and that political power and economic power determine how tourism develops. For example, in Australia the Aboriginal people are encouraged to engage in tourism development, yet they have little say in how this development occurs, and they have few means to access their specific cultural images or representations. Whilst this shows the inequality in power, the work does not show what the consequences of this are. It shows that non-indigenous people do not often have control over tourism development, but not what the agenda of the non-indigenous culture is. Also, this is a specific case involving indigenous and non-indigenous peoples in one country, rather than one region lacking control over their tourism strategies in light of influence from foreign organisations. However, this argument is a good starting point because it is from such economic and political inequalities that tourism as neo-colonialism occurs. From the 1960’s onwards, tourism was seen as a great moderniser that could improve the prospects of developing countries. However, because these developing countries often did not have the means to develop this industry themselves, the resources and expertise of developed countries made it possible. This also meant the developed countries set the agenda for development, focusing on what would be a good model for a developed country in Europe, for instance. This, as stated by Hughes (in Lew, Hall and Williams, 2004:498-499) can be used as a way for developed countries to maintain control over developing nations and maintain the need for their dependency on developed countries. However, this does not adequately explain whether this type of neo-colonial development was short-lived, or whether it still continues today. Also, it looks at the problem only from whether tourism itself in this form is useful for the destination region, rather than the intertwined relationship of all regions involved tourism activities. The point being missed here is that it is logical for many tourism initiatives to be influenced and determined by the needs of those outside the destination region. Whilst local tourism is one concern, it is a small concern when compared to the possible economic advantages of attracting tourists from developed countries. As Akama (in Hall and Tucker, 2004:140-141) points out, this is certainly the case in the development of safari tourism in Africa. It was initially created during the colonial era, and is still influenced by the power structures that existed at this time. This was certainly necessary in terms of the development of tourism as foreign investment was required. However, what is crucial here is that this neo-colonial influence means that whilst tourism meets the needs of those from developed countries, so the revenues generated often do not remain within the destination market, and so no development past this tourism is easily possible whilst there is such a reliance on the developed countries. How this is interpreted really depends on the specific levels of empowerment being discussed. Church and Coles (2007:205) say there are three types of empowerment – national, local and personal. If we are talking about national empowerment, then tourism does suffer from neo-colonial influence. This is because national economies in many developing countries remain dependent on specifically Western-centric forms of tourism and its development. However, the influence is perhaps less obvious at local and personal level. Tourism provides work and jobs, which can help individuals move away from previous levels of poverty. It can also revitalise an area and provide new facilities for locals. However, this is very much dependent on the type of tourism being developed and the specific economic level of locals versus the facilities being created. What is clear here is that even though tourism at a national level can be deemed neo-colonial in many areas, this does not mean the neo-colonial influence reaches down to create negative consequences at the local or personal levels. However, according to Richards and Hall (2003:27) it is likely that negative neo-colonial influence can extend to the local or personal level, particularly if the type of tourism pays little attention to traditional culture and its values. Also, where tourism occurs in only some regions within a country, it adversely affects other regions. As money is invested in one region, another region can suffer and gain more power. This leads to unequal development, and also could leave locals with a choice between living in an area where their traditional cultures are eroded but money is available, or living where traditions are maintained but investment is not forthcoming. However, this still does not examine whether current tourism practices are specifically neo-colonial. It only shows that in its most extreme form, neo-colonial tourism can have a negative impact at all levels and can maintain power inequalities, despite the seeming economic advantages on the surface. This idea of pervasive neo-colonialism in tourism is reinforced by Mowforth and Munt (2008:56-57). They explain that countries such as Fiji, despite political independence, remain neo-colonialist economies because their continued stability and prosperity depend upon tourism from Western countries. This means further development has to take into account these needs, and also helps to maintain previous colonial spatial structures because they are best suited for the needs of the market that remains so important to the country. Whilst this certainly seems to the consensus when it comes to many developing countries that depend on tourism, the focus is perhaps too much just on the economic impacts rather than the potential impacts that neo-colonialism through tourism could have on race, culture and class. For example, Crick (1994:65) points out a study by Mendis (1981) that suggests the nature of tourism in Sri Lanka has led to a culture of servility that risks creating a generation of butlers. This wipes away cultural traditions and places racial inequalities between the tourists who are ‘served’ and the locals who ‘serve’ them. In order to continue bringing in tourists, these countries have to hide other inequalities and poverty, thereby potentially making these problems worse down the line and tacitly helping to maintain the stereotypes and inequalities between developed countries and the destination region. This again shows that neo-colonial tourism has, at least in the past and possibly still now, occurred. However, what is the overall level of tourism as neo-colonialism, and are there different approaches to tourism than the neo-colonialist approach? One area that could be described as a response or antidote to neo-colonial tourism is the increasing growth of the independent traveller. These are people who do not tend to visit regular tourist destinations, and do not seek out established tourist structures. These individuals believe they are not contributing to the inequalities that are seen through major tourist development, but in fact such inequalities are often inescapable. As tourists move away from one tourist area to independently travel, new lines of tourism are inevitably formed. Also, by attempting to control or decide exposure to tourist facilities, the traveller is inadvertently contributing to decisions about the development of certain areas. For example, some boatmen and guides in India have licenses that restrict the areas they can go with tourists. This means tourists have greater access and mobility within the destination environment than the local guides – another example of inequality, even when it is merely an effort to potentially allow a less neo-colonial tourist experience. Furthermore, it is this idea of First World tourist determining the agenda to the Third World that contributes to inequalities, no matter the form of tourism being developed (Lozanski, 2008:31-33). This is perhaps the biggest problem -that the entire debate is only focused on the flow of mobility, education, economics and decision-making in one direction. For example, the tourist situation in Jamaica is often looked at from the negative neo-colonial standpoint, where large foreign hotel chains such as RIU Hotels mean that much of the money generated through tourism leaves Jamaica and ends up back in Western countries (Dei, 2006: 200). Even though this is a valid criticism, it only looks at the situation from one side. It does not take into account the desires and needs of the Jamaican people, and whether or not having these hotels that remove revenue from the economy is any worse than having no industry at all. It is not specifically that revenue is removed, but how this decision is made. If it is developed as part of an indigenously-led tourism model, then it cannot be seen to be totally negative. This is not studied enough in the literature, and the literature does not look at the underlying decision-making processes of countries in terms of tourism development. For example, it should not be assumed that just because an area is developed to meet tourists’ needs and some elements of traditional culture removed that this is going to have a negative impact on the local population or that it is unwanted. This is only our perception from the Western-centric perspective that it is unwanted. Maintenance of traditional culture is not always desired by locals, and in fact its maintenance may be antithetical to other types of growth. For example, in Beijing, China, many of the traditional hutong streets and residences are being replaced with newer high-rise buildings and commercial buildings. Whilst some bemoan the loss of this culture, it can provide better accommodation and facilities to locals who lived in these old areas, and can provide much-needed jobs and activities for a growing middle class (Kuhn, 2006). Not all tourism is controlled by international corporations and their influence over the destination region. Local and nationally-controlled tourism initiatives perform differently to neo-colonial tourism, and can potentially empower and help a nation to grow. This is of course shown in developed countries most readily, where locally controlled tourism helps preserve aspects of culture that are deemed locally important, as well as helping regions to develop and move closer together. However, it is less obvious and prevalent in developing countries. More research is required here, outside of the few specific examples that are generally cited to show how local tourism initiatives in developing countries are providing an alternative to the neo-colonial model (Theobald, 1998:69). The issue is that any adverse effect from tourism or any specifically capitalist market-driven decision in tourism is often seen as neo-colonialism in practice, but in fact the deeper roots of the decision need to be looked at rather than merely the outcomes. Local tourism initiatives may take advantage of capitalist structures for tourism development and specifically cater development to the needs of those from developed countries as well as their own people. It is therefore important to focus on the specific underlying influence of certain power structures on tourist decisions around the world, and this will give a clearer picture as to the true prevalence of neo-colonialism within tourism (Sharma, 2004:66-67). It must not be seen that changes within a country due to tourism are specifically because of neo-colonialism, or that tourism is merely the yoke that replaces colonialism in many countries. Whilst this is certainly true is some areas, it is also true that change occurs naturally and that tourism, whether influenced by foreign corporations or not, is a lucrative business (Mowforth and Munt, 2008:49). However, the real test for neo-colonial influence is whether these changes from tourism and the way tourism has developed is down to local needs and wishes, or whether it is purely created by undue influence from large foreign corporations. It could well be argued though that there is a thin line between the inequalities that inevitably emerge from a neo-liberal market due to the economic and political inequalities between the developing and developed world and the direct influence of neo-colonialism on tourism. Both can lead to negative consequences for developing countries, even though the decision-making processes might be quite different (Jamal and Robinson, 2009:154-155). In conclusion, the literature review shows that tourism has and continues to be a neo-colonial activity in at least some areas of the world, and that this has likely led to negative effects for developing countries. However, there are certainly gaps in the literature in terms of how much of tourism is based on neo-colonial ideals, and no real mention of tourism in developed countries, which contributes a lot to tourism and obviously is generally not seen as neo-colonial in nature. However, even if merely focusing on developing countries, there is a lack of information about the root causes for decisions in these areas, and too much of a focus on negative outcomes that perhaps have more to do with general economic inequalities rather than the prevalence of neo-colonialism in tourism. The next section will attempt to look at ways in which theoretical frameworks and research methods can be used to fill the gaps in this research and come to a conclusion about the extent to which tourism is a neo-colonial activity. Methodology For this paper, primary research was initially considered as a method, but was dismissed because of the difficulty of access to potential participants. Much of the focus of tourism as neo-colonialism has to be on developing countries, which immediately makes data collection more difficult. Also, in light of potential conflicts of interest between workers within tourism industries in these developing countries and those that employ them makes primary research not viable for this specific topic. Therefore, secondary research is the most logical design for this paper. This also follows on from the findings of the literature review, which identified a number of gaps in the research as well as areas of research that can be examined in greater detail using various theoretical frameworks. This methodology section will outline the various secondary research methods that will be used, how these fit in with the literature review findings and what they can bring to the discussion on the prevalence of tourism as a neo-colonial activity. The first important thing to remember is to avoid misreading the extent of neo-colonialism by being stuck within the perspective of neo-colonialism as the entire framework for the research. The study must not merely be conducted from the viewpoint of the First World, and must look at how both roots of decision-making within tourism and outcomes are perceived from the perspective of developing countries. We must also look at the way in which those tourists from developing countries flow into other developing countries and developed countries, as this will help us to understand the bigger picture when it comes to tourism and its activities. In order to avoid making snap judgements about the nature of tourism, the scope of analysis needs to be broadened and a multi-perspective approach adopted. This is of course challenging, and it is difficult to avoid Western-centric thinking at times. However, it is only by using this method that the true motivations for tourism activity around the world can be understood. As Ateljevic, Pritchard and Morgan (2007:24-26) explain, this is known as ‘de-centrising the tourism universe’. This is important as a methodological basis for the further research, because the literature review identifies the fact that many sources focus only on the problem from a Western perspective, particularly when espousing the problems of neo-colonialism. For example, many of the definitions or examples of neo-colonialism focus on the way in which Western countries such as the US took advantage of countries such as Cuba as their ‘playground’, and that this was detrimental to the country. This does not take into account the perspective of Cuba, and also the other political aspects that led to negative outcomes in the region – reasons that are far wider than merely the Western influence on the tourism industry (Jafari, 2003:122). However, taking a broader approach does not mean ignoring specific case studies and examples that could shed light on the nature of tourism in developing countries, particularly as it stands now. Whilst it should be left to those in these countries to decide what aspects of their culture are authentic or changeable, it can clearly be seen in areas such as the Caribbean that, economically at least, tourism is still dominated by the predominantly white and Western corporate influence. For example, most hotel managers in the region are still expatriates, with only lower positions being held by locals. This may not be a deliberate example of neo-colonialism as it may genuinely be that this is the best way to make the business successful. However, it is surely an area that needs exploring and greater understanding given to how these unequal structures arise – and if they are indeed only a small problem or part of a larger problem of Western dominance over these industries (Bennett, 2005:15-17). This is why case study methodology is important in this paper. There are many existing case studies already evident, but as mentioned many of them do not take forward this multi-perspective approach to understand the decision-making within tourism and how this reduces or increases potential inequalities, and whether or not these inequalities are directly part of neo-colonial practice or for other reasons. Tourism is a process, which unless there is an obviously dominant hegemony at work, requires a look at the complex flow of global ideas, people and capital. As global trends change, so case studies must look at the current situation and not merely stick to preconceived notions of inequality (Salazar, in Richards and Munsters, 2010:188). The case study approach can be an initial entry into understanding some specific examples of tourism activity in various countries, and then different trends or patterns can be identified in order to start forming a more general and overall understanding of the pervasiveness of neo-colonialism within tourism. The case study is useful here as well because it is less important to understand the outcomes of decision-making, because these can be negative or positive no matter the influence. Instead, it is important, through a multi-perspective approach, to understand the root decision-making within tourism around the world, and this will determine whether tourism is merely serving a neo-colonial agenda or whether it is actually a complex global process that is influenced by foreign and local actors in different ways, leading to different outcomes in different areas rather a definite neo-colonial dominance (Beeton, in Ritchie, Burns and Palmer, 2005:37-40). There are many good examples of potential case studies that can be analysed and used to build up this wider picture that do not necessarily just fit into the traditional model of viewing a tourist area from the position of Western dominance and developing world dependency. For example, Wearing and McDonald (2002:191) look at the role that intermediaries play in isolated rural communities in Papua New Guinea. This is not focusing on the outcomes of tourism, but looking at how different groups interact, and that it is possible through intermediaries for the tourist to be an equal part of a system rather than at its centre. This would suggest the potential for a power shift away from neo-colonialism, even if inequalities and certain negative outcomes may continue and wider issues of economic neo-colonialism continue. This means that tourism does not have to be specifically neo-colonial in nature, even if other inequalities persist for now. Another good example is a study by Hasty (2002:47) that looks at tourism across Africa and the promotion of Pan-Africanism. This study focuses on tourism in Ghana that is controlled by those within the country and developed to promote more unity within Africa. The problem here is that various different agendas mean that tourist events to promote Pan-Africanism remove discussion of potential differences and contradictions. In this sense it is not merely a problem of neo-colonialism, but wider concerns between a variety of actors and the careful balancing act between culture, politics and economic interests. Finally, for tourism as neo-colonial activity and its extent to be understood, current research should be understood in light of the global post-colonial landscape. This fits in with the multi-perspective approach previously mentioned, as it goes beyond the initial attempts to ‘correct’ neo-colonialism that themselves could lead to colonial inequalities. For example, appealing to sustainable tourism as a means to combat neo-colonialism could exacerbate the problem because the agenda and demands for sustainability would be set by the developed countries once again, and did not necessarily take into account the needs to the destination regions. The post-colonial framework goes beyond this to look at the situation from all perspectives rather than the previous ideal of trying to solve the inequalities created from neo-colonialism and colonialism before this (Carrigan, 2010:202-203). For example, if we look at the case of tourism in the West Indies in a post-colonial sense, we can see many of the previous inequalities that may have been associated with neo-colonialism. These inequalities could be viewed as part of neo-colonialism if viewed from one perspective or not adequately analysed. Rich West Indian minority elites have taken charge of some parts of the tourism industry, and are exhibiting similar dominance and influence to previous neo-colonial influence. However, as the inequalities in this sense shift and neo-colonialism becomes less of an issue, the negative effects on many of the local population remain. Further, these new leaders within the market can move into the international market, and therefore a greater interactive phase of tourism begins where flows of money and influence come from developing countries as well as to developing countries (Laws, Faulkner and Moscado, 1998:231-232). It is also likely that the definition of neo-colonialism will need to alter as globalisation continues and companies become more global in their outreach and ideals. Multinationals may then be as entwined in the destination region as their previous region of origin, or the multinational may indeed originate in the destination region. This alters how these companies are able to influence tourism, and also how they positively or negatively influence tourism. What was previously a one-way relationship will develop into a complex dialogue between consumers, employees, companies and both local and national governments to determine how tourism develops and where its interests lie (Page and Connell, 2006:467). It may be that neo-colonialism only exists in its most extreme form in specific types of tourism that are already of an exploitative nature, such as sex tourism. These forms of tourism are unequal because of the very nature of the activity, but these forms of tourism are slowly being removed and reduced in the post-colonial world as all actors within the tourist industry begin to deem them unacceptable. However, it is hard to completely remove these problems due to greater issues of economic inequality outside of the tourist industry (Bauer and Holowinska, 2009:6). Overall, the approach to the research needs to be multi-perspective, focused on a wide variety of case studies in order to build up a picture of the current status of tourism. Most importantly, it needs to be set within the post-colonial context and the questions to be answered determined by the subjects rather than the researcher. This will give a view of tourism as neo-colonialism that is not already mired in neo-colonialist thought (Belsky, in Phillimore and Goodson, 2004:286). The discussion section of the dissertation will use these methods to analyse the topic, and then the following conclusion section will summarise these findings and further recommendations for research. Conclusion In conclusion, the main findings in this paper are: There is still a clear economic imbalance between the First World and Third World, which is caused by a variety of factors including First World hegemony and the effects of colonialism and neo-colonialism. The Western, developed nations still dominate the tourist market, mainly due to their economic superiority. Cultural changes are less of an issue than they were during the colonial era, but economic dominance can still undermine destination cultures. Developing countries still need the money in the form of investment to build up tourist markets, and this allows Western countries to dictate terms, including the flow of money back to developed countries through multinational companies and the use of expatriate staff over local staff. This is not simply a matter for tourism however, and is a problem in almost all economic sectors. In tourism the problem is no worse, and in fact in many ways it is more of a closed system. The benefits of tourism often go to Western countries, but in general these are the countries that fuel demand. Sometimes this neo-colonialism shows itself within the tourist industry, leading to inequalities and negative outcomes for developing countries. Not all negative outcomes within tourism are due to neo-colonialist factors, and not all neo-colonialist factors within tourism lead to negative outcomes, particularly when looked upon from national, local and personal levels. Tourism as neo-colonialism does keep developing countries dependent on developed countries, particularly if tourism is a large part of their GDP. However, not all factors should be considered negative, because it is not just tourism that keeps developing countries dependent on developed countries. Overall economic and political inequalities also contribute, as do internal problems within developing countries such as poor management, lack of resources, wars and political instabilities. Tourism, even when dominated by foreign companies, does provide much-needed jobs that may not otherwise be available, and can help to maintain political stability in countries because of the needed revenues from tourism. Also, not all tourism that is locally influenced is positive. It can still be exploitative between different regions or ethnic groups, and can do as much damage to culture and the environment as neo-colonial tourism. Much of the research is too focused on outcomes and the potential ways to ‘solve’ neo-colonialist problems within tourism. Outcomes are not the main focus here. The focus should be on the initial decision-making process, because this is where influence and inequalities are most keenly felt. Currently, the research that condemns neo-colonialism only further imbeds it because it is too Western-centric and does not understand the differences between what might reverse foreign influence and what is actually wanted and accepted by the destination countries. Instead, a post-colonial, multi-perspective approach shows that whilst neo-colonialism in tourism still persists, global flows of money and information are changing, and with it so is tourism. The world has changed in the last fifteen years or more with the rapid development of technology and the internet. This has globalised society to some extent and has allowed information flows to go in different directions for the first time. For instance, the Chinese are a growing influence on world tourism, both in terms of China as a destination and its growing wealthy class as tourists travelling around the world. These sorts of developments therefore need to be looked at from different perspectives, and not just from the previously established perspective of tourism as a neo-colonialist activity. Whilst economic inequalities allow developed-country dominance to continue, this does not mean that tourism flows are not altering or that First-World businesses that are involved in other countries are unwelcome or having a negative impact. Tourism, whilst still showing the inequalities within the rest of society, is slowing beginning to move away from neo-colonial practices. Global inequalities will continue, but tourism is seeing some change. As citizens from developed countries become more aware of other cultures their demands for tourism change. Also, as developing countries continue to change and develop and their cultures alter, their own capabilities and needs change. The flow of money and information is no longer one-way, and this means that not only will developing countries have a say in their own tourism markets, but they will become the future patrons of other tourist markets in both developed and developing countries. This will all move tourism further away from being a solely neo-colonial practice. In relation to conclusion 3, further research should move away from outcomes-based examinations of the tourist industry when looking at influences on tourism, and instead focus on decision-based analyses. It is in the area of decision-making that influence and inequalities most likely come out. If negative or positive outcomes arise from these decisions is certainly important, but if the decision is not heavily influenced by multinational corporations under the guise of neo-colonialism, then regardless of the outcomes these tourist activities cannot be said to be neo-colonialist. Furthermore, analyses that focus on the roots of decision-making will give a better understanding of how tourist industries develop and change over time in the modern global society. Based upon conclusion 4, further research should move away from the neo-colonial base as the start for analysis. Globalisation and the rise of larger developing countries such as China have created a truly post-colonial landscape where traditional measures of colonialism and neo-colonialism are less useful. Whilst rich-poor and 1st/3rd world inequalities still predominate, flows of tourism, influence and money are changing and becoming more complex. Merely trying to solve the previous neo-colonialist bias of tourism is not enough, because any analysis that starts on this basis will not take into account the status of the modern global society and the inevitable cultural changes in developing countries. It is important to conduct research from many perspectives, rather than the futile effort of trying to solve neo-colonialism by starting from a Western-centric perspective that is decidedly neo-colonialist in nature because it does not take into account the actual views and needs of those who supposedly need ‘saving’ from the dominance of Western society. We should not assume that they need saving, or that indeed if they do that we can be the ones to bring about this salvation. Finally, based on conclusion 5, it is important for further research to conduct more in-depth studies of the global tourist market, and the flows of culture, influence and money that occur. Taking one country at a time is a good start to understand the basics of these flows, but it requires a global study, looking at the ways in which different actors interact with each other, in order to truly understand how the power balance currently sits and where it is likely to move towards in the coming decades.

BUS 2006 Southern New Hampshire University Law & Business Situations Discusison

BUS 2006 Southern New Hampshire University Law & Business Situations Discusison.

AW PhotographyYou are a new attorney, and your client, Amy Watson, is looking for legal recommendations to support her in understanding her rights and responsibilities as a photographer and as a business owner.She would like to use her photographs on her website to showcase her work, but she feels nervous about potentially violating copyright and intellectual property laws. She also wants to make sure she does not violate employee rights if there is an employee who does not want their photograph online. When Amy comes into your office, she brings a copy of her contract with Firm X that was drafted by another attorney she had been working with previously. Below is an excerpt from Amy’s contract with Firm X.COPYRIGHT AGREEMENTThe photographs produced by AW Photography are protected by federal copyright law (all rights reserved). If the client purchased an image DVD, the DVD purchase entitles the client to use the photographs on social media and websites as long as the images remain unaltered and textual credit is explicitly given to AW Photography. AW Photography maintains the right to its photographs, the company website, and social media sites to promote its business.REPRODUCTIONThe photographs taken are individual property of AW Photography. Photographs may not be reproduced in any form, or sold without prior explicit written permission from AW Photography.Future ConsiderationsCurrently, Amy operates her business as a sole proprietorship. She is the owner and has no employees. However, due to the growth of her business, her vision for the future includes potentially hiring someone to help manage day-to-day operations including scheduling, website maintenance, keeping of financial information, and oversight of potential future employees. In addition, she would like to hire two or three photographers so that she can book more photography sessions. Before she moves forward with her growth strategy, she is wondering if her new manager should actually be a business partner, and if her business should operate as a partnership instead of a sole proprietorship.Amy would like your legal support with business applications as she considers moving her company forward. She travels widely for her business and has recognized a market demand for reasonably priced portrait and event photography. She is typically booked over a year in advance. She believes that there is a good business opportunity to either partner with other photography businesses or open other studios and hire studio managers to run those.DirectionsLegal Contracts: Amy asked that you explain the elements of the legal contract.
Describe basic elements that should be included in the contract for informing involved parties about legal issues and expectations.Explain the purpose of the contract for informing involved parties about legal issues and expectations. Include the following in your response:Does the current contract allow public use of the photographs? For example, could Amy post the photographs on her website for promotional purposes? Explain elements of the contract and describe their legal implications.Intellectual Property and Copyright: Amy would like you to explain what she, as a commercial photographer, needs to know about intellectual property and copyright law.Discuss the impacts and applications of intellectual property and copyright in business situations, differentiating between commercial and personal use.Describe how Amy may legally use the photographs taken for Firm X. For example, may she use them for commercial and personal use, such as on social media?Describe how Firm X may legally use the photographs that Amy took. For example, may it use them for commercial use? And may employees use them for personal use, such as on social media?Business Applications: Amy’s photography business has been growing, and she is considering making changes. She has operated under a sole proprietorship but now wants to organize as another entity and hire additional employees. Amy has asked for your suggestions about an appropriate business entity to consider. Include the following to support her in making this decision:Define the following business entities: partnership, corporation, and limited liability company. Based on this, make a suggestion for the best type of entity for Amy, detailing why this would be a good choice. Discuss partnership as a business entity versus sole proprietorship for informing current business implications as a sole proprietor and potential business implications of a partnership.Discuss the basic employment laws—including OSHA, FLSA, and privacy laws—that Amy should be aware of as she considers hiring her own employees.Describe how privacy laws impact Amy and her employees’ use of photographs taken for business clients.What to SubmitEvery project has a deliverable or deliverables, which are the files that must be submitted before your project can be assessed. For this project, you must submit the following:Legal RecommendationsFor this project, you will write legal recommendations for your client that address current concerns and support her with answers to business law questions. Your legal recommendations should be 3 to 5 pages in length.Reference List
For each source that you cite, you need to include the author’s name, the publication year,
the title of the source, and the location of the source in a References section at the end of
your work.Be sure to include the following header when you submit your legal memo:TO: Amy WatsonFROM: <Your Name>DATE: <Date submitted>RE: AW Photography Responsethank you!
BUS 2006 Southern New Hampshire University Law & Business Situations Discusison