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The challenges in managing employee’s performance through effective appraisal system

Introduction Developing an appraisal system that accurately reflects employee performance is a difficult task. Performance appraisal systems are not generic or easily passed from one company to another; their design and administration must be tailor-made to match employee and organizational characteristics and qualities. This assignment highlights the importance of effective performance appraisal system with the rating errors and challenges that the organization faced in a competitive working world. First of all I give a clear understanding of what performance appraisal is and then in discussion part I look forward the problems and challenges that organizations faced while rating their employee performance through rating scale method using company examples. Later on the study discussed detailed on the critical incidents that organizations might faced and the solution. In conclusion part I suggest a modern effective performance appraisal system that can help organizations to overcome the problems and challenges they faced during evaluation of the employees. Performance Appraisal According to Hannah, P., (2009), ‘Performance appraisal is a formal management system by which the job performance of an employee is examined and evaluated, with the intent of identifying their strengths and weaknesses for improvement in future. The procedure is conducted by the subsequent supervisor or manager’ Aminuddin. M (2008), States that ‘Organizations interested in best practice are constantly and actively looking for ways to improve employee’s performance and motivate individual employees to achieve the best they can. In order to be effective, performance appraisal must fulfill certain criteria; performance appraisal system should be formalized so as to ensure fairness to the workers involved, a systematic appraisal of employees makes it possible to achieve various benefits like: Encouraging quality performance by rewarding those who do well Improve current performance by giving workers feedback Identify training needs Initiate fair disciplinary proceedings Provide a channel of communication between managers and their subordinates Challenges with effective performance appraisal Several problems may arise during performance appraisals. Some problem arises from the manager, some from the employees and some from other factors (Wells et.al, 1994). Most employees dislike performance appraisal interviews for fear of criticism, fear of uncertainty in handling question and fear that their salaries, promotions and their destinies with the organization hinge upon the outcomes of these interviews as justification for decisions that are already made concerning salaries, promotions and job tenures (Nelda et.al, ND). Sometimes organizations come across various problems and challenges of performance appraisal in order to make a performance appraisal system effective and successful. Determining the evaluation criteria Recent research on Compare InfoBase Limited (2007), has shown, the Identification of the evaluation criteria is one of the biggest problems faced by the top management. The performance data to be considered for evaluation should be carefully selected. For the purpose of evaluation, the criteria selected should be in a measurable term. Create a rating instrument The purpose of appraisal process is to judge the performance of the employees rather than the employee. The focus of the system should be on the development of the employees in the organization, Compare InfoBase Limited (2007). Lack of competence Top management should choose the raters or evaluators carefully. They should have the required expertise and the knowledge to decide the criteria accurately. They should have the experience and the necessary training to carry out the appraisal process objectively, Compare InfoBase Limited (2007), Errors in rating and evaluation Many errors based in personnel bias like stereotyping, halo effect may creep in the appraisal process. Therefore the rater should exercise objectively and fairness in evaluating and rating the performance of the employees, Compare InfoBase Limited (2007). Resistance The appraisal process may face resistance from the employees and the trade unions for the fear of negative ratings. Therefore, the employees should be communicated and clearly explained the purpose as well the process of appraisal. The slandered should be clearly communicated and every employee should be made aware that what exactly is expected from them, Compare InfoBase Limited (2007). One study shows that in UK, most of their Universities and colleges faced problems of performance appraisal. Simmons, J., (2001), states that, a closely related issue was the age -old appraisal dilemma of achieving an appropriate balance between the aims of control and commitment. the study shows that the traditional appraisal schemes emphasis on “control” by stipulating and assessing the individual employee contribution to the organization “lives on” within contemporary performance management system by ensuring each employees performance objectives drives from and contribute to those at departmental, divisional, or corporate level. Taylor, S., (2002), research shows that the way in which appraisal carried out in the organization and in particular, to unfair bias in managerial assessments of performance. According to him the problems with the rating systems are: The tendency to give a good overall assessment on the basis that one particular aspects has been accomplished well A tendency to avoid giving tow ratings, even when deserved, for fear of angering or upsetting a weak performer The tendency to give a poor overall assessment on the basis of particular poor performance in one area The tendency to give particular weight to recent occurrences in reaching judgments about individual performance The tendency to give high rating to people who have performed well historically, whatever their performance over the previous years A tendency to refrain, on principle from giving particular high ratings A tendency to rate subordinates at a lower level than the appraiser achieved when in their position Some of the criticism of performance appraisal are the focus will be too much on the individual and does little to develop employees. Employees and supervisors believe that the appraisal process is seriously flawed and appraisals are inconsistent, short term oriented, subjective and useful only at the extremes of performance. Problems with the ratings The drawback of essay evaluation method will be their length and content can vary considerably, depending on rater, the appraisal are difficult to compare and the writing skills of appraiser can also affect appraisal. Critical incidents drawbacks are like rater is required to jot down incidents regularly, which can be burdensome and time consuming. And this method may lead to friction between manager and employees when employees believe manager is keeping a book on them. The drawback for checklists would be raters can see positive or negative connotation of each question which introduces bias. It is time consuming to assemble questions for each job category, separate listing of questions must be developed for each job category and checklist question can have different meanings for different raters. Problems with graphic ratings scale have some weaknesses by evaluating the rates, such as evaluators are unlikely to interpret written descriptions in the same manner due to differences in background, experience and sometimes personality. So it would be better to choose categories that have little relationship to job performance and omit categories that have a significant influence on job performance. Performance appraisal can also have legal consequences in the field of discrimination on ground of sex, race and disability. This occurs when they are used as the basis of or justifications for promoting employees, increasing or decreasing individual pay levels, or selecting employees for new opportunities in the organization. Similar considerations apply where pay rates are determined as a result of performance ratings. Sometimes the law will also affect the evaluation of performance of employees and sometimes these subjective judgments can introduce bias into the system. In Brito v. Zia Company, the company’s performance evaluation instrument was invalid because it did not relate to important elements in the jobs for which employees were being evaluated. Other performance evaluation lawsuits have dealt with sex, race, and age discrimination in terminations, promotions, and layoffs. Maclean, J., (2001), States that, when Canadian employment conducts an appraisal these laws prohibits discrimination based on race, religion, ethnic or national origin, sex and marital status. Problems that organization face while using 360-degree feedback would also include rate errors. Each source of feedback suffers from varying sources of potential rater error. (e.g., halo error, leniency or severity, attribution errors). By using all these differing sources of information means dealing with the all different potential avenues for rater error to seep into the evaluation. The second criticism is cost and confusion. It can often be very costly and tedious to implement a 360-degree program. The multiple sources of feedback are difficult to coordinate, may contradict each other, and are often confusing to sort out and process effectively. This puts the burden on the manager to filter through the material provided and refine in into a coherent evaluation. Critics also fear a negative attitude in 360-degree appraisal. The added sources of information may be used by a manager to bolster negative appraisals with a “see I told you so” approach. Finally employees alike worry about confidentiality. With so many sources of feedback about single individual floating around, it is feared that both rater and ratee may lose their rights to confidentiality. The problem with MBO is that it will be not applicable to all jobs; allocation of merit pay may result in setting short-term goals rather than important and long-term goals. Psychological appraisal would be slow and costly and may be useful for bright young members who may have considerable potential. However quality of these appraisals largely depends upon the skills of psychologists who perform the evaluation. Disadvantages for assessment centers will be Costs of employees traveling and lodging, psychologists, ratings strongly influenced by assessee’s inter-personal skills. Solid performers may feel suffocated in simulated situations. Those who are not selected for this also may get affected. Desseler,G., (2011), ‘The number of things that can lead to bias during appraisals is limitless. One study focused on the rater’s personality. Raters who scored higher on conscientiousness tended to give their peers lower ratings , they were stricter, in other words, those scoring higher on agreeableness gave higher ratings, they were more lenient’. Even the appraisals purpose biases the results. Unfortunately the appraisee’s personal characteristics also affect their ratings. Solutions for rating evaluations Rater training and orientation in 360-degree appraisal programs is becoming increasingly popular. Research shows that most of the American companies used to train their raters in order to minimize the problem occur during the appraisal. This training introduces employees to the concept of multiple source feedback, and it makes them aware of rater error and methods to diminish it. Rating formats that focus on the frequency of specific behaviors can also help to limit sources of errors. Desseler, G., (2011), Computer appraisal software makes dealing with the glut of incoming information easier to handle. This software can also present the wealth of available data in a simple format to give to or discuss with the employee. Desseler, G., (2011), Overall 360-degree appraisal systems provide a wealth of information about an employee’s behavior that might be unavailable in traditional manager evaluation formats. Customers (both internal and external), peers, subordinates, and others may all have access to unique performance data that can provide a truer picture of the individual’s performance. This method of evaluation can also provide information on the state of the company’s goals and needs. For example, Digital executives use the feedback from external customers to determine if the strategic plan they laid out is flattering down to employees. Federal express uses a 360 -degree feedback system as the foundation of objective goal setting. By receiving information from internal and external customers, an individual gains feedback as to what areas are seen as superior and what areas are seen as deficient. Desseler, G., (2011), this feedback is then used in a management by objectives system to define the goals for that individual according to the needs of his or her customers. These new goals help to focus employee on what is required to improve performance and achieve customer satisfaction at the same time. According to Taylor, S., (2002), we can conclude that the assessment centers will be more flexible. They are not purchased ‘off-the-shelf’ like psychometric test, and are not time restricted as interviews. There is therefore a plenty of scope to introduce exercises that are of specific relevance to the job and the organization involved. For this reason, each center is likely to differ from others to a considerable degree. That said a number of exercises and types of exercises associated with assessment centers are frequently included. Desseler, G., (2011), States that well-conducted assessment center can achieve better forecasts of future performance and progress than other methods of appraisals. Also reliability, content validity and predictive ability are said to be high in assessment centers. The tests also make sure that the wrong people are not hired or promoted. Finally it clearly defines the criteria for selection and promotion. Garry Desseler, (2011), Many of American top companies have set up assessment centers where they can first interview potential employees, then evaluate them in real work situation. It provides an excellent way to evaluate an individual’s capabilities so perform and entry level management job. Donald et.al, (2008), When the organization uses MBO techniques, it will increases the employee’s involvement in setting performance objectives and concomitantly increase the motivation required to reach those objectives. On the same time it offers and objective factual basis for measuring accomplishment and also it emphasizes results, not traits or personality characteristics. MBO is entirely job centered; it supports the psychological concept that people will exercise self direction and self control in the accomplishment of organizational objectives that they have participated in settings. Sommerville (2007), argue that performance appraisal must be free from discrimination. The appraisal criteria, the methods and documentation must be designed to ensure that they are all job related. Otherwise there will be a possibility that an employee may challenge decisions made by management based upon a flawed appraisal system in court because managers and supervisors have said or done something that has adversely affect their e employees. The Recommendations for a legally defensible appraisal system would include Procedures must not differ because of race, sex, national origin, religion, or age Use objective, non-rated, uncontaminated data A formal system of review or appeal should be available for disagreement over appraisals Use more than one independent evaluator Use a formal, standardized system for evaluation Avoid ratings on traits, such as dependability, drive, aptitude, and attitude Improvement of performance appraisals Performance appraisals usually can be improved vastly. The manager should be prepared adequately before conducting a performance appraisal interview. Many managers seem too busy to gather the needed information or to plan for an interview, resulting in frustration and confusion for the employee. The performance appraisal interview is too important and has too great an impact upon the organizational climate to be conducted without necessary information and preparation (Nelda et.al, ND). Hannah Paul, (2009) it is a usual practice in most places that, managers conduct appraisals just to justify pay increase or decrease, forgetting that the sole purpose of performance appraisal is not salary increase or decrease, but the development of employee skills and the improvement of work in the office. Besides that, it is also important to give employees feedback (whether it is a matter of money or not), on the work that they are doing. This helps build employee morale and motivates them to work even better, whereas it is also important to give critical feedback to employees, so they can get their act together. The focus of managers on performance appraisals at the end of the year, instead of working towards improving performance during the year is the main problem today. If managers focused their attention to helping employees improve their job performance it would make it easier for them to analyze it at the end of the year, instead of just rating employees based on numbers or personality traits, which is neither accurate nor fair to the employees. If managers and supervisors were to understand how much they themselves would benefit from doing this, it would make their job much easier. Recommendation Debora, F.B., et.al, (1997), one of the first steps in developing an effective performance evaluation system is to determine the organization’s objectives. These are then translated into departmental and then individual position objectives – working with employees to agree their personal performance targets. This allows the employee to know “up front” the standards by which his/her performance will be evaluated. This process involves clarifying the job role, job description and responsibilities – explaining how the role and responsibilities contribute to wider goals, why individual and team performance is important and just what is expected within the current planning period. Objectives developed in this way should be reflective of the organizational goals and provide linkages between employee and organizational performance. After studying the methods that used to evaluate employee performances the best method that I could find was 360-degree feedback method and MBO method. These two methods helps to evaluate employee’s performance with all the important factors that an employee needs to improve in order to improve the individual levels as well as organizational level. Managers can use these two methods to evaluate employee’s performance and give feedback to employees about their strengths and weaknesses which they need to improve and after analyzing this, employees can work hard to achieve organizational goals to compete with others. Conclusion In conclusion it can be said that, performance appraisal is generally a performance measuring tool, It is not only to identify employee’s job performance but it also helps managers gain information that help them make their employees work more prolific. Also vital information can be gained so that organizations may recognize the difficulties that workers face in everyday work. However it should not be forgotten that this system has a lot of flaws, and may not always be ideal for companies, but it cannot be ignored. It is an inevitable procedure which no matter how much employees or managers try to ignore it, needs to be carried out, because without it employee evaluation is not possible. One can soften it by calling it “development discussions” or have them on a usual basis to identify areas of improvement, but it cannot be overlooked. Developing an effective performance appraisal system requires strong commitment, from top management: if the system does not provide the linkage between employee performance and organizational goals, it is bound to be less than completely effective.
SU WK 4 The Most Common Pervasive Developmental Disorders Project.

The most common pervasive developmental disorders tend to fall into one of two categories: autism disorder and Asperger’s disorder.Go to PBS and search for the video titled Autism’s Causes: How Close Are We to Solving the Puzzle, which was aired on the PBS NewsHour’s show on April 19, 2011. You may also opt to read the transcript or listen to the audio available on the same web page.Review the information presented in the video and complete the required readings for this week. Submit a 3- to 4-page paper and respond to the following:Take a position on the current debate about whether Asperger’s disorder is a type of autism? The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) moved Asperger’s disorder into the autism category and addressed it as a mild form of autism. There are many critics of this change to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) which placed the two diagnoses in separate categories, indicating that Asperger’s disorder is not a form of autism (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).Should Asperger’s have been labeled as a high-functioning (mild) form of autism, or should it have remained in its own category as a disorder separate from autism? Support your decision with information from academic sources.References:American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishers.PBS News Hour. (Producer). (2011, April 20). Autism’s causes: How close are we to solving the puzzle? [Video]. Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/health/jan- june11/autism3causes_04-20.html
SU WK 4 The Most Common Pervasive Developmental Disorders Project

Florida National University Pulmonary Function and Electrolyte Discussion.

Module 3 Discussion11 unread reply.11 reply.Pulmonary FunctionD.R. is a 27-year-old man, who presents to the nurse practitioner at the Family Care Clinic complaining of increasing SOB, wheezing, fatigue, cough, stuffy nose, watery eyes, and postnasal drainage—all of which began four days ago. Three days ago, he began monitoring his peak flow rates several times a day. His peak flow rates have ranged from 65-70% of his regular baseline with nighttime symptoms for 3 nights on the last week and often have been at the lower limit of that range in the morning. Three days ago, he also began to self-treat with frequent albuterol nebulizer therapy. He reports that usually his albuterol inhaler provides him with relief from his asthma symptoms, but this is no longer enough treatment for this asthmatic episode.Case Study QuestionsAccording to the case study information, how would you classify the severity of D.R. asthma attack?Name the most common triggers for asthma in any given patients and specify in your answer which ones you consider applied to D.R. on the case study.Based on your knowledge and your research, please explain the factors that might be the etiology of D.R. being an asthmatic patient.Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base HomeostasisMs. Brown is a 70-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus who has been too ill to get out of bed for 2 days. She has had a severe cough and has been unable to eat or drink during this time. On admission, her laboratory values show the following:• Serum glucose 412 mg/dL• Serum sodium (Na+) 156 mEq/L• Serum potassium (K+) 5.6 mEq/L• Serum chloride (Cl–) 115 mEq/L•Arterial blood gases (ABGs): pH 7.30; PaCO2 32 mmHg; PaO2 70 mmHg; HCO3– 20 mEq/LCase Study QuestionsBased on Ms. Brown admission’s laboratory values, could you determine what type of water and electrolyte imbalance does she has?Describe the signs and symptoms to the different types of water imbalance and described clinical manifestation she might exhibit with the potassium level she has.In the specific case presented which would be the most appropriate treatment for Ms. Brown and why?What the ABGs from Ms. Brown indicate regarding her acid-base imbalance?Based on your readings and your research define and describe Anion Gaps and its clinical significance.
Florida National University Pulmonary Function and Electrolyte Discussion

recreate ALL the Exhibits (from 2-1 to 2-10). Be careful to submit the correct worksheet. *Separate each exhibit on its own sheet, in other words, your workbook must have 10 tabs (or sheets). Match the format of your work to that of the textbook (no need for fancy art work, fonts or colors); stick to the textbook format and you will be fine. Many students forget how important formatting is when working in Excel and get sloppy/lazy with their formatting (and lose points).

recreate ALL the Exhibits (from 2-1 to 2-10). Be careful to submit the correct worksheet. *Separate each exhibit on its own sheet, in other words, your workbook must have 10 tabs (or sheets). Match the format of your work to that of the textbook (no need for fancy art work, fonts or colors); stick to the textbook format and you will be fine. Many students forget how important formatting is when working in Excel and get sloppy/lazy with their formatting (and lose points).. Paper details recreate ALL the Exhibits (from 2-1 to 2-10). Be careful to submit the correct worksheet. *Separate each exhibit on its own sheet, in other words, your workbook must have 10 tabs (or sheets). Match the format of your work to that of the textbook (no need for fancy art work, fonts or colors); stick to the textbook format and you will be fine. Many students forget how important formatting is when working in Excel and get sloppy/lazy with their formatting (and lose points).recreate ALL the Exhibits (from 2-1 to 2-10). Be careful to submit the correct worksheet. *Separate each exhibit on its own sheet, in other words, your workbook must have 10 tabs (or sheets). Match the format of your work to that of the textbook (no need for fancy art work, fonts or colors); stick to the textbook format and you will be fine. Many students forget how important formatting is when working in Excel and get sloppy/lazy with their formatting (and lose points).

Legislation Grid and Testimony/Advocacy Statement

essay writing service free Legislation Grid and Testimony/Advocacy Statement. Paper details As a nurse, how often have you thought to yourself, If I had anything to do about it, things would work a little differently? Increasingly, nurses are beginning to realize that they do, in fact, have a role and a voice. Many nurses encounter daily experiences that motivate them to take on an advocacy role in hopes of impacting policies, laws, or regulations that impact healthcare issues of interest. Of course, doing so means entering the less familiar world of policy and politics. While many nurses do not initially feel prepared to operate in this space effectively, the reward is the opportunity to shape and influence future health policy. To Prepare: Select a bill that has been proposed (not one that has been enacted) using the congressional websites provided in the Learning Resources. The Assignment: (1- to 2-page Legislation Grid; 1-page Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement) Be sure to add a title page, an introduction, purpose statement, and a conclusion. This is an APA paper. Part 1: Legislation Grid Based on the health-related bill (proposed, not enacted) you selected, complete the Legislation Grid Template. Be sure to address the following: Determine the legislative intent of the bill you have reviewed. Identify the proponents/opponents of the bill. Identify the target populations addressed by the bill. Where in the process is the bill currently? Is it in hearings or committees? Part 2: Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement Based on the health-related bill you selected, develop a 1-page Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement that addresses the following: Advocate a position for the bill you selected and write testimony in support of your position. Describe how you would address the opponent to your position. Be specific and provide examples. At least 2 outside resources and 2-3 course specific resources are used. RUBRIC Show Descriptions Federal and State Legislation Part 1: Legislation Grid Based on the health-related bill you selected, complete the Legislation Grid Template. Be sure to address the following: • Determine the legislative intent of the bill you have reviewed. • Identify the proponents/opponents of the bill. • Identify the target populations addressed by the bill. • Where in the process is the bill currently? Is it in hearings or committees?– Excellent 32 (32%) – 35 (35%) The response clearly and accurately summarizes in detail the legislative intent of the health-related bill. The response accurately identifies in detail the proponents and opponents of the health-related bill. The response accurately identifies in detail the populations targeted by the health-related bill. The response clearly and thoroughly describes in detail the current status of the health-related bill. Good 28 (28%) – 31 (31%) The response accurately summarizes the legislative intent of the health-related bill. The response accurately identifies the proponents and opponents of the health-related bill. The response accurately identifies the populations targeted by the health-related bill. The response accurately describes the current status of the health-related bill. Fair 25 (25%) – 27 (27%) The response vaguely or inaccurately summarizes the legislative intent of the health-related bill. The response vaguely or inaccurately identifies the proponents and opponents of the health-related bill. The response vaguely or inaccurately identifies the populations targeted by the health-related bill. The response vaguely or inaccurately describes the current status of the health-related bill. Poor 0 (0%) – 24 (24%) Summary of the legislative intent of the health-related bill is vague and inaccurate or is missing. Identification of the proponents and opponents of the health-related bill are vague and inaccurate or is missing. Identification of the populations targeted by the health-related bill is vague and inaccurate or is missing. The description of the current status of the health-related bill is vague and inaccurate or is missing. Advocating for Legislation Part 2: Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement Based on the health-related bill you selected, develop a 1-page Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement that addresses the following: • Advocate a position for the bill you selected and write testimony in support of your position. • Describe how you would address the opponent to your position. Be specific and provide examples.– Excellent 45 (45%) – 50 (50%) Testimony clearly and thoroughly provides statements that fully justifies a position for a health-related bill. Response provides a detailed, thorough, and logical explanation of how to address opponents to the position for the health-related bill and includes one or more clear and accurate supporting examples. A complete, detailed, and specific synthesis of two outside resources is provided. The response fully integrates at least 2 outside resources and 2-3 course specific resources that fully supports the responses provided. Good 40 (40%) – 44 (44%) Testimony clearly and accurately provides statements that somewhat justifies a position for a health-related bill. Response provides an accurate explanation of how to address opponents to the position for the health-related bill and may include at least one supporting example. An accurate synthesis of at least one outside resource is provided. The response integrates at least 1 outside resource and 2-3 course specific resources that may support the responses provided. Fair 35 (35%) – 39 (39%) Testimony used to justify a position for a health-related bill is vague or inaccurate. Explanation of how to address the opponents to the position for the health-related bill is vague or inaccurate, lacks logic, and/or the supporting examples are vague or inaccurate. A vague or inaccurate synthesis of outside resources is provided. The response minimally integrates resources that may support the responses provided. Poor 0 (0%) – 34 (34%) Testimony used to justify a position for a health-related bill is vague and inaccurate, incomplete, or is missing. Explanation of how to address the opponents to the position for the health-related bill is vague and inaccurate, or is missing. A vague and inaccurate synthesis of no outside resources is provided, or is missing. The response fails to integrate any resources to support the responses provided. Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization: Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction is provided which delineates all required criteria.– Excellent 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion is provided which delineates all required criteria. Good 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment is stated, yet is brief and not descriptive. Fair 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%- 79% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment is vague or off topic. Poor 0 (0%) – 3 (3%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion was provided. Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation– Excellent 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors. Good 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Contains a few (1-2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. Fair 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%) Contains several (3-4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. Poor 0 (0%) – 3 (3%) Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding. Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.– Excellent 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Uses correct APA format with no errors. Good 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Contains a few (1-2) APA format errors. Fair 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%) Contains several (3-4) APA format errors. Poor 0 (0%) – 3 (3%) Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors. Total Points: 100Legislation Grid and Testimony/Advocacy Statement

Wireless Data Entry System Analysis

Grand Wine Limited is a dealer to supply various types of Wine through sales representatives around 400 independent wine and liquor store in the state. Through sales representatives they collect data and information about the requirement of delivery of Wines to the customers by shipment. Device which is able to store data or pass the data wireless to remote server is wireless data entry device. This is a very popular device in today’s market for data entry system. In the market there are various wireless data entry devices available but we have to select such particular device which is affordable as well as can cover our task requirement. Since our sales representatives are suffering some problems with data transferring from client to our head office which is taking time and more effort, we are going to implement a wireless data entry system so that with out loosing time and loosing any data out representatives can contact to head office easily. For this process we require a remote server located in our head office and wireless data entry device for each representative so that they can connect to company’s central database in Sydney. Sales representatives can collect data from various retailers in Sydney and pass the data to server in no time so that it saves time, effort, travelling cost as well. Through this process there is very less chance of data loss because data storage system by humans can create human errors but this system directly stores data in device as well as server. Sales representatives can double their work as they don’t have to come back and through to store data and send sent it to central data base. In fact it will reduce cost by reducing faxing and phone call which can be benefited to company for long term. 1.2.2 Wireless data entry system and its function – As we know the term wireless means with out use of wire, so wireless data entry system will utilize wireless technology to receive and send data from server. As per networking principle we will be using a remote server which will be located in the company central data base office Sydney. Each sales representative will be provided with each particular wireless data entry device to perform their task. We will be using a device called SPT 1800 as our wireless data entry device. SPT 1800 is a portable wireless device which uses palm operating system. It has got wireless WAN, Bluetooth and WWAN functions to connect to server. As it has barcode reader capacity also representatives can easily find the details of product by scanning and sending to server so it minimises the data loss or error. Being a portable device staffs can collect data in any place and any time and send it to main server in Sydney. 1.3 Justification- Wireless Data entry system and important features for Grand Wines Limited- The wireless data entry system implementation on Grand Wines Limited can be very beneficial in various aspects. When wires data entry system is used first thing is company can cut few staff that was doing processing of data to and fro by fax, email, and phone or by post. There will be no time delay to send data from representatives to company office do start the business. Company can save huge amount of money on use of fax and post as well. When wireless technology is implemented there is no more need to fax the data or email data or post data. In other hand the time frame of data transfer is also slow with current system that’s why company is not able to do proper business. There is wastage of time between a representative send data to Company office and they again respond back. In fact when a store is running out of particular type of Wine today, the representative can collect data and send to Central office so it takes some time or day so that company gets order and place shipment of product. In this way company is delaying its delivery. But with wireless data entry system a representative can contact or send required data to Central database system so it takes no time to implement the work in time. So it seems more effective and profitable for Grand Wines Limited in overall view. 2. Business case study for Grand Wine Limited in wireless data entry system project- Grand Wine Limited has realised various demerits of recent data entry system which directly or indirectly caused loos to company. As the management of this company decided to change the recent data entry system with new market demand, they have planned to implement wireless data entry system in the company. 20 sales representatives, who are collecting various data like stock needed from various retailers, can send the data instantly to Sydney based head office so company can do delivery quicker. So company can go ahead with other business competitors as well increase their business more. 2.1 Business Objectives- For Grand Wine Limited the implementation of this wireless data entry system will ultimately leads to business growth and profit. This technology will decrease the delay time for the stock delivery to retailers so company can cope with market demand properly without loosing customers. 2.2 SWOT Analysis- 2.2.1 Strength: As the delay in delivery time will be reduced from company to retailers, this technology will directly increase the sales and make customer happy. All sales representatives can communicate to company for stock delivery, stock available and other important data in no time so it can save company other cost like faxing, telephone, etc using wireless technology. 2.2.2 Weakness- Use of wireless system may reduce the directly contact of sales representatives to Main Delivery Office like phone and fax which can be cause for some misunderstanding between deliveries. In the time of network error there might be problem for transferring data, which can lead to loss of some data as well as delay in delivery. 2.2.3 Opportunities- Implementation of this wireless system will save the time of sales representatives to go and through the received data in-order to send the data to Central Office for implementation. So that sales representatives can go and collect more data in same time and process the data to Company. And also Sales representatives can know when the stock is arriving or any further details needed to be collected which can save lots of time as well as money for like transportation and communication. They can process data 24/7 so there is very less chance to be delayed for stock delivery. 2.2.4 Threats- Company might need to hire a server supervisor which can increase company cost. As there is no physically contact between sales representatives between companies after implementing wireless system every data will be transferred by wireless technology, so there is more threats that data errors may occur like sales representative may order certain item by mistake but still company will send the delivery which may cost extra for company. 3. Project Charter- Project title- Wireless data entry system Start date of project-01/01/2011 Finish date of project-01/06/1011 Budget- Available budget for project is $100,000 Project Manager- Om Ghimire, 0401782576, o[email protected] Objective of the project- Wireless data entry system and its use in Grand Wine Limited is to decrease the loss of time between sending and receiving data from sales representatives (who collect data from various retailers) to head supply office for the required shipment of the needed product on time. This application can be effective in the incensement of orders because there is high risk of loss of data or chances of human error in old data entry system. Delivery speed, accuracy of order, available stock including satisfaction of customer can be main objective and out come of the project. There is high necessity of coping with other emerging companies for Grand Wine Limited by increasing its capacity and ability with advancement of technology use. Success Measures- . Project completes with in 01/06/2011 . Project completes with given budget that is $100,000 . Stake holder of this project is satisfied at the end of project . Increment of sales of Grand Wine Limited by implementation of this system .customer satisfied Roles- Approach- .Surveying about the use of remote data entry system .Develop software to check if the some information in data entry is missing .Analyse the appropriate pay back period of Grand Wine Limited with reduced cost. .Train customer service staffs about the use of remote data entry system and device. Sign-off- In this all above stakeholders should sign in the respected part in the table. Comments- “As a project manager I will allocate all the resource available according to need of project, so I will need all staffs working as my guidelines.” Om Ghimire Part B- Scope Management 1.1 preliminary scope statements- Title of project- wireless data entry system Date: 01/01/2011 Prepared by: Om Ghimire, PM, 0401782576, [email protected] Justification of project- The wireless data entry system implementation project for Grand Wine Limited will save lots of money and time of the company. After completion of this project the company will definitely increase its income or sales because the sales representatives will be able to order the required stock in shortest amount of time for delivery. The budget of this project that is $100,000 has least time of pay back period. Requirements: 1. Server- For the implementation of this project, the remote server is required in head office for data storage and transfer. 2. Application- For the use of server we might require data entry software or application in our server as well as data entry devices. 3. Hardware- As hardware we will need some computers as well as wireless data entry devices. 4.Security- As wireless technology is with high risk about security system, we need some security mechanism to monitor our system as well as data 5.Ulternate power supply and back up or disaster recovery plan- Computerized data entry system needs continuous power supply, so we need a alternate power supply incase of power failure and we need back up of data in case of system failure. Project Deliverables Deliverables related to Project management- business case study, project charter, contract, scope statement, work breakdown structure, scheduling, budgeting, presentation of final project, report for project, report of lessons-learned, including any other resources or documents required for project management. Deliverables related to Product: like hardware, software, research and reports, etc 1. research or survey- research or survey can help to acknowledge the features and contents of project 2. Resources- All necessary information on use of wireless device and wireless data entry system should be available for stakeholders. 3. Testing: Before the launch of the system testing of the system will help to identify the problems and bugs reported to system. 4. Analysis of various wireless data entry devices available in the market. 5. Expenditure on products: Wireless data entry system should invest around its half of budget available to products like device, software, etc. Project Success- Wireless Data Entry system project for Grand Wine Limited will be considered a successful project if the project is completed with $100,000 and with in 6 month that is before 01/16/2011 with the minimum pay back period that is with in 2 years. In the mean time if the project goes little longer or with little more budget and still the project outcome is good (good payback period) the project will be considered a successful project.

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Answer in Question/Answer format.. Please read the chapter that I attached and only pick 5 of these questions to answer. According to the essay by Stephanie Wildman and Adrienne Davis, what is a privilege? What forms or systems of privilege operate in U.S. society and how do they relate to each other? The Wildman/Davis essay reports on an incident that occurred in a col- lege class taught by a professor named Marge Shultz. Why did Professor Shultz call Mr. Rodríguez “Mr. Martínez”? Why is it important to know that earlier in the day another professor had called him “Mr. Hernández”? Is it a big deal? Select several sites or institutions in which you participate and analyze how privilege operates within each of them. For example, you might choose to examine several different classroom situations in which you have found yourself, both in college and in earlier grades; you might look at privilege within your family and the families of friends or relatives; you might ex- amine how privilege operates within a religious community to which you belong. What does Allan G. Johnson mean when he refers to the “paradox of privi- lege”? How does this paradox help explain why it is possible to be privileged without feeling privileged? Peggy McIntosh wrote her classic essay on white privilege in 1988. In it she provides a listing of some of the privileges she “enjoys” as a white woman. Have things changed since she wrote her essays? How would you modify her list if you were making up a list of privileges that white people cur- rently enjoy? Now create other versions of your list of privileges—versions that factor in class privilege and gender privilege. How about a listing of privileges people enjoy by virtue of their sexual orientation, their age, or their physical condition? After having made up these lists, go back and discuss your answer to question 1. In his essay, Tim Wise frequently uses the pronouns “we” and “our.” Ana- lyze his use of these words and the implications of defining “we” in the way he does. Peggy McIntosh, Robert Jensen, and Tim Wise all discuss the privileges they enjoy as white people in contemporary U.S. society. How did you feel about each of these selections? Did you find any one of them more or less persuasive than the others? Why? What does it mean to be a “safe kind of brown”? How does Alex Shams apply this idea to his own story about Iranian-Americans and his relationship to whiteness? According to Shams’ essay, how can the term “people of color” be useful and how can it be harmful? Shams’ essay discusses the politics of solidarity as achieved not when everyone is the same, but when people have an open and honest understand- ing of their differences, work together, and support one another. Write about a time that you experienced solidarity with others. What was successful about that experience and what challenges did you face?Answer in Question/Answer format.