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The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology. The molecule we know today as deoxyribonucleic acid was first observed in 1869 by Swiss biologist Friedrich Miescher, who stumbled upon a substance which was resistant to protein digestion. At the time he referred to the molecule as ‘nuclein’ (Pray, 2008). Though Miescher remained in obscurity, Russian biochemist Phoebus Levene continued work with this substance and in 1919 discovered the three major components of a nucleotide: phosphate, sugar, and base. He noted that the sugar component was ribose for RNA and deoxyribose for DNA, and he proposed that nucleotides were made up of a chain of nucleic acids (Levene, 1919). He was largely correct, and in 1950 Erwin Chargaff, after reading a paper by Oswald Avery in which Avery identified the gene as the unit of hereditary material (Avery, 1944), set out to discover whether the deoxyribonucleic acid molecule differed among species. He found that although, in contrast to Levene’s proposal that nucleotides are always repeated in the same order, nucleotides appear in different orders in different organisms, these molecules maintained certain characteristics. This led him to develop a set of rules (known as ‘Chargaff’s Rules’) in which he states that the total number of purines (Adenine and Guanine) and the total number of pyrimidines (Cytosine and Thymine) are almost always equal in an organism’s genetic material. In 1952 Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins used X-ray crystallography to capture the first image of the molecule’s shape, and in 1953 James Watson and Francis Crick finally proposed the three dimensional model for DNA (Watson, 1953). The four main tenants of their discovery still hold true today: 1) DNA is a double-stranded helix, 2) the majority of these helices are right-handed, 3) the helices are anti-parallel, and 4) the DNA base pairs within the helix are joined by hydrogen bonding, and the bases can hydrogen bond with other molecules such as proteins. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology, first proposed by Francis Crick (Crick, 1958), describes the directional processes of conversion from DNA to RNA and from RNA to protein. This gene expression process starts with DNA, a double-stranded molecule consisting of base-paired nucleic acids adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) on a sugar-phosphate backbone. This genetic material serves as the information storage for life, a dictionary of sorts that provides all of the necessary tools for an organism to create the components of itself. During the process of transcription, the DNA molecule is used to make messenger RNA (mRNA), which carries a specific instance of the DNA instructions to the machinery that will make protein. Proteins are synthesized during translation using the mRNA molecule as a guide. Gene expression is a deterministic process during which each molecule is manufactured using the product of the previous step. The end result is a conversion from the genetic code into a functional unit which can be used to perform the work of the cell. As you can imagine, this process must be controlled by an organism in order to make efficient use of resources, respond to environmental changes, and differentiate cells within the body. Gene regulation, as it is sometimes called, occurs at all stages along the way from DNA to protein. Regulation falls into four categories: 1) epigenetic (methylation of DNA or protein, acetylation), 2) transcriptional (involves proteins called transcription factors), 3) post-transcriptional (sequestration of RNA, alternative splicing of mRNA, microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA)), and 4) post-translational modification (phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, etc. of protein products). Epigenetic regulation of DNA involves a reversible, heritable change that does not alter the sequence itself. DNA methylation occurs on the nucleic acid cytosine. Arginine and lysine are the most commonly methylated amino acids. When proteins called histones) contain certain methylated residues, these proteins can repress or activate gene expression. Often this occurs on the transcriptional level, and thus prevents the cell from manufacturing messenger RNA (mRNA), the precursor to proteins. Proteins are often referred to as the workhorse of the cell and are responsible for everything from catalyzing chemical reactions to providing the building blocks for skeletal muscles. Some proteins, called transcription factors), help to up- or down-regulate gene expression levels. These proteins can act alone or in conjunction with other transcription factors and bind to DNA bases near gene coding regions. This is a general schema for gene expression. DNA is a double-stranded molecule consisting of base-paired nucleic acids A, C, G, and T on a sugar-phosphate backbone and is used as information storage. mRNA is made during transcription and carries a specific instance of the DNA instructions to the machinery that will make the protein. Proteins are synthesized during translation using the information in mRNA as a template. This is a deterministic process during which each molecule is manufactured using the product of the previous step. mRNA requires a 5′ cap and a 3′ poly(A) tail in order to be exported out of the nucleus. The cap is critical for recognition by the ribosome and protection from enzymes called RNases that will break down the molecule. The poly(A) tail and the protein bound to it aid in protecting mRNA from degradation by other enzymes called exonucleases. What can be gained by studying gene regulation? In general, it allows us to understand how an organism evolves and develops, both on a local scale (Choe, 2006,Wilson, 2008), and on a more global network level. There are, however, more specific reasons to investigate this process more closely. Failure in gene regulation has been shown to be a key factor in disease (Stranger, 2007). Additionally, learning how to interrupt gene regulation may lead to the development of drugs to fight bacteria and viruses (McCauley, 2008). A clearer understanding of this process in microorganisms may lead to possible solutions to the problem of antimicrobial resistance (Courvalin, 2005). There are two major factors that motivate the studies herein. Firstly, the size and quality of biological data sets has increased dramatically in the last several years. This is due to high-throughput experimental techniques and technology, both of which have provided large amounts of interaction data, along with X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments which have given us the solved three-dimensional structure of proteins. Secondly, machine learning has become an increasingly popular tool in bioinformatics research because it allows for more sound gene and protein annotation without relying solely on sequence similarity. If a collection of attributes which distinguish between two classes of proteins can be assembled, function can be predicted. In this work we focus mainly on regulation at the transcriptional level and the components which play a commanding role in this operation. So-called nucleic acid-binding (NA-binding) proteins, which includes transcription factors, are involved in this and many other cellular processes. Disruption or malfunction of transcriptional regulation may result in disease. We identify these proteins from representative data sets which include many categories of proteins. Additionally, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms, we predict the specific residues involved in nucleic acid binding using machine learning algorithms. Identification of these residues can provide practical assistance in the functional annotation of NA-binding proteins. These predictions can also be used to expedite mutagenesis experiments, guiding researchers to the correct binding residues in these proteins. Toward the ultimate goal of attaining a deeper understanding of how nucleic acid-binding proteins facilitate the regulation of gene expression within the cell, the research described here focuses on three particular aspects of this problem. We begin by examining the nucleic acid-binding proteins themselves, both on the protein and residue levels. Next, we turn our attention toward protein binding sites on DNA molecules and a particular type of modification of DNA that can affect protein binding. We then take a global perspective and study human molecular networks in the context of disease, focusing on regulatory and protein-protein interaction networks. We examine the number of partnership interactions between transcription factors and how it scales with the number of target genes regulated. In several model organisms, we find that the distribution of the number of partners vs. the number of target genes appears to follow an exponential saturation curve. We also find that our generative transcriptional network model follows a similar distribution in this comparison. We show that cancer- and other disease-related genes preferentially occupy particular positions in conserved motifs and find that more ubiquitously expressed disease genes have more disease associations. We also predict disease genes in the protein-protein interaction network with 79% area under the ROC curve (AUC) using ADTree, which identifies important attributes for prediction such as degree and disease neighbor ratio. Finally, we create a co-occurrence matrix for 1854 diseases based on shared gene uniqueness and find both previously known and potentially undiscovered disease relationships. The goal for this project is to predict nucleic acid-binding on both the protein and residue levels using machine learning. Both sequence- and structure-based features are used to distinguish nucleic acid-binding proteins from non-binding proteins, and nucleic acid-binding residues from non-binding residues. A novel application of a costing algorithm is used for residue-level binding prediction in order to achieve high, balanced accuracy when working with imbalanced data sets. During the past few decades, the amount of biological data available for analysis has grown exponentially. Along with this vast amount of information comes the challenge to make sense of it all. One subject of immediate concern to us as humans is health and disease. Why do we get sick, and how? Where do our bodies fail on a molecular level in order for this to happen? How are diseases related to each other, and do they have similar modes of action? These questions will require many researchers from multiple disciplines to answer, but where do we start? We take a bioinformatics approach and examine disease genes in a network context. In this chapter we analyze human disease and its relationship to two molecular networks. First, we find conserved motifs in the human transcription factor network and identify the location of disease- and cancer-related genes within these structures. We find that both cancer and disease genes occupy certain positions more frequently. Next, we examine the human protein-protein interaction (PPI) network as it relates to disease. We find that we are able to predict disease genes with 79% AUC using ADTree with 10 topological features. Additionally, we find that a combination of several network characteristics including degree centrality and disease neighbor ratio help distinguish between these two classes. Furthermore, an alternating decision tree (ADTree) classifier allows us to see which combinations of strongly predictive attributes contribute most to protein-disease classification. Finally, we build a matrix of diseases based on shared genes. Instead of using the raw count of genes, we use a uniqueness) score for each disease gene that relates to the number of diseases with which a gene is involved. We show several interesting examples of disease relationships for which there is some clinical evidence and some for which the information is lacking. We believe this matrix will be useful in finding relationships between diseases with very different phenotypes, or for those disease connections which may not be obvious. It could also be helpful in identifying new potential drug targets through drug repositioning. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
GCCCD The Hand Features of A Primate & the Arboreal Hypothesis Discussion.

Introduction: Primate Hand FeaturesThe primary features that define primates as a taxonomic order are mainly found in the skull and on the hands and feet. The reason for this has to do with the fact that the hands and feet and the head are the areas of the body that interact with the environment the most and as such are are subject to the greatest amount of selective pressures.Nails, opposable thumbs, friction ridges among other are anatomical features that have been selected for within the primate lineage and assist in the survivability of young primates.What you are doingYour task is to explore a primate hand features and explain how that primate hand feature enhance fitness.Before you begin your task make sure you do the following thingsRead lecture notes on primate taxonomy and chapter 6What you have to do for pointsMake sure you answer all of the following questions for full points.What does the arboreal hypothesis suggest about the reason why primates have the unique features, such as opposable thumbs, that they have on their hand?Explain how primate hand features increase fitness and give one example. When writing about your example name the hand feature that you have chosen and explain clearly why it increase fitness in a tree environment. Conjecture what would happen if a primate infant did not possess your chosen primate hand features. Answer this question with the survivability of the infant in mind.Grading rubric Click on the “Gear icon” located in the top right-hand corner and then click on “Show Rubric” to view the grading requirements for this discussion. Tips for successPlease keep your answer to only what is asked in the assignment.I recommend composing your content offline in a text editor and then copy and paste the text into your reply post. If something happens you will have an offline copy of all of your hard work!I highly recommend using Google Docs (Drive) to compose offline, as Google plays well with web-based forums. If you are using Microsoft Word to compose offline, you may need to do some editing to the format when you paste it into the reply.RubricPrimate hand featuresPrimate hand featuresCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeObjectives – to understand primate hand features as adaptations to an arboreal environment.Student will be able to explain the importance of the arboreal hypothesis in explaining primate hand features2 ptsNo DescriptionStudent explained how the arboreal hypothesis is able to explain primate specific hand features1 ptsNo DescriptionStudent described arboreal hypothesis but did not explain its importance to primate hand featrues0 ptsNo MarksStudent did not explain what the arboreal hypothesis is or its importance to hand features2 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeObjectives – to understand primate hand features as adaptations to an arboreal environment.Student will explain how primate hand features increase fitness and give one examples.4 ptsNo DescriptionStudent was able to explain how primate hand features increase fitness and gave an example of a primate hand feature that clearly increase fitness in a tree environment.2.67 ptsNo DescriptionStudent explained how primate hand features increase fitness but did not give an example that showed how primate hand features increase fitness.0 ptsNo MarksStudent made no attempt at explaining how primate hand features increase fitness.4 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeObjectives – to understand primate hand features as adaptations to an arboreal environment.Student will be able to explain the importance of the arboreal hypothesis in explaining primate hand features2 ptsNo DescriptionStudent was able to explain what would happen if a primate infant did not possess student’s chosen primate hand features.0 ptsNo MarksStudent did not explain what would happen if a primate infant lacked primate hand features.2 ptsTotal Points: 8
GCCCD The Hand Features of A Primate & the Arboreal Hypothesis Discussion

NRS433V GCU Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Paper.

Prepare this assignment as a 1,500-1,750 word paper using the instructor feedback from the previous course assignments and the guidelines below.PICOT Question Revise the PICOT question you wrote in the Topic 1 assignment using the feedback you received from your instructor.The final PICOT question will provide a framework for your capstone project (the project students must complete during their final course in the RN-BSN program of study).Research CritiquesIn the Topic 2 and Topic 3 assignments, you completed a qualitative and quantitative research critique on two articles for each type of study (4 articles total). Use the feedback you received from your instructor on these assignments to finalize the critical analysis of each study by making appropriate revisions.The completed analysis should connect to your identified practice problem of interest that is the basis for your PICOT question.Refer to “Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines – Final Draft.” Questions under each heading should be addressed as a narrative in the structure of a formal paper.Proposed Evidence-Based Practice ChangeDiscuss the link between the PICOT question, the research articles, and the nursing practice problem you identified. Include relevant details and supporting explanation and use that information to propose evidence-based practice changes.General RequirementsPrepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
NRS433V GCU Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Paper

Using a Single Corporate WACC for All Divisions in A Firm Case Study

Using a Single Corporate WACC for All Divisions in A Firm Case Study.

1. What are some arguments in favor of using a single corporate WACC for all divisions in a firm? Do you agree with these arguments? Why or why not?2. What are some arguments against using a single corporate WACC for all divisions in a firm? Do you agree with these arguments? Why or why not?3.Based on the consolidated firm’s current capital structure described in Exhibit 5, what is Midland’s prevailing corporate WACC? How did you estimate the parameters for the WACC equation? What assumptions did you make?4. The preliminary debt/value estimates reported in Table 1 can be interpreted as target debt/value ratios. According to this information, what is Midland’s corporate WACC under its target capital structure? How did you estimate this value? What assumptions did you make?5. Based on the data provided in the case study, what is the target WACC for the Petrochemicals division? How did you compute this estimate? Note that the Petrochemicals division was not considered when Midland collected relevant information about comparable firms.
Using a Single Corporate WACC for All Divisions in A Firm Case Study

Analysis on Postmodernist Shrek

essay writing help Usually, in most of the traditional fairy tales, ogre is used to be the man-eating beast and the prince is used to rescue the princess and then live happily together ever after. However, in the season of the movie Shrek, especially Shrek I, the makers use decipherable devices to reverse this tradition and use three basic elements to show the idea of postmodernism, i.e. ironic interfacing, intertextuality, and self-reflexivity. Let’s begin by explaining the first one, ironic interfacing. To begin with, Shrek I includes a lot of ironic interfacing and one is that it’s lack of a narrator. Unlike other tales, it is told in a linear custom, but not from the point of view of an omniscient narrator. The story in fact is told through the interactions and dialogue of the central characters, like in the film Shrek, we need to know what Shrek and Donkey would do by watching their action and conversation. It is non-linear narrative technique. But in those Disney movies, for example in Snow White, there’s always a narrator telling the audience what is going to happen next and he is omniscient. It results the ironic interfacing between the characters and the authors. Also, at the end of the movie Shrek I, all the audiences see that Shrek, the main character discovers the camera and lots of audiences watching him. Therefore, he turns away the camera and uses his hand to block it before he kisses Fiona. It can be considered as ironic interfacing because it shows the unconventional interaction between the author and Shrek. What Shrek does in the movie lets us recognize that he can look at the audiences and the author through the known camera. So he knows how to maintain his privacy during kissing with Fiona by blocking their view. Besides, from this scene, we all can see clearly that the animation company makes use of Shrek to mock the traditional Disney stories and genre. Shrek uses the stereotypical way of Disney movies and fairytales, which is used to create the distance between the present and the reality. This acts as inviting the viewers to enter another world, a world that can only exist in the stories but not in real. Thus, the company uses it to mimic Disney by including the stories’ traditional beginning, which Disney always uses. This does not only mock Disney but also helps us to see the unreal world and in the realism of a fairytale. Another stronger example showing Shrek includes ironic interfacing is at the very first part of the movie. At the beginning of the movie, Shrek starts just as a typical Disney cliche fairytale by opening a book and starts with these few words “Once upon a time, there is an imprisoned princess waiting for her true love” – this kind of old style of tales. However, there’s a green hand suddenly rips a page from the book, uses it to wipe his bottom and Shrek interrupts it and said to the audiences, “Yeah, right!” This scene strongly shows us the ironic situation between the characters and the author. Those are the examples of ironic interfacing in Shrek. Next, we are going to talk about intertextuality. Intertextuality means that there are countless references to other movies, texts, plays, and even some parts of the other movies. Especially in Shrek III, there are several main animated Disney characters appearing in the film, but not in their usual form. By referring these Disney characters, the film requires us to have a self-conscious awareness of something that is used to be. Like Snow White and the other princess appearing in the movie, normally they are very delicate and used to be rescued. However, this time, they rescue themselves when they are imprisoned. Also, in Shrek I, Fiona is imprisoned in a castle with a dragon guarding her. In most of the Disney movies, the princesses are used to be so delicate that they can’t leave and rescue themselves. But, we notice that Fiona is different from them, as she knows Karate. And the only reason why she does not leave is that she imagines the traditional fairy tale happening to her so she has to wait for her prince. It mocks the Disney movies that those princesses are not really delicate. Furthermore, Shrek has also obtained some scenes from other movies, for example: “Fiona freezes in the mid-air like Neo in The Matrix”; “Shrek fights in a beer-covered ring, making reference to Transporter, Gladiator” etc. Last but not least, let’s talk about self-reflexivity. At the end of the movie, Shrek discovers that there is a camera shooting at him and Fiona and it means that he’s aware of the narrative mechanics or storytelling techniques of traditional fairy tales. Besides, at the beginning of the movie, when Shrek is hunted and chase by the people, he shouts at them and whispers, “This is the part you should run away.” Although this scene does not directly illustrate that the character does takes notice of the filmmaking process or the camera, it is still a very strong example of self-reflexivity. What he has said does not only remind that group of people how to react, but also reminds the audiences that normally people should run after the ogre yells at them. It shows that Shrek is conscious of the traditional circumstance in fairy tales. In addition, when we focus on the menu of the movie Shrek, it contains details that recognizes you it’s a movie. Especially when you want to play the movie press the “Play” button, there’s a pig coming out and shouting, “Play the movie.” It does let you acknowledge that it is a movie. All in all, Shrek is a very excellent example of movies showing postmodernism as the filmmakers has included ironic interfacing, intertextuality, and self-reflexivity. If you want to analyze the cartoon postmodern and feel bored of watching The Simpsons again, Shrek will be a great suggestion for you.

I need help to my homework

I need help to my homework.

I’m working on a business question and need guidance to help me learn.

Research Report – Selling Overseas and Marketing in Another Country: This project should be completed individually. Select a product or service that you currently own (or use) and a country that you’re not familiar with. You are encouraged to select a product or service that is unique and innovative.Imagine that you are with the international sales department of the company that manufactures and sells the item (or service) that you are proposing to make or introduce in the country you have selected.The first step is to learn as much as possible about the country where you plan to market the product. Check almanacs, encyclopedias, the Internet, and library databases for the most recent information, paying particular attention to descriptions of the social life of the inhabitants, their economic conditions, and cultural traditions that encourage or discourage use of the product or service.Your Task – Write a five page report that describes the product or service you plan to market abroad (it must be another country other than the United States); briefly describes the country you have selected, indicates the types of people who would find the product or service attractive, explains how the product or service would be transported or introduced into the country (or possibly manufactured if materials and labor are readily available in the host country), recommends a location for a regional sales center, and suggests how the product or service should be sold. Your report is to be submitted to the chief operating officer of the company, whose name you can either make up or find in a corporate directory. The report should include your conclusions (how the product or service will do in this new environment) and your recommendations for marketing (steps the company should take immediately and those it should develop later). You are highly encouraged to include financials, action plan, and a social media strategy.General Format –The paper must be typedUse headings within the report when appropriate (please review Pages 430-445 for Parts of a Formal Report). For this report please include a Cover, Memo of Transmittal, Table of Contents, Introduction, Body, Summary, Conclusions, Recommendations, and a Bibliography (The Cover, Memo of Transmittal, Table of Contents, and Bibliography will not be counted towards the five page requirement).Plan the paper carefully so as to develop an organized and non-redundant report. It should be organized and assembled as a continuous report and should not appear to be several independent segments bound together.You must have a minimum of five sources. Please cite your sources using APA Format – (the Writing Center can offer assistance if you do not know how to do this). These five sources must be SCHOLARLY. You should include peer-reviewed, journal articles. I would suggest reaching out to the library if you need help finding
I need help to my homework

Shoe making company based in Clu Napoca, Romania with 120 employees. It’s main problem is that they have only

Shoe making company based in Clu Napoca, Romania with 120 employees. It’s main problem is that they have only one major client (whom they base their entire production one – 60k pairs/year, which mean 2 full months of working at full capacity). Client is Tommy Hilfinger. Industry is very competitive, especially because other brands who produce their shoes in lower income countries and the rising prices of transportation/ pandemic etc. We propose an aggressive B2B strategy through which they create adjacent services such as shoes washing and repair and custom made – personalized shoes. We have to write the following chapters (which are part of a bigger proejct): 3. External Environment Analysis. Five forces analysis 3.1 Competitive rivalry 3.2. Threat of new entrants 3.3. Threat of substitute products and services 3.4. Bargaining power of suppliers 3.5. Bargaining power of buyers 3.6 Drivers for change 5. Strategic Objectives 6. Growth strategies and means of implementation 6.1 Growth Strategy 6.2 Generic Strategy 6.3 Strategic initiatives 7. Future business model 7.1 Key Partnerships 7.2. Key Activities 7.3 Value proposition 7.4 Customer relationship and customer segments 7.6. Resources 7.7 Cost structure and revenue streams 10. Human resources (HR) 10.1. HR goals 11. Risks