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The Causes And Effects Of Deforestation Sociology Essay

The Causes And Effects Of Deforestation Sociology Essay. Laurance stated that Tropical forests do far more than sustain biodiversity; they are homes to indigenous peoples, pharmacopeias of natural products, and provide vital ecosystem services, such as flood amelioration and soil conservation (p. 109). This shows that forest is very important to us but deforestation has caused all the forest to be cleared. What is deforestation? Deforestation is an act of cutting down all the trees in that particular area. Deforestation happens for some reasons, some were done legally while some were done illegally. Tropical forest takes up about six percent of the whole earth but it causes a lot of problems when all the trees were cut down. Till today, peoples are still debating on whether deforestation is an appropriate act or not. What are the causes and effects of deforestation? What is happening to the tropical rainforest now? We have always read the news of Indonesia burning the forests almost every year. Why are they doing it? It has been reported they burn the forests so that they will have a better land to plant the palm oil. It acts as a fertilizer to the land because their plants died easily. Even thought they did it to fertilize the land but it brings harm to the people around the country. Air pollution happens especially in Malaysia where there are hazes everywhere. Haze is when the air is misty and blurry. It brings harm to the people that inhale it. Therefore, every year the rates of people receiving treatment during the period of time increases. This shows that deforestation has caused a lot of effects to the mankind and it’s been showed on advertisement and newspaper but it seems that people are still not aware of it. This research paper is going to talk about the causes and effects of deforestation around the world. Many people were more aware of the effects than the causes of deforestation. This research paper is going to talk about the causes and effects of deforestation. Besides the causes and effects, this paper is going to talk about what can be done to save the forest too. Causes of deforestation One of the most common causes of deforestation is clearing up the forest to pay back the foreign debt of that particular country (Culas, 2006). Some country has owed a large sum of foreign debt. They don’t the capability to pay back the debt, thus they cleared up the forests for crop production. By planting crops that could be export to another country, they could earn a lot and repay back the debt. This is why most of the country chooses to clear the forest and do agriculture. They not only can repay back the debt but also earn a large sum of money out of it. If the country did not have that large sum of debt, the forest wouldn’t have to be cleared up and the rates of deforestation will be decreasing. Therefore, those countries need to find another alternative ways that could earn money instead of clearing up the forests. As I mentioned earlier, tropical forests only takes up about 6 percent of the whole earth. If the countries continue to clear up the forests, there will be no more forests in the surface of the earth. Another causes of deforestation are the demand of land. When the population of the certain countries increases, the demand of houses increases too. This leads to clearing up the forests to build houses so that they can sustain the population in that country. We don’t have to look at other country. We just need to take a look at our own country, Malaysia. Forests in Setapak area were cleared up to build condominiums. Malaysia has the population over millions and the demand for houses were very high. They choose to clear up the forests so that there were more land to build apartment, condominium, terrace house and more. This shows that deforestation is the first option when it comes to fulfilling the demand of land. Besides fulfilling the demand of houses, the demand of oil has also leads to deforestation. Oil has been widely used everywhere in the world now. When the demand of oil is increasing, lands were in need for oil plantation. When there is no more empty land for oil plantation, deforestation has become the option again to have lands. Trees were chopped down and being used to plants oil palm so the demand could be met. Besides meeting the demand of land, the weakness shown in the government’s rules is also one of the causes (Laurance, 1999). We learned from young that there are rules when it comes to cutting down the trees. Many people keep violating the rules and continue to do illegal logging. Why? This is because the weak government’s policies. Rules were set but there were no enforcement. They show weakness when it comes to violating the rules. For example, they just let them go when they caught them doing illegal logging instead of arresting them or fine them. This does not help but makes the matter worse. People will think that it is fine to do illegal logging since the police did not arrest them at the first place. Such government will only promote the act instead of stopping them. Soon, all the trees in the country will disappear. The effects of deforestation What are the effects of deforestation? One of the effects of deforestation is doing harm to the indigenous people. When desertification happens, it deadly affects the indigenous people, as it contributes to death, illness, poorness, and culture shock (Mitten, 1997). This is because indigenous people live in the forest and their source of foods come from the forest. Logging activities have become one way to earn money. Therefore, all the companies have build their factory near the rivers. When they cut down the trees and bring it back the process, all the wastewater will flow into the river. Indigenous people drink water from the river. As a result, they will get sick because of the dirty water caused by the factories. It can even promote to death if it get serious. Besides that, the culture will soon vanished when the indigenous people becomes lesser and lesser. Cultural shock will happen and the history of the culture will soon be forgotten. Besides harming the indigenous people, deforestation harms the wildlife too (Bonaudo, Pendu, Faure,The Causes And Effects Of Deforestation Sociology Essay
Project Information: You are a manger in the accounting department of Greene company. Greeneis a rapidly expanding manufacturing company, and is considering some additional acquisitions.The company would like to diversify, and is trying to decide between the two different scenarios outlined in Part 1 and Part 3. To help him make his decision, the Chief Financial Officer would like specific information on how the potential acquisitions would affect financial reporting. Week 1 Writing Assignment Part 1: Greene is considering diversifying by purchasing an insurance company and a lumber company. The CFO would like to know how the accounts of these two substantially different subsidiaries would be reported in the consolidated financial statements. Research the Accounting Standards Codification to see what guidance is provided, and prepare a 2 pagememo to the CFOwith your findings. Include in your memo at least two examples of situations in which it may be inappropriate to combine similar-appearing accounts of two subsidiaries.

Toyota Marketing Strategy Marketing Essay

Toyota Motor Corporation Profile According to Toyota Global (2015) Toyota is a worldwide Japanese automotive corporation headquartered in Aichi, Japan. Toyota was founded in August 28 1937 by founder Kiichiro Toyoda. Marketing Strategy Fifield (2012) claims there are countless meanings for the term ‘Marketing Strategy’. Fifield (2012) accumulates and provides a number of meanings from various authors for the term ‘Marketing Strategy’. But the most captivating definition from Fifield’s (2012) research was from an author named Craven. Fifield (2012, p.xxiv) quotes Craven’s definition of a marketing strategy in which he defines it as “a process that involves strategically analysing environmental, competitive as well as business factors that affect business units and forecasting future trends in business areas of interest to the company”. Penetration Pricing Marketing Strategy A marketing strategy currently used by Toyota is a strategy called penetration pricing (See Appendix A). Ferrell and Hartline (2010) reveal that the purpose of the penetration pricing marketing strategy is to maximise sales and to attain widespread market share within the market a company is competing in. Ferrell and Hartline (2010)also bring to light that the penetration pricing marketing strategy has the objective of capturing a large market share rapidly by setting low prices for products that a company sells. Furthermore Ferrell and Hartline (2010) claim that penetration pricing is best executed when consumers are sensitive towards the price of the product. Harrison and John (2013) highlight Toyota’s usage of the penetration pricing marketing strategy which states that Toyota sell their cars in the low end of the price spectrum. This strategy caters to the price sensitive consumers. What’s more Wood (2007) exemplifies Toyota’s use of the penetration pricing marketing strategy when Toyota introduced their Yaris Subcompact car production to the Europe market. Wood (2007) highlights that Toyota’s usage of the penetration pricing marketing strategy for their Yaris car production enabled the corporation to compete with other well-known automotive companies such as Ford, Volkswagen, Renault and Vauxhall. Guerrilla Marketing Strategy Another marketing strategy used by Toyota is a marketing strategy called the guerrilla strategy (See Appendix B). Boone and Kurtz (2014) inform that guerrilla marketing involves companies using unconventional techniques to attract consumer attention. Boone and Kurtz (2014) also regard the guerrilla marketing strategy as a fairly new marketing technique, in addition Boone and Kurtz (2014) reveal that the strategy is normally used by companies that do not have financial resources for other well-known or more effective marketing strategies. What is more Boone and Kurtz (2014) bring forward that established companies such as Toyota and Pepsi also employ the guerrilla marketing strategy even though such companies have the financial capacity to implement more effective marketing strategies. Boyles (2008) acknowledges Toyota’s incorporation of the guerrilla marketing strategy which outlines that Toyota’s main reason for using the guerrilla marketing strategy is to attract the younger crowd i.e. young adults. Boyles (2008) also points out that companies such as Toyota conduct this strategy by placing advertisements on objects that are used everyday e.g. food or drink packaging. What is more Boyles (2008) goes further by revealing that companies such as Toyota use alternative methods for the guerrilla marketing strategy such as placing advertisements in locations where people commute frequently. Social Media Marketing Strategy A further strategy currently used by Toyota is the social media marketing strategy (See Appendix C). Marketing via use of social media is considered a contemporary strategy in the marketing world and is also considered a very effective marketing strategy. Many companies in this day age are now taking advantage of the social media marketing strategy such as Toyota. Zarrella (2009) notifies that social media marketing involves the usage of web technologies. Zarella (2009) also points out that social media web technologies include activities such as blogging, social networks (such as Facebook and LinkedIn) and media sharing sites (such as Flickr and YouTube). Tybout and Calde, (2010) present a detailed example of Toyota’s usage of the social media marketing strategy. Tybout and Calde (2010) exemplify Toyota’s usage of the social media strategy marketing by unveiling Toyota’s affiliation with a company called iCrossing. Tybout and Calde (2010) go further by acknowledging iCrossing’s role in building awareness of Toyota’s IQ city car which was released by Toyota in 2008. Tybout and Calde, (2010) declare that iCrossing is a UK based company who specialise in digital marketing. Additionally Tybout and Calde, (2010) mention that iCrossing helped to promote Toyota’s IQ car model via the use of a campaign called the ‘The Hypermiling Campaign’. Hypermiler (2015) is an online community that focuses on providing fuel saving advice. iCrossing’s assistance in promoting the IQ car production helped Toyota to generate positive anticipation amongst the community’s online users. Tybout and Calde, (2010) continue by talking about Toyota’s IQ blogging site which was created specifically for the IQ car production. Tybout and Calde, (2010) carry on by disclosing Toyota’s increase in traffic on their blogging site which increased by more than 212 percent as a result of their affiliation with iCrossing. Tybout and Calde, (2010) lecture on how the social media marketing strategy has enabled Toyota to reach new audiences through the use of alternative social media marketing techniques such as blog posting, Flickr and Twitter. Tybout and Calde, (2010) conclude by addressing an additional technique used by Toyota in the social media realm which is the integration of their online newsroom with social media outlets such as YouTube, Flickr and Twitter. The result of this marketing technique integration has allowed the web community to access Toyota’s images, videos, activities and anything else associated with Toyota. Trade Show Marketing Strategy The last strategy used by Toyota is trade show marketing strategy (See Appendix D). This marketing strategy is used by many well-known automotive companies within the car industry. Trade show marketing involves companies exhibiting their new product(s) or service(s). Söilen (2013) describes trade show marketing as person to person, information exchange and selling. Söilen (2013) proceeds by stating that trade shows involve the gathering and distribution of information. Toyota uses this particular strategy to exhibit new car productions. An example of Toyota’s trade show marketing strategy is their collaboration with a German company called B s exhibitions. B s exhibitions (2015) illustrate the partnership between the two companies where they present galleries as well as video footage of Toyota’s trade shows. Toyota and b s exhibitions have worked together since the early 1980s. B s exhibitions are a company who have been specialising in trade shows for over 40 years where one of their primary focuses is trade show marketing for top automotive companies all around the world. Recommendations to Improve Toyota’s Marketing Strategies Penetration Pricing Marketing Strategy Improvement Based on the findings, Toyota could improve their penetration pricing marketing strategy by initially selling their cars at a low price then slowly increasing their prices once they have established a strong clientele on any new production they release. As mentioned earlier companies use the penetration strategy to attain widespread market share within the market they are competing in. What this means is companies such as Toyota using the penetration pricing strategy are trying to build a strong clientele which Toyota achieved many times over the years with the various car productions they have released. Holden and Burton (2010) address this issue in which they write about the problems that can arise from the penetration pricing strategy. First Holden and Burton (2010) tackle the issue of customers who come to companies such as Toyota based on price where they highlight such customers as being the first to leave once another competitor enters the market. What is more Holden and Burton (2010) state that competing with competitors based on price is the least sustainable competitive advantage strategy to have. Even though Toyota has been one of the world’s leading automotive competitors for many years it is imperative to take such precautions into consideration for the reason that they could sooner or later find themselves in such a situation. The tactic of starting off with low price then slowing increasing the price could help sustain the company’s competitive advantage years down the line. Guerrilla Marketing Strategy Improvement Toyota could improve their guerrilla marketing strategy by integrating their guerrilla marketing strategy with their social media marketing strategy. Levinson and Gibson (2010) speak about the effectiveness of combining the two marketing strategies. Levinson and Gibson (2010) delve into how guerrilla marketing strategy is able operate alongside the social media marketing strategy by noting the cost aspect of combining the two marketing strategies. They reveal that creating a social media platform requires zero fees. Levinson and Gibson (2010) carry on by discussing that all guerrilla marketers should take advantage of this idea as it gives guerrilla marketers such as Toyota the opportunity to maximise their brand to a wider audience. Social Media Marketing Strategy Improvement Based on the findings Toyota has already constructed a solid social media marketing strategy. However Toyota could improve their social media marketing strategy as a way to study their competitors. West, Ford and Ibrahim (2015) bring to light how the social media marketing strategy can useful weapon when analysing your competition. West, Ford and Ibrahim (2015) provide an insight on how the social media strategy is a contemporary tool for monitoring and gathering information about competitors within your market segments. Moreover West, Ford and Ibrahim (2015) go further by making a note of the type of information that can be gathered about competitors where information can include competitor brands, strengths, weaknesses and strategic decisions. Additionally West, Ford and Ibrahim (2015) present an extra commodity where they state corporations such as Toyota can employ specialist firms to analyse competitors on their behalf. Having access to such information would provide Toyota with ammunition which they can then use to get a better understanding of the market they are competing in. Trade Show Marketing Strategy improvement Toyota could improve their trade show marketing strategy by integrating their trade show and social media strategies together. Executing their social media strategy before and during their trade shows would help Toyota to improve traffic and awareness of their trade shows. Stratten and Kramer (2012) bring to attention that social media is one of the best ways to increase traffic at a trade shows. This can be done is by engaging in social media before and during the event. Stratten and Kramer (2012) offer an example of this tactic by saying that users of the trade show marketing strategy could use a social media outlet such as Twitter for their trade shows by using the hashtag tool. According to Chen et al. (2014) the hashtag tool is a feature on social media that is used to identify messages by topic. Stratten and Kramer (2012) continue by explaining that the use of hashtags enable the hosts of trade shows to see what people are saying about their conferences. This tactic can be carried out days or weeks before the event. Conclusion Research has revealed how instrumental marketing strategies can be to a company’s success. Additionally the report has shown how various marketing strategies play different roles to elicit varied results. Research has also illustrated how marketing strategies can be the catalyst to a company’s longevity and possess the power to separate successful companies from unsuccessful companies. What is more from research conducted it can be seen that even established companies such as Toyota still have room for improvement as development is a never ending process. Overall the report has helped to discover how Toyota has attained their current status within the automotive market. Toyota is good example of a company that executes effective marketing strategies. The marketing strategies outlined in the report have helped to expose how Toyota has had such a strong force in the automotive market over the years. References Boone, L. and Kurtz, D. (2014). Contemporary Marketing. ArkansasBoyles, D. (2008). The Corporate Assault on Youth. New York: Peter Lang B s exhibitions (2015). b s exhibitions GmbH |. [online] Available at: Chen, Y., Balke, W., Xu, J., Xu, W., Jin, P., Lin, X., Tang, T. and Hwang, E. (2014). Web-age information management. Macau: Springer. Ferrell, O. and Hartline, M. (2010). Marketing Strategy. 6th ed. Erin Joyne. Fifield, P. (2012). Marketing Strategy. 2nd ed. The Chartered Institute of Marketing Harrison, J. and St. John, C. (2013). Foundations in strategic management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western. olden, R. and Burton, M. (2010). Pricing with Confidence. Somerset: Wiley. Hypermiler (2015)., Hypermiling News, Techniques

Democracy Within the Realm of a Republic Essay

term paper help Table of Contents Introduction Democracy within the realm of a republic Conclusion References Introduction Republics are often linked with equality, which seems custom if one acknowledges the denotation of the appearance from which the word “republic” originates (from Latin: res publica – for people). This involvement between “republic” and “democracy” is nevertheless far from a broad realization, even if acknowledging that there are several forms of democracy. This section tries to give an outline of which concepts of democracy are associated with which natures of republics. As a basing remark, the concept of “one equal vote per adult” did not become a generically-conventional principle in democracies until around the middle of the 20th century: before that in all democracies the right to vote depended on one’s financial position, sex, race, or an amalgamation of these and other factors. Lots forms of government in previous times termed “democracy “, including for occurrence the Athenian democracy, would, when transplanted to the early 21st century be described as plutocracy or a broad oligarchy, because of the rules on how votes were counted. Democracy within the realm of a republic The phrase “democratic republic” may be correct semantically, however, the two schemes of government are quite dissimilar in their origin. The two systems have been in conflict since antique times, and are of special evidence in the actual and in the philosophic histories of antique Greece, particularly in the writings of Plato and Aristotle. Western forms of government come from the Middle East – the Egyptians, Persians, and the later Romans and Greeks. The results were the Renaissance; and, the Republican movements – attempted in Germany, France, England, brought to momentary fruition in America, and resident for 700 years in Switzerland. Unluckily, several of the major powers upon the creation of current civic structures all declined, or were not powered by the Filioque doctrine. The term “Democratic Republic“ has formed official names of several states. In spite of the term’s semantic value, lots of “Democratic Republics” are not regarded liberal democracies; lots of republics that are regarded democratic do not use the title of “Democratic Republic” in their official names. Both present-day and obsolete Democratic Republics have comprised states that had little or nothing in general with each other. This reasons why states call themselves Democratic Republics are also very dissimilar from case to case, but the ordinary denominator seems to be that all these states were originated as a result of a revolution or war of independence against a domestic or foreign government that was widely noted as oppressive, repressive and undemocratic. Thus the new state gave itself the title of “Democratic Republic” in order to replicate the idea that a dictatorial regime had been defeated and a new, democratic one was put in its place. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This may be the reason why Democratic Republics tend to be either ex-colonies (Congo, Sri Lanka, Algeria, etc.) who achieved independence after breaking away from an imperialist power, or communist states that were created after the overthrow of a capitalist regime (since communists regard capitalism as inherently undemocratic). In particular, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) gave themselves the title of “Democratic Republics” as a way of implying that their rivals – West Germany, South Vietnam and South Korea as not democratic. While these communist states are widely regarded as being dictatorships themselves, their use of democratic rhetoric and the term “Democratic Republic” are often cited as proof that democracy forms an integral part of communist ideology, and that even a dictatorship must claim to be democratic if it wants to call itself communist. Conclusion Usually, political researchers try to analyze underlying realities, not the names by which they go: whether a political leader calls himself “king” or “president”, and the state he governs a “monarchy” or a “republic” is not the essential features, whether he exercises power as a dictator is. In this sense political analysts may say that the First World War was, in many respects, the death knell for monarchy, and the organization of republicanism, whether de facto and/or de jure, as being necessary for a modern state. The Austro-Hungarian Empire and the German Empire were both eliminated by the terms of the peace treaty after the war, the Russian Empire overthrown by the Russian Revolution of 1917. Even within the victorious states, emperors were slowly being stripped of their authorities and privileges, and more and more the direction was in the hands of elected bodies whose majority party headed the executive. Nonetheless post-World War I Germany, a de jure republic, would develop into a de facto autocracy by the mid 1930s: the new peace treaty, after the Second World War, took more precaution in making the terms thus that also de facto (the Western part of) Germany would remain a republic. References Wilhelm Herzog From Dreyfus to Petain “The Struggle of a Republie” Creative Age Press, New York. 1947 Miguel Ángel Centeno Democracy within reason Technocratic Revolution in Mexico Pennsylvania State University Press. University Park, PA. 1997 Derek Shaffer Answering Justice Thomas in Saenz: Granting the Privileges or Immunities Clause Full Citizenship within the Fourteenth Amendment. Stanford Law Review. Vol, 52. Issue: 3. 2000. Richard C. Reuben Democracy and Dispute Resolution: The Problem of Arbitration. Law and Contemporary Problems. Vol., 67 Issue: 1. 2004

The Role Of Women In Business From The Past Century To Today Report

Abstract The report commences with an examination of women’s professional opportunities in the early twentieth century. At the time, most women could only access low-paying jobs in poorly-maintained industries. During the First and Second World War, women took up unconventional jobs in order to replace the male workers that had joined the military. However, these women’s husbands displaced them when they came back from war. In subsequent years, this group fought for its rights through the women’s movement and other organisations. By the end of the twentieth century, several females started owning their own enterprises. Today, a number of company CEOs are female, and they do a good job. Nonetheless, barriers that prevent women from reaching for leadership positions at work are causing most of them to become frustrated. It was recommended that the government should make legislations to even out the playing field. Women should undergo confidence building and be entitled to flexible hours of work. This would narrow the gap between men and women in the business world. Introduction Women’s role in business has improved dramatically since the early twentieth century. Society’s attitude towards this group affected its level of achievement in the business arena. The paper will examine some historical developments in the female movement and how these relate to the role of women in business. Justification This study will assist in bringing out the challenges that women in business face as seen through a historical lens. By starting with the twentieth century, the study will illustrate some of the historical injustices faced by women and how societies can deal with that inequality. Women in the early twentieth century and the First World War Females in the early twentieth century had minimal access to job opportunities. However, a few sectors provided women with work, such as art and literature. Female writers like Dorothy Richardson highlighted the challenges that women faced in their society. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This era also recorded an increase in female artists who used their craft to portray powerful images of working women. Although society frowned upon the participation of women in work, a small proportion of them (20%) had jobs. Most women in the 1900s were factory employees who worked under squalor conditions for minimal pay. The 1920s were the roaring twenties; this was a progressive era in which women defied the submissive stereotype of the late nineteenth century. They were daring in their social and professional lives. Some of them took up jobs in the public sector. Female clerical workers were widespread at the time; others participated in the field of journalism, law and mining. However, these opportunities were largely available to middle class Caucasian women; ethnic minorities and older women struggled to secure employment. The number of women who participated in the labour force rose by 50% in this decade. Nonetheless, some sections of society felt threatened by this new breed of independent and hardworking women. Therefore, stakeholders in the film industry quelled men’s insecurities by portraying images of married women. Nonetheless, those images did not depict the true goings-on in society. As professional roles began changing, women embraced opportunities in healthcare, education and other professions designed to cater to the needs of manufacturers. When the First World War started many men left for military service. This created a vacuum in the workplace that only women could fill. Many of them rose to the occasion; however, when the war ended, they had to step aside for their male counterparts. Those who stayed behind could only do low-paying jobs as men took all the lucrative opportunities (Hameed, 2008). Women in the Second World War When the United States entered the Second World War, it required a lot of military supplies. Suppliers converted automobile factories into aircraft facilities. This demand for military supplies created a labour shortage that only women could reverse. The government wanted women to do this only temporarily, so they made a call to work. Since few women responded to it, the government decided to launch a propaganda campaign in which it created a fictional character called Rosie the Riveter. The US government looked for a series of individuals who could fit the profile of a patriotic, attractive and efficient female. Advertisers displayed images of such women in various media channels, and the public responded positively to the portrayals (Ross, 1993). In the beginning, most women took factory jobs, but there was still a need for more qualified workers. Employers began hiring women who had just completed high school; these efforts were still not sufficient to fill the labour gap. Companies needed to tap into a demographic group that they had forbade from working; married women. We will write a custom Report on The Role Of Women In Business From The Past Century To Today specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They initially started with mothers who had older children. Most females took low-paying jobs in order to free up men for higher-paying jobs. Furthermore, few of them had access to powerful positions in their places of work. Women enjoyed the economic incentives associated with work and also appreciated the fulfilment they found in these new roles as employees. However, they had to fight negative attitudes from men. It should be noted that although a large proportion of women entered the labour force, stakeholders still felt that their greatest strength was at home. Many perceived career women as unattractive prospects for marriage. Therefore, when the war ended, women got into low-paying jobs or went back home. Nonetheless, this era paved the way for participation of women in unconventional professions. Future generations of women would follow their path. The Women’s Movement In the 1960s, female writers articulated the challenges of women in society. They asserted that domestic roles defined women, and this disempowered them. The writers urged their colleagues to find new roles and define their own identities through professional opportunities. It was such sentiments that led to the birth of the women’s movement. Many participants drew inspiration from the civil rights movement of the 1970s. It should be noted that the birth control pill contributed to the prevalence of this movement, as well. The decade 1960 was an era of rebelliousness. Many middle class youth joined the women’s movement because of these sentiments. During this decade, civil rights bills prompted female supporters to call for their own protective laws. In 1964, women secured their first antidiscrimination bill. A number of women formed the National Organisation for Women which fought for women’s rights and prompted other members to participate in the same. It was these developments that eventually spread to other parts of the western world such as the UK and Australia. Women in business today Women have made enormous strides in the business world today. Some are CEOs of Fortune 500 companies while others own medium and small enterprises. Their participation in the workforce is indicative of the degree of advancement that women have undergone over the past century. Better educational opportunities, strong antidiscrimination legislation and positive attitudes towards the female gender have contributed to these advancements. Women are now leading powerful institutions such as PepsiCo. The CEO of this institution is Indra Nooyi; she is the most powerful woman in the fortune 500 list. This leader started as a company manager and climbed the company ranks to become CEO. Indra became a chief financial officer seven years after she joined the institution and a CEO five years later (Kalyan, 2009). Other women have started their businesses from scratch and grown them into international empires. A case in point was Archer Daniels Midland. The President of this organisation is Pat Woertz, and she is the fourth most powerful woman in the fortune 500 list. Andrea Jung, Brenda Barnes, Irene Rosenfeld, Meg Withman, and Anne Mulcahy lead or own Avon, Sara Lee, Kraft Foods, eBay, and Xerox respectively. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role Of Women In Business From The Past Century To Today by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These women have worked hard to get to these positions, yet their achievements would have been unrealistic in the 1950s. The CEO of Yahoo Inc is also female, and is known as Marrissa Mayer. The born leader took up responsibility for running an ailing internet firm at the beginning of this year (2012). It is too early to judge whether her leadership has been extraordinary, but one can already see how committed she is to the firm. She only took a two-week long maternity leave and resumed her duties immediately after the break. Another example of a strong female executive is Reg Leaver who is a leader at Australia.wana. She first purchased a newsagency in 1995 and then went on to form various news groups. Leaver has the title of 2010 Nextra Australia’s winner. The above-mentioned women are not the only ones who have made a mark in the business world. Statistics indicate that women around the world own 10.4 million organisations. In some countries, women started approximately 40% of all companies. Furthermore, studies show that the number of businesses owned by this demographic group is increasing at an impressive rate. Over the past decade, female-owned businesses have grown by 42.3%. Additionally, sales generated from these organisations have increased by 4.4%. Female entrepreneurs have entered various sectors such as retail, real estate and manufacturing. Although most of these participants belong to the service sector (68%), a substantial proportion of these business owners are trying real estate (7.7%) and retail (14.4%) (Kalyan, 2009). Representation of female participants in business Clearly, women have done well for themselves. It is necessary to understand why these figures have been improving with time. One obvious explanation is the level of educational attainment among members of the group. Studies indicate that the number of women with master’s degrees has increased by 40.7% over the past 32 years. Additionally, the world now has 44.1% more first degree holders in this demographic group. Even the number of female doctoral degree holders has increased by 43% since 1980. These advancements in education have increased women’s chances of becoming business leaders. Another reason behind such impressive growth rates in entrepreneurship is the diversification of business portfolios. 38% of all female employees belong to sales and office occupations. 36% of these women handle managerial and other professional positions. 18% of them engage in service occupations while 8% of female employees handle the production, transportation and movement of goods. Participation in various sectors of the economy opens up opportunities for advancements and this increases one’s chances of owning one’s organisation. Shown is a graphical representation of the diversification of business among women Challenges faced by female workers Although the above advancements exist in the labour force, a disproportionate number of men dominate leadership positions in business. Experts assert that an invisible barrier, known as the glass ceiling, prevents women from becoming company leaders. It is imperative to understand some of the challenges that women in business face when reaching for these leadership positions (Mason, 2012). A firm’s management style may impede women’s advancement in the business world. Men and women have divergent management styles; company stakeholders may misinterpret female managerial styles and accord men more latitude. People often condemn females who adopt a masculine style. Additionally, recruitment behaviours tend to mirror prevailing demographic patterns in a company. If a firm is male-dominated, then it is more likely to hire people who represent this image. As a result, females lack opportunities to participate in such companies. Discrimination still exists in certain companies that overlook qualified women for men. Some occupations segregate women naturally. Firms in these industries are male-dominated and will rarely offer women opportunities for advancement. Typical examples include engineering, shipping or construction. In order to climb the corporate ladder, one needs access to informal and formal networks. Female employees lack access to these networks and thus have limited advancement opportunities. Some employers perceive women as problematic because they have to attend to their families’ needs. Because of this, employers may overlook mothers when promotion opportunities arise. All the above challenges have caused many women to consider entrepreneurship as the ultimate solution to the glass ceiling. Many women are leaving the workforce to start their own organisations. This shields them from the unfairness of the corporate arena (Miller, 2009). Recommendations More women should consider entrepreneurship because this allows them to create their own rules; they can also succeed on the basis of their personal input. Currently, costs of starting businesses are quite low. Further, businesses allow women to create corporations that match their personal values (Bullock, 1994). However, before more women can enter into the world of entrepreneurship, governments and other stakeholders need to do a number of things. They need to work on the concept of work-life balance through legislations and provision of relevant facilities. Women need to be enlightened about how to build their confidence as well as how to cope with new roles. Flexible scheduling should be considered by potential female entrepreneurs. This will prevent them from perpetuating the same discrimination that caused them to leave the corporate arena. Stakeholders should start creating female business networks in order to foster growth and development. Conclusion At the beginning of the twentieth century, society restricted women to low-paying jobs. Economic necessity prompted employers to hire females; however, the group never gained access to leadership positions. This has changed today because a number of women own their own enterprises. Such patterns stem from better education, legislation and business diversification. Covert discrimination places a barrier in career advancement thus compelling many women to consider entrepreneurship. References Bullock, S. (1994). Women and work. London: Zed Books. Hameed, Z. (2008). Gender differences in business roles. Web. Kalyan, S. (2009). The changing role of women in the workplace. Web. Mason, W. (2012). Women in business. Web. Miller, B. (2009). Encouraging women into senior management positions. Web. Ross, S. (1993). The rights of women. London: McMillan.

Characteristics of Incarcerated Women Essay

Incarcerated women demonstrate characteristics that are unique to their status. As is the case with other groups of the population, incarcerated women often engage in self-mutilation behavior. This behavior occurs when the women intentionally harm, damage or mutilate themselves through cutting, burning, head banging or taking known poisons, with the intention to self destruct. Second, these women often exhibit multiple risks behavior, which makes them particularly vulnerable to the development and progression of a deviant lifestyle. In many occasions, the multiple risks behavior stems from the fact that most of these women come from extremely troubled family backgrounds. Third, many incarcerated women have issues with substance use and abuse, which interferes with their emotional and mental health. Fourth, a sizeable number of incarcerated women are victims of trauma experiences, including rape, domestic violence and parental irresponsibility. The fifth characteristic of incarcerated women is that they are more likely to exhibit a violent temperament than the general population. Sixth, women in jail exhibit high risk for criminal recidivism than their male counterparts. Lastly, considering the demographic dynamics and socio-economic status, it is a well known fact that incarcerated women are often young, single, mothers from marginalized ethnic environments who have minimal education and extremely wanting work relationships.

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