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The Bhopal Gas Tragedy Environmental Sciences Essay

On December 3, 1984. In the city of Bhopal, a cloud of toxic gases escaped from an American pesticide plant, killing and injuring thousands of people. When the noxious clouds cleared, the worst industrial disaster in history had taken place. Now, Dominique Lapierre in her book “Five Past Midnight” brings the hundreds of characters, conflicts, and adventures together in an unforgettable tale of love and hope. Introduction Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) was asked to build a plant for the manufacture of Sevin, a pesticide commonly used throughout Asia. As part of the deal, India’s government insisted that a significant percentage of the investment come from local shareholders. The government itself had a 22% stake in the company’s subsidiary, Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL). The company built the plant in Bhopal because of its central location and access to transport infrastructure. The specific site within the city was zoned for light industrial and commercial use, not for hazardous industry. The plant was initially approved only for formulation of pesticides from component chemicals, such as MIC imported from the parent company, in relatively small quantities. However, pressure from competition in the chemical industry led UCIL to implement “backward integration” – the manufacture of raw materials and intermediate products for formulation of the final product within one facility. This was inherently a more sophisticated and hazardous process. In 1984, the plant was manufacturing Sevin at one quarter of its production capacity due to decreased demand for pesticides. Widespread crop failures and famine on the subcontinent in the 1980s led to increased indebtedness and decreased capital for farmers to invest in pesticides. Local managers were directed to close the plant and prepare it for sale in July 1984 due to decreased profitability. When no ready buyer was found, UCIL made plans to dismantle key production units of the facility for shipment to another developing country. In the meantime, the facility continued to operate with safety equipment and procedures far below the standards found in its sister plant in Institute, West Virginia. The local government was aware of safety problems but was reticent to place heavy industrial safety and pollution control burdens on the struggling industry because it feared the economic effects of the loss of such a large employer. At 11.00 PM on December 2 1984, while most of the one million residents of Bhopal slept, an operator at the plant noticed a small leak of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas and increasing pressure inside a storage tank. The vent-gas scrubber, a safety device designer to neutralize toxic discharge from the MIC system, had been turned off three weeks prior. Apparently a faulty valve had allowed one ton of water for cleaning internal pipes to mix with forty tons of MIC. A 30 ton refrigeration unit that normally served as a safety component to cool the MIC storage tank had been drained of its coolant for use in another part of the plant. Pressure and heat from the vigorous exothermic reaction in the tank continued to build. The gas flare safety system was out of action and had been for three months. At around 1.00 AM, December 3, loud rumbling reverberated around the plant as a safety valve gave way sending a plume of MIC gas into the early morning air. Within hours, the streets of Bhopal were littered with human corpses and the carcasses of buffaloes, cows, dogs and birds. An estimated 3,800 people died immediately, mostly in the poor slum colony adjacent to the UCC plant. Local hospitals were soon overwhelmed with the injured, a crisis further compounded by a lack of knowledge of exactly what gas was involved and what its effects were. It became one of the worst chemical disasters in history and the name Bhopal became synonymous with industrial catastrophe. Estimates of the number of people killed in the first few days by the plume from the UCC plant run as high as 10,000, with 15,000 to 20,000 premature deaths reportedly occurring in the subsequent two decades. The Indian government reported that more than half a million people were exposed to the gas. Several epidemiological studies conducted soon after the accident showed significant morbidity and increased mortality in the exposed population. These data are likely to under-represent the true extent of adverse health effects because many exposed individuals left Bhopal immediately following the disaster never to return and were therefore lost to follow-up. AFTERMATH Immediately after the disaster, UCC began attempts to dissociate itself from responsibility for the gas leak. Its principal tactic was to shift culpability to UCIL, stating the plant was wholly built and operated by the Indian subsidiary. It also fabricated scenarios involving sabotage by previously unknown Sikh extremist groups and disgruntled employees but this theory was impugned by numerous independent sources. The toxic plume had barely cleared when, on December 7, the first multi-billion dollar lawsuit was filed by an American attorney in a U.S. court. This was the beginning of years of legal machinations in which the ethical implications of the tragedy and its affect on Bhopal’s people were largely ignored. In March 1985, the Indian government enacted the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster Act as a way of ensuring that claims arising from the accident would be dealt with speedily and equitably. The Act made the government the sole representative of the victims in legal proceedings both within and outside India. Eventually all cases were taken out of the U.S. legal system under the ruling of the presiding American judge and placed entirely under Indian jurisdiction much to the detriment of the injured parties. In a settlement mediated by the Indian Supreme Court, UCC accepted moral responsibility and agreed to pay $470 million to the Indian government to be distributed to claimants as a full and final settlement. The figure was partly based on the disputed claim that only 3000 people died and 102,000 suffered permanent disabilities. Upon announcing this settlement, shares of UCC rose $2 per share or 7% in value. Had compensation in Bhopal been paid at the same rate that asbestosis victims where being awarded in US courts by defendant including UCC – which mined asbestos from 1963 to 1985 – the liability would have been greater than the $10 billion the company was worth and insured for in 1984. By the end of October 2003, according to the Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Department, compensation had been awarded to 554,895 people for injuries received and 15,310 survivors of those killed. The average amount to families of the dead was $2,200. At every turn, UCC has attempted to manipulate, obfuscate and withhold scientific data to the detriment of victims. Even to this date, the company has not stated exactly what was in the toxic cloud that enveloped the city on that December night. When MIC is exposed to 200° heat, it forms degraded MIC that contains the more deadly hydrogen cyanide (HCN). There was clear evidence that the storage tank temperature did reach this level in the disaster. The cherry-red color of blood and viscera of some victims were characteristic of acute cyanide poisoning. Moreover, many responded well to administration of sodium thiosulfate, an effective therapy for cyanide poisoning but not MIC exposure. UCC initially recommended use of sodium thiosulfate but withdrew the statement later prompting suggestions that it attempted to cover up evidence of HCN in the gas leak. The presence of HCN was vigorously denied by UCC and was a point of conjecture among researchers. As further insult, UCC discontinued operation at its Bhopal plant following the disaster but failed to clean up the industrial site completely. The plant continues to leak several toxic chemicals and heavy metals that have found their way into local aquifers. Dangerously contaminated water has now been added to the legacy left by the company for the people of Bhopal LESSONS LEARNED The events in Bhopal revealed that expanding industrialization in developing countries without concurrent evolution in safety regulations could have catastrophic consequences. The disaster demonstrated that seemingly local problems of industrial hazards and toxic contamination are often tied to global market dynamics. UCC’s Sevin production plant was built in Madhya Pradesh not to avoid environmental regulations in the U.S. but to exploit the large and growing Indian pesticide market. However the manner in which the project was executed suggests the existence of a double standard for multinational corporations operating in developing countries. Enforceable uniform international operating regulations for hazardous industries would have provided a mechanism for significantly improved in safety in Bhopal. Even without enforcement, international standards could provide norms for measuring performance of individual companies engaged in hazardous activities such as the manufacture of pesticides and other toxic chemicals in India. National governments and international agencies should focus on widely applicable techniques for corporate responsibility and accident prevention as much in the developing world context as in advanced industrial nations. Specifically, prevention should include risk reduction in plant location and design and safety legislation. Local governments clearly cannot allow industrial facilities to be situated within urban areas, regardless of the evolution of land use over time. Industry and government need to bring proper financial support to local communities so they can provide medical and other necessary services to reduce morbidity, mortality and material loss in the case of industrial accidents. Public health infrastructure was very weak in Bhopal in 1984. Tap water was available for only a few hours a day and was of very poor quality. With no functioning sewage system, untreated human waste was dumped into two nearby lakes, one a source of drinking water. The city had four major hospitals but there was a shortage of physicians and hospital beds. There was also no mass casualty emergency response system in place in the city. Existing public health infrastructure needs to be taken into account when hazardous industries choose sites for manufacturing plants. Future management of industrial development requires that appropriate resources be devoted to advance planning before any disaster occurs. Communities that do not possess infrastructure and technical expertise to respond adequately to such industrial accidents should not be chosen as sites for hazardous industry. Since 1984 Following the events of December 3 1984 environmental awareness and activism in India increased significantly. The Environment Protection Act was passed in 1986, creating the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) and strengthening India’s commitment to the environment. Under the new act, the MoEF was given overall responsibility for administering and enforcing environmental laws and policies. It established the importance of integrating environmental strategies into all industrial development plans for the country. However, despite greater government commitment to protect public health, forests, and wildlife, policies geared to developing the country’s economy have taken precedence in the last 20 years. India has undergone tremendous economic growth in the two decades since the Bhopal disaster. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita has increased from $1,000 in 1984 to $2,900 in 2004 and it continues to grow at a rate of over 8% per year. Rapid industrial development has contributed greatly to economic growth but there has been significant cost in environmental degradation and increased public health risks. Since abatement efforts consume a large portion of India’s GDP, MoEF faces an uphill battle as it tries to fulfill its mandate of reducing industrial pollution. Heavy reliance on coal-fired power plants and poor enforcement of vehicle emission laws have result from economic concerns taking precedence over environmental protection. With the industrial growth since 1984, there has been an increase in small scale industries (SSIs) that are clustered about major urban areas in India. There are generally less stringent rules for the treatment of waste produced by SSIs due to less waste generation within each individual industry. This has allowed SSIs to dispose of untreated wastewater into drainage systems that flow directly into rivers. New Delhi’s Yamuna River is illustrative. Dangerously high levels of heavy metals such as lead, cobalt, cadmium, chrome, nickel and zinc have been detected in this river which is a major supply of potable water to India’s capital thus posing a potential health risk to the people living there and areas downstream. Land pollution due to uncontrolled disposal of industrial solid and hazardous waste is also a problem throughout India. With rapid industrialization, the generation of industrial solid and hazardous waste has increased appreciably and the environmental impact is significant. India relaxed its controls on foreign investment in order to accede to WTO rules and thereby attract an increasing flow of capital. In the process, a number of environmental regulations are being rolled back as growing foreign investments continue to roll in. The Indian experience is comparable to that of a number of developing countries that are experiencing the environmental impacts of structural adjustment. Exploitation and export of natural resources has accelerated on the subcontinent. Prohibitions against locating industrial facilities in ecologically sensitive zones have been eliminated while conservation zones are being stripped of their status so that pesticide, cement and bauxite mines can be built. Heavy reliance on coal-fired power plants and poor enforcement of vehicle emission laws are other consequences of economic concerns taking precedence over environmental protection. In March 2001, residents of Kodaikanal in southern India caught the Anglo-Dutch company, Unilever, red-handed when they discovered a dumpsite with toxic mercury laced waste from a thermometer factory run by the company’s Indian subsidiary, Hindustan Lever. The 7.4 ton stockpile of mercury-laden glass was found in torn stacks spilling onto the ground in a scrap metal yard located near a school. In the fall of 2001, steel from the ruins of the World Trade Center was exported to India apparently without first being tested for contamination from asbestos and heavy metals present in the twin tower debris. Other examples of poor environmental stewardship and economic considerations taking precedence over public health concerns abound. The Bhopal disaster could have changed the nature of the chemical industry and caused a reexamination of the necessity to produce such potentially harmful products in the first place. However the lessons of acute and chronic effects of exposure to pesticides and their precursors in Bhopal has not changed agricultural practice patterns. An estimated 3 million people per year suffer the consequences of pesticide poisoning with most exposure occurring in the agricultural developing world. It is reported to be the cause of at least 22,000 deaths in India each year. In the state of Kerala, significant mortality and morbidity have been reported following exposure to Endosulfan, a toxic pesticide whose use continued for 15 years after the events of Bhopal. Aggressive marketing of asbestos continues in developing countries as a result of restrictions being placed on its use in developed nations due to the well-established link between asbestos products and respiratory diseases. India has become a major consumer, using around 100,000 tons of asbestos per year, 80% of which is imported with Canada being the largest overseas supplier. Mining, production and use of asbestos in India is very loosely regulated despite the health hazards. Reports have shown morbidity and mortality from asbestos related disease will continue in India without enforcement of a ban or significantly tighter controls. UCC has shrunk to one sixth of its size since the Bhopal disaster in an effort to restructure and divest itself. By doing so, the company avoided a hostile takeover, placed a significant portion of UCC’s assets out of legal reach of the victims and gave its shareholder and top executives bountiful profits. The company still operates under the ownership of Dow Chemicals and still states on its website that the Bhopal disaster was “cause by deliberate sabotage”. Some positive changes were seen following the Bhopal disaster. The British chemical company, ICI, whose Indian subsidiary manufactured pesticides, increased attention to health, safety and environmental issues following the events of December 1984. The subsidiary now spends 30-40% of their capital expenditures on environmental-related projects. However, they still do not adhere to standards as strict as their parent company in the UK. The US chemical giant DuPont learned its lesson of Bhopal in a different way. The company attempted for a decade to export a nylon plant from Richmond, VA to Goa, India. In its early negotiations with the Indian government, DuPont had sought and won a remarkable clause in its investment agreement that absolved it from all liabilities in case of an accident. But the people of Goa were not willing to acquiesce while an important ecological site was cleared for a heavy polluting industry. After nearly a decade of protesting by Goa’s residents, DuPont was forced to scuttle plans there. Chennai was the next proposed site for the plastics plant. The state government there made significantly greater demand on DuPont for concessions on public health and environmental protection. Eventually, these plans were also aborted due to what the company called “financial concerns”. QUESTIONAIRE Name : Alkesh R Takpere Age : 43 Company Name : RCF Designation: Chief Manager (Technical services) Which products do you deal in ? Fertilizers and other chemicals 1) Fertilizer Urea 2) Complex fertilizers (NPK) 3) Methanol 4) Sodium Nitrate 5) Ammonium bicarbonate 6) Methylamines 7) Dimethyl Form amide 8) Dimethylacetamide Which is the most hazardous chemical and what is the harm caused due to it ? Methanol is a hazardous chemical. It has severed effects on the body such as severe abdominal, leg, and back pain. Amounts of methanol can also cause Loss of vision and even blindness. Have your company faced any tragedy with regards to gas leakage? No, RCF has never faced any gas leakage problems. During the start up and the shut down all the gases are arrested using flares. If yes, how did you deal with the situation? We have upgraded ourselves with all the latest technology. There are 22 plants in all and they are installed with DCS systems in all the plants. Being established in 1968 we gradually modernized all the systems. We have computerized control systems which help us track all the activities around the manufacturing units. The temperature level of all the vessels can be moderated via computer. Internalized LAN system connections with the ammonia plants help in keeping a check on functioning of the plant, temperature and chemical levels, MCS 1010 degree Celsius. Workplace monitors help us to take corrective actions via “Alarms” and “CCTV’s” which command the operators and the analysts. What are the ideal norms to be followed in a chemical manufacturing company? There are two types of Norms followed by the RCF: Safety norms and environment norms. Safety norms: Training to all contract employees Time to time health check up Separate training given to the engineers Fire fighting training Gloves, goggles and shoes to deal with hazardous chemicals Welding shield for welding jobs Environment norms: Norms related to Sox ,Nox,Ammonia , “PM2.5”,CO etc Other stipulated norms given by CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) and MPCB(Maharashtra Pollution Control Board) and RCF works way below these norms. What precautions are taken as a measure of safety ? Studies done by allocated bodies ISO 14000 ,ISO 9000
The concept map for teaching spoken English Coursework. Differences between the two concept maps The first map is a simple representation of what the teacher would involve in teaching spoken English. On the other hand, the second map is a detailed map with explicit contents of all elements of teaching spoken English, implementation, and evaluation. The first map provides an overview of the lesson and its fundamental concepts. After the teacher had reviewed materials for teaching the spoken English to ESL class, he developed the second map based on new knowledge gained. Thus, the second map provides all features that the teacher requires to implement the lesson effectively. The first map only presents various features of the spoken English. The second map gives different details of what the teacher should teach in the spoken English lesson. For instance, speaking skills, pronunciation, and listening skills are core aspects of spoken English, which are in the second map. They also extend to highlight specific levels of teaching i.e., word and sound levels. Under pronunciation, we can see that drilling is the best approach for vowels and consonants as highlighted in the first map. However, the second map breaks it down to aspects like voicing, place, and manner. Moreover, there are other elements of pronunciation, which one can identify, such as communication, sounds, variations in sound production, and other non-fluency features like repetition. It is also important to note that the second map has clearly identified specific roles of the teacher and students. One can also identify different levels of students’ capabilities like beginner or elementary, intermediate, and advanced levels. The second map has introduced detailed elements of teaching. For instance, we have the whole lesson, the distinct phase, and the integrated phase. In the second map, the teacher can also identify assessment details of the spoken English lesson. The second map has included planning details so that the teacher can have a logical way of teaching lesson contents. Therefore, the teacher can implement the lesson effectively without challenges. These features are not in the first map. The second map has unique features, which interlinks the entire lesson and planning processes to all other activities of the lesson. For instance, there is a direct arrow from the whole lesson to lesson planning. Such arrows are also present in stages of lesson planning and the role of the teacher and students. In addition, there are also curves, which show the direction of movement between activities. They show that the lesson is unified whole, and the teacher must follow sequences for effective implementation. This shows that knowledge acquisition in the spoken English lesson requires an integrated approach. The first map lacks pictures. In the second map, there are pictures embedded within the lesson. For instance, effective teaching of spoken English requires the teacher and learners to interact. The picture identifies interaction between the teacher and the learner in the learning processes. In addition, there is also a picture of learners engaged in role-playing (student-student interaction) and playing in order to learner voicing, place, and others. Overall, the second map is a detailed presentation of how a teacher can implement a lesson plan of the spoken English in the ESL class. It shows logical sequences of learning and integration methods of teaching the second language and knowledge acquisitions. An approach of teaching English I would use in the future The initial approach would be to let students to understand the importance of spoken English in their lives. It is necessary for students to understand that the need to learn and apply spoken English has increased significantly among people from different parts of the world. Students must understand that such needs arise due to international activities like trade, job opportunities, tourism, further education, and travelling or tourism. Thus, people of different ages and nationalities want to learn spoken English to meet such needs. Learning spoken English will ensure that students can communicate clearly with self-confidence and effectively deliver their messages. They must also understand that English is a global language. At this study level, (our study level is intermediate) the teacher knows that students will not be able to learn English as children do because it is a foreign language. Given the complexity of teaching spoken English (see the concept maps), it would be important to emphasise the role of practice in order to reduce effects of the first language on English. I will let the student know that they need an extra effort to speak fluent and accurate English. I would also be interested in understanding what factors may hinder or motivate my students to learn spoken English. As a result, my future approach of teaching spoken English would be a comprehensive approach based on needs and motivation of students. My students are Saudi Arabia intermediate English students. They have learned English in the previous years. However, I do not expect them to exhibit high-levels of confidence, accuracy, fluency, and vocabulary usages when speaking English. Thus, my approach of teaching spoken English will also motivate learners to overcome their difficulties. My lesson would reflect the importance of teaching skills in listening, pronunciation, and speaking. These are important elements of effective communications. On this note, I would strive to understand general abilities and weaknesses of students in these aspects of spoken English. Herbert asserts that teachers should identify challenges, which students have in order to focus on such challenges when teaching (Herbert, 2002, p. 188-200). I will recognise that teaching pronunciation goes beyond sounds. As a result, I will incorporate word stress, intonation, and stress in sentences as parts of pronunciation for ESL learners. There are also linkages in words, which my lesson would explain. During my lesson, students would note the role of their mother tongues and their influences on pronunciation of English words. However, an effective practice would ensure that students gain confidence and improve their communication skills (Hewings, 2007, p. 30). It will also be important to let students to know that it would be unrealistic to achieve the level of a native speaker in English pronunciation. It would also be important to encourage students to practice pronunciation whenever they find an opportunity to allow them lessen the effect of their native language on English. Students will also learn speaking and listening skills. However, the choice of these skills would depend on the level of students’ abilities (intermediate). Initially, I shall encourage my student to master discrete skills in learning spoken English (Rost, 1990, p. 99-177). They will recognise various forms of words, cohesive text elements, and key words in spoken English. These may form the basis of the lesson. However, I will introduce students to interpretive processes of listening in which we will engage in understanding conversation and discourse. Students shall engage in reading written texts loudly. During this process, I will emphasise the role of students whenever they are reading texts aloud. For instance, contemporary approaches of teaching listening skills require students to be active participants in the process of learning. In this regard, I would encourage my students to develop their listening skills by using various strategies to enhance, monitor, and assess such skills. Thus, my class would emphasise the role of students as active listeners. Doff observes that students must acquire both listening and speaking skills in order to realise successful conversations (Doff, 1988, p. 78-90). Traditionally, students would repeat what the teacher has said, memorise a conversation or a story and provide answer to drills. These were sentence-based approaches to achieve proficiency in repetition or drill approaches. However, I would apply a communicative-based approach to teach spoken English (Richards, 2008, p. 1-2). In this context, I would encourage my students to develop speaking skills through generating ideas and solving tasks with the aim of developing fluency, accuracy, and vocabulary. Thus, I would apply information-gap and encourage students to use spoken English in real communications based on knowledge acquired previously. This strategy would allow students to acquire skills in communication and engage in meaningful negotiations, which would help them to develop effective oral skills. I shall encourage clarity and observation of grammar rules as Hedge notes (Hedge, 2000, p. 259). Teaching requires effective planning of the lesson plan. According to Butt, good planning, classroom management, and sustained performance are the best ways of ensuring effective learning (Butt, 2006, p. 65-80). As a teacher, I would make sure that I carefully plan my lessons by organising them in terms of introduction or warmer, pre-task activities, during tasks, and post-tasks activities. Warmer activities would be useful for preparing students for active participation in the spoken English lesson. At the intermediate level, students will engage in discussions, peer-to-peer activities, self-tests, and evaluation. Every stage of the lesson would indicate the role of the teacher and students. The aim of planning my lesson is to ensure that students remain active throughout the lesson. Baker and Westrup pointed out that engaging students in a lesson usually makes them active and apply acquired skills in learning (Baker and Westrup, 2003, p. 21-30). Engaging students in the lesson would ensure that they concentrate on learning activities. Besides, I would be able to encourage slow learners to participate in various activities. Activities in teaching spoken English would be able to motivate students to contribute in learning and developing self-confidence for effective communication in English. Hedge encourages teachers to balance their lesson plans in spoken English so that students can develop both accuracy and fluency (Hedge, 2000, p. 259). At the intermediate level, I would focus on both accuracy and fluency as we develop fluency because my student would not have mastered accuracy in spoken English. In my class, I shall encourage the use of information gap, restricted conversation, storytelling, role-play, jokes, discussions, and use of games. I have also learned the importance of a good learning environment for learners. I shall ensure that the class has a favourable environment, which will encourage all students to take part in oral presentations. This would ensure that we do not leave slow learners as others progress. Collie and Slater note that a favourable classroom environment can promote learning of fluency (Collie and Slater, 1993, p. 8). In this context, I would focus on effective topic presentation, classroom management and student participation. Student errors and feedback will form the basis of developing an evaluation plan. I shall provide feedback and encourage students to generate correct answers. No feedback shall upset any student. I shall pay special attention to student assessment. Validity, reliability, and practicality of students’ assessment tools are critical for evaluation of the teacher’s lesson outcomes. It would be important to ensure that tests have a suitable scoring and grading rubric in order to enhance reliability of assessment tools. Burgess and Head note the importance of knowing test criteria among students (Burgess and Head, 2005, p. 99-120). I would use different methods to test students learning outcomes. These may include information gap, interviews, and controlled interviews. I shall expect to see some levels of improvement among slow learners while fast learners will display improved fluency and accuracy. Overall, my teaching approach would encourage students to master English speech sounds like vowels and constants, stress, intonation, and rhythm as they also recognise manner and place. It will encourage a reasonable level of accuracy, use of vocabulary, and fluency among students. Thus, students would know what to say, and how to say it in any given context. References Baker, J., and Westrup, H. (2003). Essential Speaking Skills. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Burgess, S., and Head, Katie. (2005). How to Teach for Exams. New Jersey: Pearson Education. Butt, G. (2006). Lesson Planning. London : Continuum International Publishing Group. Collie, J., and Slater, S. (1993). Speaking 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Doff, A. (1988). Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers-Tacher’s Workbook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Herbert, J. (2002). PracTESOL: It’s not what you say, but how you say it. In J. C. Richards and W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in Language Teaching (pp. 188-200). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hewings, M. (2007). Pronunciation Practice Activities: A resource book for teaching English pronunciation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J. C. (2008). Teaching Listening and Speaking: From Theory to Practice. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Rost, M. (1990). Listening in Language Learning. London: Longman. The concept map for teaching spoken English Coursework
“It follows than as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, and with it, everything honourable and glorious.” George Washington INTRODUCTION 1. The closing decades of the twentieth century witnessed sweeping changes in the security perception of most nations. There have also been major changes in the security environment in the Indian Ocean. India has made great strides towards economic progress and is continuing to do so. This momentum cannot be sustained unless a certain measure of internal and external security is ensured. Traditional state-centred geopolitics of the past was too narrow and parochial in conceptualising, both, geography and politics, and, appreciating the impact of oceans on politico-economic forces. More than ninety percent of India’s trade is sea borne, in addition to which, the country has a huge EEZ with enormous reserves of minerals, energy and food. Protection of India’s maritime interests, which form a major chunk of the country’s economic interests, is therefore vital. It is necessary to plan ahead and prepare for this inevitable transformation, in which the maritime element will become more and more important. Potential threats interfering with our maritime interests will have to be overcome, firmly and resolutely and efforts made to coax regional players into maritime co-operation for mutual protection of economic interests. 2. In the past, India’s attention has been deliberately diverted to its land frontiers, thus, preventing its strategic gaze from focussing on the maritime surge enveloping the country from the East and West. Historical evidence indicates that a nation, without a commitment to build a world class Navy, cannot be a world class player. India deserves to aspire to play the role of a regional power in South Asia and a facilitator for regional cooperation. Since independence, India has made substantial progress in establishing it’s pre-eminence in the Indian Ocean region. Its involvement in the liberation of Bangladesh, peacekeeping operations in Sri Lanka and suppression of the coup in Maldives are some examples of its superior power status in the region. 3. India’s potential lies in its geo-strategic location, size and distribution of its island territories in the Indian Ocean. It has vast natural maritime resources, only a limited amount of which have been exploited. In addition, its economic resurgence has led to India being viewed as a regional power and the only country capable of competing with the ever-growing influence of China in the region. The emerging maritime environment has thrown open numerous security challenges and has brought about quantum changes in maritime warfare. Navy being a sovereign tool of maritime power is self contained not only to deal with emerging security challenges across the spectrum of conflict but also has a unique capability to achieve geo-strategic objectives during peace time. The Indian Navy would need to deal with future extra regional challenges and to protect India’s bourgeoning strategic assets particularly maritime trade and energy security. The Navy, therefore, needs to develop assets to undertake the responsibilities of safeguarding the vital maritime interests as also having a strategic reach and an out of area projection capability. The naval force structuring inadvertently has large gestation periods and in a manner is irreversible once set into motion. Therefore, it is imperative that the planning and development of the Indian Naval capabilities be carried out in a rational and coordinated manner keeping in mind the challenges likely to be encountered in the future. AIM 4. The aim of this paper is analyse the future roles of the Indian Navy and suggest a perspective force structure for the Navy in 2025. MARITIME INTERESTS OF INDIA 5. The Indian Ocean washes the shores of three continents and 35 littoral states, some of which are the fastest growing economies of the world. Geographically India enjoys a unique position jutting some 2000km into the sea making it the most prominent landmass in the Indian Ocean. This unique geographical position brings nearly half the IOR within a 1500 km arc from the mainland Indian Territory [1] . The outlying islands provide it a further extended reach. Thus strategically, India enjoys the geographic advantage to project military power into the Indian Ocean and the Indian Navy is the ideal apparatus for the same. 6. Considering the likely environment and the future security challenges raised by the growing geo-strategic and geo-economic importance of the Indian Ocean, India would need to develop a proactive strategy to protect its maritime interests. With the envisaged growth and emergence of India as a regional power its maritime interests would need to assume a much wider canvas and not be restricted to its ports, harbours and coastal sovereignty. 7. Key Maritime Interests. The national interests of India would entail fostering a secure environment for economic growth. In order to ensure this it would be in India’s interest to maintain peace and stability in its region of interest and nurture a low threat stable environment at sea and the littorals in the Indian Ocean. In addition, coastal sovereignty of the far flung islands would continue to remain a key maritime interest. 8. Economic Security. The fostering of economic security for India in the maritime sphere would include the protection of trade, energy supplies and the ocean resources. The criticality of these is enumerated in the following paragraphs:- (a) Trade. India’s international trade is overwhelmingly (90 percent in volume and 77 percent in value) carried on the seas [2] . (b) Ocean Resources. India has an EEZ of 2.02 million square km which is likely to increase to 2.54 million square km [3] . India’s main interests include exploitation of living and non-living resources as an alternative to fast depleting land based resources. (c) Energy Requirement. India is highly dependant on oil imports to meet its energy requirements. Almost 80 percent of India’s oil requirements are imported. This is a major factor for sustaining the rate of growth and is, therefore, essential. 9. Regional Co-operation. India is keen to enhance bilateral and multilateral co-operation as also to foster stability in the region. Hence, the maritime domain could be transformed to an area of cooperation rather than conflict. The areas of naval co-operation and initiatives that are envisaged are as follows:- (a) Conduct of combined exercises and providing advance information about exercises and manoeuvres. (b) Setting up of joint task force to tackle natural calamities. (c) Making joint efforts to tackle maritime pollution, conservation of maritime environment, piracy, global smuggling, poaching and SAR. (d) Ensuring the safety of SLOCs by establishing presence in a mutually acceptable manner and by carrying out joint patrolling. THREAT PERCEPTIONS 10. Maritime Security Concerns. India’s maritime security concerns due to its geo strategic location in the continent indicate the following:- (a) To the West is the Gulf oil area and Pakistan, simmering on the flash point of a global energy and nuclear crisis. (b) To the East is the steadily growing economy of the ASEAN states coupled with China’s vigorous exertions that tend to spill over into our maritime zone. (c) To the South lie the vast majority of the IOR’s developing states that are potential hotbed for extra regional intervention. (d) Sitting astride the principal ISLs of the IOR, India can not but remain the central focus of security concerns in the region. 11. Threats to Economic Security. The major threats that would hamper economic security are:- (a) Disruption of SLOCs. (b) Closure of choke points. (c) Piracy. (d) Competition for resources. 12. Threats to Regional Security. The perceived threats to the regional security around India are as follows:- (a) Maritime terrorism. (b) Internal conflicts. (c) Dissolution of states and regimes. (d) Proliferation of arms and WsMD. (e) Ethnic fundamentalism. 13. China. China’s rising defence budget and military modernisation do not leave any doubt about its regional objectives. It has ambitions of dominating regional affairs and is continuously striving to achieve the capability to do so. A major strategic priority would be to establish a presence in the Indian Ocean. Towards this aim, China has established strategic presence in various locations in the Indian Ocean, from Myanmar to Sri Lanka to acquiring rights for a base in Mauritius and assisting Pakistan in the development of Gwadar deep sea port. These along with its aircraft carrier project and acquiring an offensive blue water capability are a clear indication that the Chinese would possess the capability to project force in the IOR by 2025. 14. Pakistan. Pakistan has been and will continue to be a source of trouble for India. It sits astride the critical energy lifelines from the Persian Gulf to India. Its submarine fleet offers it a credible sea denial capability. In addition its plans for acquiring more P3C Orion from USA would further enhance its surveillance capabilities and would be a continual threat to Indian assets. 15. Extra Regional Presence. A CBG operating off the coast of a country is like a new neighbour and not necessarily a wanted one. This neighbour can move 500 nm in a day and could threaten a different part of a nation on every alternate day. The extra regional presence is a real threat and countries like the USA, UK, Russia and France are capable of exerting this presence. MARITIME DOCTRINE AND NAVAL ROLES 16. In the military context doctrine is defined as the fundamental principles by which military forces guide their actions in support of national objectives. The overall military doctrine is also the formal expression of the national attitude towards war and towards the use of military as a means to achieve political ends. The maritime doctrine fulfils this function for the use of military power at and from the sea [4] . The maritime doctrine provides the guidelines within which the actual force structure is created. It is thus important to study the maritime doctrine to arrive at a suitable force structure. 17. The doctrine brings out the diverse and complex missions the Indian Navy would be required to undertake in the future. The various roles of the Navy as defined in the Maritime Doctrine are military, diplomatic, constabulary and benign. 18. Military Role. The military role defines certain key objectives for the Indian Navy which are relevant in today’s geo-strategic scenario and would continue to be relevant in the future. These objectives are defined as follows [5] :- (a) Deterrence against war or intervention. (b) Decisive military victory in case of war. (c) Security of India’s territorial integrity, citizens and off-shore assets from sea-borne threat. (d) Influence affairs on land. (e) Safeguard India’s mercantile marine and maritime trade. (f) Safeguard India’s national interests and maritime security. 19. Diplomatic Role. Naval Diplomacy entails the use of naval forces in support of foreign policy objectives. The diplomatic objectives are as follows [6] :- (a) Strengthen political relations and goodwill. (b) Strengthen defence relations with friendly states. (c) Portray credible defence posture and capability. (d) Strengthen maritime security in IOR. (e) Promote regional and global stability. 20. Constabulary Role. The increasing evidence of maritime crime has brought into sharp focus the constabulary role that navies have to perform. In this role forces are employed to enforce law of the land or an international mandate. The constabulary objectives are as follows [7] :- (a) Coastal defence. (b) Security of EEZ. (c) Good order at sea. 21. Benign Role. The benign role is so named because violence has no part to play in its execution, nor is the potential to apply force a necessary prerequisite for undertaking these operations. The main objectives of this role are [8] :- (a) Promote civil safety and security. (b) Project national soft power. 22. Roles and Capabilities of the Future Navy. The diplomatic role of the Navy is likely to grow in the future. Forces offering greater leverage, capable of operating in distant waters would be the need of the hour. Maintaining stability in the littorals would mean emphasis on power projection and littoral operations. However, sea control would continue to be a prerequisite. SLOC protection and interdiction would also maintain their importance. Asymmetric threats and combating piracy, drug and gun running, maritime terrorism would gain importance as also the ability to provide relief during natural calamities. FORCE STRUCTURE PLANNING FACTORS 23. World class navies are ‘Built’ and not ‘Bought’. Therefore, indigenisation and self reliance in warship production, weapons and sensors will play an important role in realising the navy’s dream of acquiring regional power projection capabilities. With the economic resurgence, well established industrial base and strides made in warship production, India has demonstrated its intention to be a ‘Builders Navy’. Fiscal Forecast 24. Gross Domestic Product. The GDP of a nation is a productive capacity of its people and dictates the share of the pie that the services are likely to get. The GDP has grown at an average rate of seven percent over the last few years. The share of defence, as part of GDP is estimated at 13.5 percent of revenue expenditure. For planning purposes, GDP growth rate is taken as 6.5 percent and defence expenditure is taken at 2.75 percent of GDP. At the present growth rate, a figure of three percent is considered realistic between 2020 and 2025. 25. Trends in Naval Budgets. The naval budget as percentage of defence budget has varied from 13.25 percent in 1995-96 to 15 percent in 2010-11. This figure is likely to go up to 20 percent by 2025. Presently, the Navy’s capital to revenue share is 60:40 percent [9] . The Navy being a capital intensive service, this ratio is likely to increase to 65:35 percent by 2025. Two major components of capital budget include ‘Naval Fleet’, and ‘Air Craft and Aero Engines’. Naval fleet roughly accounts for 75 % of the capital outlay and caters for the acquisition of ships and submarines. 26. The force levels are directly proportional to the number of annual acquisitions and the period for which it is in service. The larger the ship, the longer is the time taken to design and build it. Taking a typical destroyer/frigate, it takes around 10 to 12 years from government approval to commissioning, if the ship is designed and built in India. Assured funding, therefore is absolutely essential for any planned modernisation. Historically, the fate of navies has been linked to the fate of their country’s economy [10] . Fortunately, the Indian economy is doing very well and funding for modernisation in the future should not be a problem. Warship Production Capability 27. The hull accounts for one third the cost of the ship, whilst weapons and sensors account for 42 percent with machinery and auxiliaries accounting for balance 25 percent. The Indian Navy has achieved self reliance in hull and machinery components, however, the real challenge remains the weapons and sensors, a majority of which are still imported. The capabilities of our shipyards and the DRDO would play a major role in achieving the desired force structure. 28. Yard Capabilities. There are three defence shipyards under the Ministry of Defence, the Mazagaon Dock Ltd (MDL), Garden Reach Ship Builders and Engineers (GRSE) and Goa Shipyard Ltd (GSL). The Cochin Shipyard (CSL) and Hindustan Shipyard Ltd (HSL) are the other two Government Sector Undertakings, involved in ship building. These shipyards have displayed major advancements in ship designing and indigenisation of platforms, although there are still some inadequacies that need to be addressed. The capability of building ships in itself is not enough, it is the rate at which they are built along with their cost effectiveness and capabilities that is important. 29. Indian Yards are notorious for cost and time over-runs and even today we have to import ships to meet the demands of the growing Navy. The primary reason for this is the antiquated equipment and building methods in our shipyards. Time and cost overruns can seriously put the Force Structuring off track. Therefore, shipyard productivity has to improve to a level where they can meet all the requirements of the Navy. To modernise the Navy, we must first modernise our shipyards so that they are capable of delivering quality ships on schedule. Technology 30. The advancement in technology has had far reaching effects on naval operations leading to new concepts of operations. Technology will improve operational availability, reliability and sustainability of forces. The induction of force multipliers like satellites, UAVs and improved weapons and sensors can help in overcoming the numerical limitation of force levels. Technology has increased the transparency of the battlefield and with advanced PGMs, made it possible to deliver a large volume of fire very precisely and simultaneously in different areas of operation. Therefore, technology will play a major part in moulding the force structure of the Navy in the future. FORCE STRUCTURE IN 2025 31. The Indian Navy’s perspective planning in terms of ‘force-levels’ is now driven by a conceptual shift from ‘numbers’ of platforms, that is, from the old ‘bean-counting’ philosophy to one that concentrates upon ‘capabilities’. There are presently 40 ships and submarines on order. The preferred choice of inducting ships has been through the indigenous route. There are presently 34 ships and submarines on order from Indian shipyards and the induction programme is continuing apace [11] . 32. The present force level is heavily biased towards older ships. Almost 50 percent of these ships would complete their service life by 2025. Also, the present force composition is biased towards smaller ships with lesser number of ships that can actually project the ‘Blue Water’ capability of the Navy. The present force structure points toward the need for urgent modernisation of the Indian Navy for India to play its desired role in the maritime area of interest. Major Combatants 33. Aircraft Carriers. The Indian Navy would need to have a minimum of three aircraft carriers with one operating on each coast and one under maintenance. These carriers would form the Carrier Battle Groups (CBG) that are the foremost instruments in achieving sea control. The Indian Navy is on track to achieve this with Vikramaditya and the two AD ships being built at Cochin shipyard, albeit one after another. Viraat is likely to be decommissioned by 2015, therefore, the IN should have at least three carriers by 2025. 34. Nuclear Submarines. The nuclear submarine is an ideal strategic weapon and possesses a credible second strike capability. The Navy should aim to have at least four such submarines by 2025, so that at least one, if not two, are on patrol at all times. This is a distinct possibility with India achieving the capability to build its own SSN with the launch of Arihant and the induction of Akula class SSNs from Russia. 35. Destroyers and Frigates. These ships are the real workhorses of the Navy, both in peace and war. The Indian Navy presently has 13 frigates out of which 6/7 will be decommissioned by 2025. The Navy should aim to have at least 20 frigates by 2025. The two remaining Shivalik class(Project 17) and the three follow on Talwar class frigates should be in service by 2014. Seven Project 17A frigates will be built at MDL and GRSE. An additional order for three to five more such frigates would enable the Navy to achieve the requisite force levels by 2025. The Navy has eight destroyers on date and should aim to have at least 12 by 2025. The R Class destroyers would need to be replaced between 2015 and 2025. Three Kolkata Class(Project 15 A) destroyers are being built at MDL. Four more ships are planned as follow on of the Kolkata class under the Project 15 B. Therefore, an additional order of three destroyers needs to be placed to achieve the desired force levels by 2025. 36. Submarines. Submarines are a vital part of the Naval Fleet and are ideal for sea denial operations. Their operational value in our waters is far greater than anywhere else as the hydrological conditions afford many advantages to the submarine. The Navy has 15 submarines, including the Kilo class and the German 209 class. However most of these would be nearing the end of their operational lives by 2025. The MDL is already building six Scorpene class submarines under TOT from France. The Indian Navy needs to have at least 16 conventional submarines by 2025. Therefore, there is a need for the Navy to order eight to ten additional submarines. An RFP for six submarines has been raised under Project 75(I), with a proposal to construct three at MDL and one at HSL with the other two being directly imported. There would still be a shortage of four submarines which will have to be made good with an additional order under the same project. 37. Amphibious Forces. We have a modest amphibious capability to look after amphibious assault requirements in our immediate neighbourhood. The Navy urgently needs an expeditionary capability to undertake our regional responsibility. The LSTs would not be able to meet such a capability. The Navy has to look at inducting LPDs, the first of which has been received from USA. Jalashwa would be decommissioned by 2025 but the force level of LPDs that needs to be held in 2025 is at least four. A plan to design and build the same is being put into force and the Navy should have its four LPDs by 2025. 38. Support Ships. To be a true ‘Blue Water’ Navy, the capability of operating anywhere in the Indian Ocean and beyond is a must. To enable this, the Navy needs more fleet tankers. The navy should have at least four tankers by 2025 to support the two CBGs. Presently, the Navy has two tankers and two have been ordered from Italy and are likely to be commissioned by 2010 and 2012 respectively. Therefore, the Navy would be able to achieve the desired force level well before 2025. LND Forces 39. Corvettes. The navy has 20 missile corvettes but only four ASW corvettes. The former are in adequate number, however the ASW corvettes are grossly inadequate. Four are being built at GRSE but these will only replace the ones already in service. The Navy needs to substantially enhance this capability and should have at least 12 ASW corvettes by 2025. Also, the missile corvettes in service will need to be replaced as they complete their service life. 40. Mine Counter Measure Vessel. Mine warfare has been effectively used in the past and the Indian Navy needs to have credible capability to counter it. The Navy’s MCM vessels will be decommissioned over the next few years. The Navy has to develop a credible mine hunting capability and a force level of at least 12 such vessels is a must by 2025. 41. Offshore Patrol Vessels. Presence and surveillance is an important mission of the Navy and high value ships like destroyers and frigates should not be utilised for this. Presently, the Navy has only five OPVs with four under construction at GSL and an additional order for five placed on Pipavav Shipyard. The force level envisaged by 2025 is 12 to effectively patrol the ODA and islands as also monitor the shipping lanes. 42. Fast Attack Crafts. LIMO is a clear and present danger in the present day scenario. The high speed FAC is ideally designed to counter this threat. Each major naval port should have at least four FACs by 2025. The GRSE is building 10 water jet FACs for the Navy, some of which are already in commission. An additional order for at least 10 more FACs needs to be placed. Aircrafts 43. MR Aircraft. Long Range Maritime Patrol and Surveillance capability is a major weakness of the Indian Navy. The TU-142 and the IL 38 are the mainstay of our MR capability, however, most of them will be out of service by 2025. The Navy is acquiring Eight P8 I Poseidon from the USA. The desired force level of MR aircraft is 16 by 2025 and thus the Navy should look at acquiring more such aircraft on a progressive basis. 44. Strike Aircraft. The strike aircraft fleet of the Navy presently comprises of the Sea Harriers. The Harriers are likely to be phased out by 2015. The first squadron of MiG 29K has been commissioned to augment the strike capability and operate onboard Vikramaditya. The Naval LCAs would replace the Harrier and would operate from the AD ship. The Navy should envisage having four strike squadrons by 2025, two each of LCAs and MiG 29s. 45. Helicopters. The current helicopter fleet of the Navy is ageing and will soon become obsolete. The force structure in 2025 should have at least 24 multi role helicopters and 30 to 36 light utility helicopters. 46. UAVs. UAVs are a major force multiplier. The present strength of the UAVs needs to be increased such that there is a UAV flight in each major naval port by 2025. CONCLUSION “Whoever controls the Indian Ocean dominates Asia. This Ocean is the key to the seven seas. In the 21st century, the destiny of the world would be decided on its waters.” Alfred Thayer Mahan 47. Modernisation of warfare strategies and techniques, and adoption of technologically advanced concepts are futile exercises if the basic structure of the Navy is not given the timely attention that is due. The creation of a balanced Navy is an essential aspect of any modernisation, and the shortfall has to be made good by the political commitment to a sustained building programme. Assured funding and indigenisation are absolutely essential towards achieving the envisaged force structure. Improving the shipbuilding capabilities of our yards and the developmental capabilities of DRDO are absolutely essential for the Indian Navy to be a force to reckon with by 2025. 48. India is a maritime country and its future lies at sea in more ways than one, not just for ‘Nuclear Deterrence’ but also for trade, economic prosperity, influence, diplomatic initiatives and a host of other things. Today, more than ever before, India is reaching out, engaging the world, talking to the world and trading with the world. That world lies across the Oceans, not across the Himalayas. To reach that world, to engage that world, to influence that world and to ensure and enhance our security, we need to expand and modernise our Navy. While the Indian Navy has come a long way since independence, and is today steady and on course towards a bright future, the pace of expansion and modernisation needs to be speeded up if it is to adequately support India’s standing in the comity of nations in the twenty first century [12] . (AS Sangha) Wellington Lt Cdr 04 Sep 10 No of effective words: 3920

History homework help

History homework help. Note:I needÿ250-300 words answer of EACH discussion. Mustÿinclude 2-3 credible sources from provided required readings and cited in APA for EACH answer.ÿMust address every step properly. Must provide 100% original work.Discussion 1 (250-300 words and 2-3 credible references from provided readings in APA)Based on the required reading, which features of a healthy community, are most important to you? Why?What would you tell the mayor about the health of your community? For full credit, be sure to mention ways your community is and is not healthy. Let us know which community you are writing about. Required Reading1.ÿÿÿÿÿ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (n.d.) Healthy Community Design. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/healthy_comm_design.htm2.ÿÿÿÿÿ [Please watch the Healthy Community Design Streaming Video linked at the top and read the Healthy Community Design Fact Sheet linked under “Additional Resources.”]3.ÿÿÿÿÿ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010). Determinants of health. Healthy People 2020. Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/DOHAbout.aspx4.ÿÿÿÿÿ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2016). Healthy People 2020: Leading Health Indicators. Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/LHI/default.aspx5.ÿÿÿÿÿ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2014). Public Health Learning Modules-Module 1: Using Healthy People 2020 to Improve Population Health. Part Two: What is Healthy People? Retrieved from https://vimeopro.com/aptrmodules/phlm/video/75420729Discussion 2 (250-300 words and 2-3 credible references from provided readings in APA)You have been asked to investigate an outbreak of a disease in a restaurant. Discuss what factors you will examine to determine the occurrence of the outbreak.Required Reading1.ÿÿÿÿÿ BBC History (2014). John Snow (1813 ? 1858). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/snow_john.shtml2.ÿÿÿÿÿ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012). Lesson one: Introduction to epidemiology. Principles of epidemiology in public health practice (3rd ed.), pp. 1-1-21.3.ÿÿÿÿÿ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Workforce and Career Development, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/ophss/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section1.html4.ÿÿÿÿÿ Healthline. (2016). Disease transmission. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/disease-transmission5.ÿÿÿÿÿ London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. (2016). About John Snow. Retrieved from http://johnsnowbicentenary.lshtm.ac.uk/about-john-snow/6.ÿÿÿÿÿ Tuthill, K. (2003, November). John Snow and the broad street pump.ÿCricket,ÿ31(3), pp. 23-31. Retrieved from http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow/snowcricketarticle.html7.ÿÿÿÿÿ World Health Organization (WHO). (2016). Infectious diseases. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/infectious_diseases/en/8.ÿÿÿÿÿ World Health Organization (WHO). (2016). Vector-borne diseases. Retrieved fromÿhttp://www.who.int/heli/risks/vectors/vector/en/History homework help

AC Art Based Centers Nurturing Childrens Creative Expression Discussion

help me with my homework AC Art Based Centers Nurturing Childrens Creative Expression Discussion.

I’m working on a writing question and need an explanation to help me learn.

Directions: Be sure to make an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) pages in length; refer to the “Assignment Format” page for specific format requirements.Art-based centers are inviting, self-contained spaces where children engage in creative activities, and are appropriate for every child. Each requires a clear purpose, a range of materials and activities, and a means of assessment or evaluation. While centers must take into account individual needs, interests, and levels of learning, there are unique considerations for children at different ages. As an early childhood teacher, put on your centers-based thinking cap to complete the follow parts of this assignment. You will want to refer back to Lesson 7 for support and guidance.Part 1: Summarize how arts-based centers nurture children’s creative expression.Part 2: Discuss how teachers must adapt arts-based centers for different age levels from toddlers to fourth graders.Part 3: Discuss techniques teachers can use to manage a center-based environment in the creative classroom.
AC Art Based Centers Nurturing Childrens Creative Expression Discussion

Answers these questions

Answers these questions.

Imagine that you are the VP of Human Resources of a large professional service company with 5,000 employees across five countries. Your current HR system is outdated, and the original vendor is no longer in business. Thus, there is no method of an upgrade, and a complete replacement is required. Your options are either buying and implementing an existing system but heavy customization would be required, OR you can work with your IT department to build this internally. Would you buy an existing product or would you build your system? Why? Come up with at least three reasons to support your view. Note, if this question is too difficult, then imagine that you are you are renovating your kitchen, and you have the choice of hiring a contractor (buy) or renovate the kitchen yourself (build).Regardless of your choice, what are three advantages and three disadvantages of buying? Regardless of your choice, what are three advantages and three disadvantages of building? Would you use a request for information (RFI), request for quotation (RFQ) and request for proposal (RFP)? Explain.Assuming you are have decided to buy, what are the three to five criteria you would use to evaluate the vendors? Describe the criteria.
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BBA 3826 Columbia Southern Apples Acquisition of Intel in 2019 Case Study

BBA 3826 Columbia Southern Apples Acquisition of Intel in 2019 Case Study.

InstructionsResearch and select a company or organization that has been in some type of
current negotiations (e.g., union contracts, mergers, buy-outs, product
disputes, patent infringement.). Then, summarize the company or organization’s
history and current negotiation status. Highlight some of the
negotiator-cognition issues they may have encountered during negotiations.
Discuss decision-analysis tools that are used in negotiations. Were any of
these tools used by your company during negotiations? Next, explain what a
BATNA is and how it is used during negotiations. Try to determine if one or
both sides had a BATNA and, if so, summarize your understanding of it.
Finally, provide recommendations for the company to use in future negotiations
based on what you have learned in this unit. How could they use best practices
in negotiations to improve future negotiations? Your case study should be a minimum of two pages in length. You must use at
least two academic sources, and any information from those sources should be
cited and referenced in APA format. Resources
The following resource(s) may help you with this assignment.
Citation GuideCSU Online Library Research GuideSubmit Writing Center Request
BBA 3826 Columbia Southern Apples Acquisition of Intel in 2019 Case Study

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