Victoria McQueen Doctor-Assisted Suicide is it Right or Wrong? Suicide in all shapes and forms is wrong. There are so many reasons to fight and keep hope, taking the life of yourself or having a doctor assist you with taking your life is absurd. Having the gift of life is exactly that; a gift. Taking something so precious that some people don’t even have the option to is a terrible thing. No matter what you believe or what other people believe there has and always will be a plan for you, if you are alive right now you’re not done with your plan.

Getting to choose when you want to die is not right, not when there are people struggling to stay afloat. I think that having the capability to have a doctor assist you in suicide is a terrible idea and I am against it. Depression is a difficult thing that hits Americans today; with our issues on body image, and stress from work and keeping and job and then still coming home to a family has become more challenging for people today. There are people who get depressed and wish to take their lives. If it is that important for them to end their lives I am sure they could find a way.

Then there are the people who come to the doctors who try and have them help them with it. Its almost as if they are looking for an “Okay” from someone to end their life because they have a belief system that frowns upon suicide or something like that. If it’s in the cards for you I am sure you can get through it. You should not think that taking your life is the way to do it. The doctors who are involved in situations like this should have restrictions and guidelines that a person has to follow before even mentioning this option because for this task to even be brought up and seem okay would be wrong.

Life gets hard we all know this, you hit rock bottom go through some tough spots but it’s up to you to pick up your boot straps and move on. I think there are certain moments when the doctor-assisted suicide should be ok but they have to be under very strict guidelines because someone having the ability to pick and choose when they want to die is just ridiculous. I think if you elect to have a doctor assisted suicide you should have to create a relationship with the doctor and you should be ask more than once if this is what you really want so there are no chances in making a mistake.

In the event you have a disease that requires a cure; what if that very next day or even very next hour they find that cure you just gave up on everything you were fighting for after so long. Giving up on life when you cannot handle it anymore is something that no one should get to decide. Some people live the easy life but in rare cases life gets incredibly hard; paraplegia when you have no use of your limbs. Locked-In Syndrome; you have no use of anything just your brain so you are basically stuck in your body sometimes you can use your eyes to communicate.

ALS you lose control of all voluntary muscle movement. These are the moments when someone is suffering that I believe that you should have other options rather than just wasting away locked in your own mind and body. There are other terminal illness that occur where keeping a person as happy as possible and keeping them comfortable becomes very hard. Cost of living is expensive for one then you have the price of round the clock nurses among all the pain medicine that has to be purchased so pain can be managed.

There are so many jobs that have to be fulfilled to keep a person happy but how long can that last, unless you are rich and can have whatever you want. Take for instance, Stephen Hawking; he is a rich man but after everything he has been through he continues to fight and it’s not some measly little fight to get through the days he is still so adamant about research and the things he continues to do today. He continues to impress people and wants to keep doing things with his life. Having the will to push on and pursue great things no matter what’s going on is very admirable.

Reasons that doctor assisted suicide is wrong is there are also faiths and beliefs and hopes that people have been living by and making it okay to end a life for the fact that it got too hard for someone is not right. With that being said I am against physician-assisted suicide, unless there are dire emergencies and the person is suffering beyond belief. We all have different levels of suffering some people can last longer than others in dealing with that but we should also be able to recognize when a person is really suffering and we should do anything in our power to help a person maintain comfortably and allowing them not to suffer.

## Running Head: SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN ROCKY UNIVERSITY 1 SUBSTNCE ABUSE IN ROCKY

Running Head: SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN ROCKY UNIVERSITY 1

SUBSTNCE ABUSE IN ROCKY UNIVERSITY 15

Substance Abuse in Rocky University

Name

Institution Affiliation

Introduction

The president of Rocky University instructed that a survey should be made to determine the level of substance abuse among the students in the school. This is after growing concerns that there is a large number of students abusing drugs in colleges in the U.S. some faculty members complained that substance abuse was a major problem at Rocky University, while other members of the faculty thought that substance abuse was not a major problem (Crowley and Kirschner, 2015). The study analyzed the confidence intervals of the male students, female students and all students that engaged in the abuse of varioussubstances. This exit surveywas performed to 90 students from the graduating class. A hypothesis test was conducted to assess the condition of substance abuse among stents in Rocky University compared to other colleges in the U.S.

Part 1

An exit survey was performed to determine the percentage of students who were involved in substance abuse.In the survey, the students were asked three questions regarding substance abuse. The students were supposed to answer either yes or no to the questions. The questions asked were whether the student had at one time in the period while studying at Rocky University participated in binge drinking. Students were also asked whether they had ever abused prescription medicine while studying at Rocky University(Crowley and Kirschner, 2015). The final question asked to the students was whether they had ever used any form of illegal or illicit drug while at the university. All respondents who said yes to any of the three questions were considered to have been involved in some type of substance abuse.

A total of ninety students who were graduating from the current year were involved in the exit survey. Forty three of the respondents were female students while forty seven of the respondents were male students. 9 of the female students said they had participated in binge drinking making 20.9% of the female students.9 male students confirmed that they had participated in binge drinking making 19.1% of the male students. 18 of the total 90 students confirmed to have indulged in binge drinking while at Rocky University making 20% of the students.

15 female students confirmed to have indulged in abuse of prescription medicine. They comprised of 34.9% of the total female students who participated in the exit survey. 12 male students also confirmed to have abused prescription medicine making 25.53% of the number of male students. Atotal of 27 students interviewed took part in the abuse of prescription medicine while at Rocky University making 30% of the students who took part in the survey.

15 female students confirmed to have used a type ofillegal or illicitdrug while at the university making 34.9% of the total number of female studentsinvolved in the survey. 7 male students agreed to have used an illegal or illicit drug during their time as students of Rocky University comprising of 14.9% of the total number of male students involved in the survey. A total number of 22 students confirmed to have used illegal or illicit drugs in the university making 22.4% of all the students whoresponded to the survey.

According to the survey, more female students had indulged in substance abuse compared tomale students. At least 30% of the students can be associated to substance abuse, considering the results from the survey on the abuse of prescription medicine (Siegmund, 2013).The results confirm that the article that reported that at least 46% of students in U.S. colleges indulge in substance abuse was wrong. However, interventions need to be made considering that 30% of the population of students involving themselves in substance abuse is an alarming percentage. The university has to start programs drug awareness programs to curb this alarming trend in the university.

Part 2: Confidence interval for students who engaged in a form of substance abuse

All students

The 90% confidence interval for all students who were involved in some type of substance abuse is calculated as shown below(Siegmund, 2013):

27 out of 90 students took part in substanceabuse, as shown in the exit survey.

The number of sample values, n= 90. The sample statistic will be 27/90 = 0.3.

The standard error = = = 0.0483.

A 90% confidence interval is calculated using the method Sample statistic ± multiplier × Standard Error

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.3 ± 1.645(0.0483) = 0.2205 or 22.05% and 0.3795 or 37.95%.

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.2962 (29.62%) to 0.3038(30.38) % of all students in Rocky University engaged in some form of substance abuse.

Female students

The 90% confidence interval for female students who were involved in some type of substance abuse is calculated as shown below:

15 out of 28 female students took part in substance abuse, as shown in the exit survey(Siegmund, 2013).

The number of sample values, n= 43. The sample statistic will be 15/43 = 0.3488.

The standard error = = = 0.0727.

A 90% confidence interval is calculated using the method Sample statistic ± multiplier × Standard Error

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.3488 ± 1.645 (0.0727) = 0.2292 or 22.92% and 0.4684 or 46.84%.

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.2292(22.92%) to 0.4684(46.84%) of female students in Rocky University engaged in some form of substance abuse.

Male students

The 90% confidence interval for male students who were involved in some type of substance abuse is calculated as shown below:

12 out of 47 male students took part in substance abuse, as shown in the exit survey.

The number of sample values, n= 47. The sample statistic will be 12/47 = 0.2553.

The standard error = = = 0.0636

A 90% confidence interval is calculated using the method Sample statistic ± multiplier × Standard Error(Siegmund, 2013).

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.2553 ± 1.645 (0.0636) = 0.1507 or 15.07% and 0.3599 or 35.99%.

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.1507(15.07%) to 0.3599(35.99%) of male students in Rocky University engaged in some form of substance abuse.

Part 3: Confidence interval for students who engaged in a binge drinking

All Students

The 90% confidence interval for all students who were involved in binge drinking is calculated as shown below:

18 out of 90 students took part in binge drinking, as shown in the exit survey.

The number of sample values, n= 90. The sample statistic will be 18/90 = 0.2.

The standard error = = = 0.0422.

A 90% confidence interval is calculated using the method Sample statistic ± multiplier × Standard Error

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.2 ± 1.645 (0.0422) = 0.1306(13.06%) or 0.2694(26.94%).

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.1306(13.06%) to 0.2694(26.94%) of all students in Rocky University engaged in binge drinking.

Female students

The 90% confidence interval for female students who were involved in binge drinking is calculated as shown below:

9 out of 43 female students took part in binge drinking, as shown in the exit survey.

The number of sample values, n= 43. The sample statistic will be 9/43 = 0.2093.

The standard error = = = 0.0620

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.2093 ± 1.645 (0.0620) = 0.1073(10.73%) or 0.3113(31.13%).

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.1073(10.73%) to 0.3113(31.13%) of female students in Rocky University engaged in binge drinking.

Male students

The 90% confidence interval for male students who were involved in binge drinking is calculated as shown below:

9 out of 47 male students took part in binge drinking, as shown in the exit survey.

The number of sample values, n= 47. The sample statistic will be 9/47 = 0.1915.

The standard error = = = 0.0033

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.1915 ± 1.645 (0.0033) = 0.1861(18.61%) or 0.1969(19.69%).

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.1861(18.61%) to 0.1969(19.96%) of male students in Rocky University engaged in binge drinking.

Part 4: Confidence interval for students who engaged in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana

All students

The 90% confidence interval for all students who were involved in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana is calculated as shown below:

27 out of 90 students took part in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana, as shown in the exit survey.

The number of sample values, n= 90. The sample statistic will be 27/90 = 0.3.

The standard error = = = 0.0483

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.3 ± 1.645 (0.0483) = 0.2205(22.05%) or 0.3795(37.95%).

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.2205(22.05%) to 0.3795(37.95%) of all students in Rocky University engaged in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana.

Female students

The 90% confidence interval for female students who were involved in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana is calculated as shown below:

15 out of 43 female students took part in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana, as shown in the exit survey.

The number of sample values, n= 43. The sample statistic will be 15/43 = 0.3488.

The standard error = = = 0.0727

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.3488 ± 1.645 (0.0727) = 0.2292(22.92%) or 0.4684(46.84%).

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.2292(22.92%) to 0.4684(46.84%) of female students in Rocky University engaged in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana.

Male students

The 90% confidence interval for male students who were involved in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana is calculated as shown below:

12 out of 47 male students took part in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana, as shown in the exit survey.

The number of sample values, n= 47. The sample statistic will be 12/47 = 0.2553.

The standard error = = = 0.0636

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.2553 ± 1.645 (0.0636) = 0.1507(15.07%) or 0.3599(35.99%).

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.1507(15.07%) to 0.3599(35.99%) of male students in Rocky University engaged in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana.

Part 5: Confidence interval for students who engaged in use of illegal or illicit drugs

All students

The 90% confidence interval for all students who were involved in use of illegal or illicit drugs is calculated as shown below:

22 out of 90 students took part in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana, as shown in the exit survey (Nuzzo, 2014).

The number of sample values, n= 90. The sample statistic will be 22/90 = 0.244

The standard error = = = 0.0453

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.244 ± 1.645 (0.0453) = 0.1695(16.95%) or 0.3185(31.85%).

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.1695(16.95%) to 0.3185(31.85%) of all students in Rocky University engaged in use of illegal or illicit drugs.

Female students

The 90% confidence interval for female students who were involved in use of illegal or illicit drugs is calculated as shown below (Zhang, 2014):

15 out of 43 students took part in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana, as shown in the exit survey.

The number of sample values, n= 43. The sample statistic will be 15/43 = 0.3488

The standard error = = = 0.0727

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.3488 ± 1.645 (0.0727) = 0.2292(22.92%) or 0.4684(46.84%).

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.2292(22.92%) to 0.4684(46.84%) of female students in Rocky University engaged in use of illegal or illicit drugs (Nuzzo, 2014).

Male students

The 90% confidence interval for male students who were involved in use of illegal or illicit drugs is calculated as shown below:

7 out of 47 male students took part in abuse of prescription medication or marijuana, as shown in the exit survey(Nuzzo, 2014).

The number of sample values, n= 47. The sample statistic will be 7/47 = 0.1489

The standard error = = = 0.0519

The multiplier for 90% confidence interval = 1.645

= 0.1489 ± 1.645 (0.0519) = 0.0635(6.35%) or 0.2343(23.43%).

With a confidence of 90%, it can be estimated that 0.0635(6.35%) to 0.2343(23.43%) of male students in Rocky University engaged in use of illegal or illicit drugs.

Part 6: Hypothesis test

P represents the proportion of students at Rocky University who do not engage in substance abuse (Nuzzo, 2014). Nrepresents the sample size for the students who do not engage in substance abuse at Rocky University.

p = 63/90 =0.7

Null hypothesis

H0: p1 = 0.46

Against an alternative hypothesis

HA: p1 < 0.46

Z =

N = 90

The overall sample proportion is:

p = = 0.24/0.053 = 4.528

Considering the value 0.10 that is supposed to be used as the level of significance, the value of the null hypothesis is rejected since the test statistics fall in the rejected region.

Part 7

Based on the analysis of the data, there are a large number of students engaging in substance abuse in the school. Female students are affected more; the school president should lead a campaign against drugs and substance abuse in the school (Crowley and Kirschner, 2015). Students should also be given an opportunity to attend rehabilitation once theydecide to stop substance abuse.

The faculty should start programs that will encourage students to stop substance abuse. A good example is the introduction of counseling sessions where people that were once drug addicts and reformed later to come and give them real life experience of the harmful effects drugs had on their life(Nuzzo, 2014).

The business community is likely to refrain from hiring graduate students when they discoverthat most of the students graduating are drug addicts. Some business community will even start testing potential employees for signsof abuse of drugs. The business community should also help college administration in fighting substance abuse among the students(Nuzzo, 2014). They can fund for the counseling sessions.

This study can be improved by selecting a larger number of students in the exit survey.

References

Crowley, R. A., &Kirschner, N. (2015). The Integration of Care for Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Other Behavioral Health Conditions into Primary Care: Executive Summary of an American College of Physicians Position PaperIntegration of Behavioral Health into Primary Care. Annals of internal medicine, 163(4), 298-299

Nuzzo, R. (2014). Statistical errors. Nature, 506(7487), 150

Siegmund, D. (2013). Sequential analysis: tests and confidence intervals. Springer Science & Business Media.

Zhang, C. H., & Zhang, S. S. (2014).Confidence intervals for low dimensional parameters in high dimensional linear models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Se