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The Ancient Greek Architecture History Essay

The civilization of Ancient Greece was one that spanned many years, and in this time, many the Greeks excelled various fields, such as art, entertainment, music, government, economy, leadership, science, mathematics, astronomy, and more. One particular application of science and mathematics is the ancient Greeks’ stunning and advanced architecture and engineering. The ancient Greeks developed and innovated for hundreds of years; from the 8th century BCE until around 600 CE, this empire flourished in so many aspects has influenced a significant portion of our culture today. Everywhere in one’s life can he see Greek influence on modern day, especially in architecture. The ancient Greeks were known for their many styles of architecture, from three different orders, ranging in complexity. Their most famous innovation was the column, as they did not invent it, but used it the most efficiently for their time. Doric order was the first style of the three, and the simplest, with no extra design except for the grooves, called fluting, and the arrises, which are the sharp edges at which fluting meets. Early Doric columns do not have bases, but at the top, there is a circular ring, the echinus, that leads to the abacus, the square top piece. Often times, the echinus will have three horizontal grooves, called the hypotrachelion. Ionic order was the next style, and possibly the more used of the three in modern day architecture. Similar to Doric columns from bottom to middle, the only difference until the top of the Ionic column is the fillets, which are flatter arrises. At the top, the echinus has carved designs, and there are scrolls, with spiral volutes. Government buildings, such as the White House, and upscale banks, including the National Bank of Oamaru, in New Zealand, feature Ionic columns. The last, and fanciest of the three orders, is the Corinthian order, with small scroll-shaped tendrils and carefully carved acanthus leaves; acantho- is a Latin prefix which means thorny. Structural design was not the only goal of ancient Greek structures, as friezes, located on pediments, are purely decorative. Pediments are flat, triangular spaces at the top of a building, supported by columns; it is situated between the roof and top of the square or rectangular shaped wall. The friezes are designs, many of them, sculptures, which are found within the pediment. Ancient Greek frieze schemes often depict mythology, including animals, gods, goddesses, and events. Stoae are long, paved walkways in ancient Greece to promote a safe environment. They are supported by columns, mainly those of Doric order, and reflect symmetry in their aligning. The purpose of ancient Greek structures reflected their culture, which were heavily influenced by their religion and entertainment. The most commonly found building is the temple, as ancient Greeks were polytheistic and prayed to a plethora of gods and goddesses. The Parthenon in Athens in the most famous temple in Greece, and it displays the perfect example of classic Greek architectural elements, including geometry, columns, friezes, and pediments. The architects Ictinos and Callicrates began their work on it in 447 BCE. Construction for the Parthenon was finished in 438 BCE, and it was dedicated to the goddess of “wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, just warfare, mathematics, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts, and skill,” Athena. It features perfect symmetry, with a rectangular base with evenly spaced columns for support. The east pediment describes the birth of Athena, where, according to Greek Mythology, her father, Zeus, had an awful headache, and he ordered another god to strike his head. Zeus’s head split open, and Athena appeared, dressed in full armor; this is where the term “splitting headache” came from. The west pediment shows Athena and Poseidon in their rivalry to becoming the city’s patron (obviously, Athena won, and the city was named after her). Most temples were smaller, ranging from thirty to one-hundred feet long, and rectangular in shape. One design, called tholos, was round, but other examples, including anta, prostyle, and pseudodipteral, were quadrilaterals. The Parthenon is an exception, although polygonal, it is 235 feet long by 109 feet wide, which is longer than the average Greek temple. The base of the structure rests upon the top step of a stylobate (similar to a short staircase or stoop). The inside of the temple consisted of two rooms: a windowless, small area that contained a statue of the god or goddess to whom it was dedicated, and the other was sunlit. Especially in ancient Athens, entertainment and the arts played a significant role in daily life. Therefore, buildings were constructed to satisfy these needs. One popular type of structure was the open-air theater, which are huge, outdoor amphitheaters with a stage in the middle of the circle. The stage was of significant size to fit the many performers, and the theaters could seat up to fourteen thousand viewers. Athens was known for its satyrs, tragedies, and comedies. The ancient Greeks developed a governmental system known as a direct democracy, where the people vote on all matters. It started off as an experiment in Athens in 550 BCE, and grew to make Athens one of the most powerful and stable societies of the time. In modern-day America, we have a form of direct democracy, but it is not direct, as we vote for the leaders who vote on bills. Because we adapted our government model from that of the Greeks, many of our administrative buildings are of Greek styled architecture. Our own city hall in New Rochelle is supported by large ionic columns and the roof is held up by a pediment. The capital city of Washington DC contains buildings that are of many styles, ancient and modern alike, and some ancient styles include those from the Egyptians, Romans, and of course, Greeks. From 2006 to 2007, the American Institute of Architects (AIA) conducted a study to list the 150 favorite buildings in America. Of the top ten, four were of Neoclassical or Greek Revival styles, and they were located in the District of Columbia. Neoclassical refers to a style influenced by ancient Greek and Roman architecture. Number two on the list is the White House, which has a porch supported by the Roman adaptation of Ionic columns and a pediment. It is relatively simple in design, rectangular and perfectly symmetric. The fourth favorite on the list is the Jefferson Memorial, which is more Roman than Greek, but Roman architecture had a significant influence by the Greeks. This memorial is circular, and has a dome for a roof, which is not Greek, but the columns, pediment, and frieze are. Numbers six and seven are the Capitol Building and Lincoln Memorial, respectively, and the Lincoln Memorial in particular is a Greek Revival styled building, looking similar to a Greek temple of Doric order. The Romans based their architecture off that of the ancient Greeks because when the Greek Empire fell, many immigrated to Rome, and diffused their culture into Rome. Roman columns are similar to the Greeks’ in structure; they added bases to Doric columns but mainly used the fancier Corinthian columns. Temples were different in structure, but the Romans used pediments and adopted the Greek word “basilica,” meaning royal; Roman theaters were also modified Greek theaters. While the Greeks are most famous for their column, the Romans are known for their use of the arch. Ancient Greek civilization was one of the most advanced societies in history. They flourished in countless areas, including art, music, government, economics, and architecture. Today, so much of our architecture is modeled after the Greeks, from government buildings to houses. Their use of the column is one of the greatest structural achievements of the ancient world, and it is still very widely used. Pediments, friezes, geometry, symmetry, and columns are some of the elements commonly found in Greek architecture, and examples of buildings would be temples and stoae. Religion had a significant influence on the development and purpose of the architecture; the most famous Greek building being the Parthenon, an ancient temple. The ancient Greeks’ architecture contains some of the most useful and aesthetically pleasing elements, and many are still used today.

UOFM Japanese History Ashikaga Takauji & the Mongol Invasion of Japan Discussion

UOFM Japanese History Ashikaga Takauji & the Mongol Invasion of Japan Discussion.

The detailed writing instruction is post in the attached file. ID QuestionsSelect TWO of the following four terms/people and write an ID (for information on how to write an ID see the “Weekly Exam Guide and Rubric” in the Discussion Boards, Weekly Exams, and Research Papers Module). Your IDs should Not exceed one page double-spaced. Please be sure to focus on information you learned in this week’s lectures.1) The Goseibai shikimoku2) Ashikaga Takauji3) Hinin4) Mongol Invasions of JapanEssay QuestionPlease select ONE of the following questions and write a short essay. Be sure to utilize relevant assigned readings in your essays (for information on how to an essay see the “Weekly Exam Guide and Rubric” (see attached file) in the Discussion Boards, Weekly Exams, and Research Papers Module). Essays should not exceed three pages, word count t least 650 double-spaced. Only use attached reading, Please do not use outside sources. Instead focus on our course readings and lectures.Please choose ONE of the following essay prompts:1) Warriors of the Kamakura period were remarkably different from those of the sixteenth century. How did warrior society evolve over the course of the medieval period (approx. 1150s – 1550s)? Consider the roles warriors played in society and how warriors envisioned themselves. Feel free to consider warrior ethos (like your discussion board), but do not forget to include important historical events as well as larger changes in political institutions and warfare. Be sure to draw on lectures, readings, and any relevant examples from our film.2) Commoner life changed drastically over the course of the medieval period (approx. 1150s-1550s). How did commoner society evolve between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries? Don’t forget to include important historical events as well as larger changes in political institutions and warfare. Be sure to make use the optional Nagahara Keiji reading as well as the lectures and film.
UOFM Japanese History Ashikaga Takauji & the Mongol Invasion of Japan Discussion

Contextual Adolescent Development Case Scenario Respone

online homework help Contextual Adolescent Development Case Scenario Respone.

Write a paper responding to the following scenario:Casey case: “You are a middle school counselor. A student, Casey, has come to you feeling distraught. In sixth grade, Casey had few troubles, was engaged in after school sports, did well in class, and appeared to be a part of the popular crowd. Seventh grade has been more of a challenge. Casey’s grades and school attendance dropped. In fact, grades are now so low that Casey is not allowed to play after school sports. As the two of you talk, Casey vaguely indicates that relationships both at home and school are problematic. In addition, Casey’s phone is buzzing constantly. This generates worried looks from Casey, and then an abrupt exit.”You need to write a brief paper detailing the next steps you are going to take to help Casey with. Make sure to respond as a professional school counselor. The paper should be about 2-3 pages, double spaced.Answers to guide your writing: What potential problems do you see? What potential avenues might there be for supporting Casey? How can you support her as a counselor? Attached is a file document of list of vocabulary to use within the context of her case, you must select and use 10 words. Define them in your own words, use the citation as given in the the document, and make sure it applies to the context. Use the term/concept, not the class topic.In your report, be sure to discuss at least 3 different contexts for development as you apply the 10 words (these contexts include: family, peers, school, out of school, and social media). You must use 10 terms/concepts from the vocabulary document. Please underline the terms and concepts used in your response. Each of the 10 terms/concepts is worth points. No need to include a reference page, just the vocabulary (outlined), author and year from the document attached below.Definition: 1 point for each term defined correctly in your own words (this can be done in parentheses or footnotes if it can’t be worked into your paper).Application: 1 point for each term/concept accurately applied in your writing.In-text-Citations: 1 point for each term having a correct in-text citation. For this assignment, I don’t need a reference list at the end.The Main Goal = Well organized and clearly describes your view of the problem and how you’ll help Casey with the use of 10 selected and thoughtful words in three different contexts.
Contextual Adolescent Development Case Scenario Respone

Glendale Community College Failure in Forest Protection Essay

Glendale Community College Failure in Forest Protection Essay.

I’m working on a environmental science exercise and need support to help me study.

Hello, I am looking for someone who could help out a very stressed nursing student with one of her essays. 🙂 The essay I need to submit has following requirements: Subject: Forests- Forests are home to many invaluable ecosystem goods and services as well as a source of wood products for economies around the world. Scientists are evaluating the effectiveness of forest management policies by accounting for the economic, social, and environmental goals of region-specific programs alongside program costs. Are we doing enough to protect our valuable forests?Include each of the Sub-Topics: Deforestation, Forest Carbon, Timber and Forest Product Markets, Tree BiotechnologyEssay Length: 2 pagesSources – 2 websites requiredReferences – written on separate page after the essay using APA Format. Needs to be retrieved from public websites (do not use websites that require usernames/passwords). Wikipedia cannot be listed as one of the sources.
Glendale Community College Failure in Forest Protection Essay

CCJS 495 UMUC Impact of Inaction on Criminal Justice System Virtual CJ Alliance Essay

CCJS 495 UMUC Impact of Inaction on Criminal Justice System Virtual CJ Alliance Essay.

Project: presented with a problem involving multiple agencies, each student assumes an agency role and a project role to identify a collaborative, optimal solution. Individually, each student will present an agency description, the agency’s perspective and role, and research the available resources. Students will then form groups, and each group will present a collaborative, optimal solution. In the last week of class, each group will present the consequences for not finding or not fully implementing the solution. Throughout this project each student is to assume the character (role play) of the leader of their assigned component agency when dealing with their counterparts from other agencies within their jurisdiction.Phase 5 – Consequence of Inaction Each student will submit a paper addressing the impact on the criminal justice agency they represent (The chief criminal prosecutor from the Office of the District Attorney, Raymond Burr)if the solution presented by their Group is not adopted. Format RequirementsPaper must be double spaced, 11 or 12 pt font and 1” margins all around.All APA 7th edition format requirements must be followed (cover page, in text citations, reference page). Refer to APA/UMGC – learning resources found in the content page of this course.You must have resources to support your thoughts/opinions/information. These must be cited both in text as well as at the end of the document. Your paper should not contain direct quotes, sourced material must be paraphrased.GROUP PROJECT – The Virtual Criminal Justice Alliance ….BackgroundFor the past 11 months, the Virtual Police Department has applied a variety of investigative resources and strategies and is prepared to bring a number of criminal charges against the members of the Very Bad Bike Club. These started out as investigations of individual calls-for-service, complaints and criminal investigations. They merged into a collective effort as the pattern of activities and participants began to form. Based on the investigations, the department believes it has probable cause to arrest and charge nearly every one of the 63 VBBC members for conspiracy to manufacture illegal drugs, conspiracy to sell illegal drugs, and participation in a criminal enterprise. Additionally, numerous individual VBBC members can be charged with combinations of individual criminal violations, including possession of illegal drugs, illegal possession of firearms, robbery, attempted robbery, aggravated assault, and attempted murder. Despite the confidence the Chief of the VPD has in these cases, no information has been conveyed to the Office of the District Attorney nor has there been any involvement with the Grand Jury. As far as the Chief of the Police is concerned, this is the chance to destroy the VBBC once and for all.The VBBC has plagued Virtual for over a decade. Efforts to stop criminal activity by members of the VBBC have been made almost exclusively by the police department, with little or no support from the rest of the Virtual criminal justice system. In the past most criminal charges brought to the Virtual prosecutor’s office by police detectives have resulted in outright dismissal for lack of probable cause or plea bargained agreements that reduce potential felony charges to misdemeanors with payable fines. There have been however, two prior instances of massive arrests of VBBC members. Approximately 7 years ago raids resulted in the confiscation of drugs and weapons and the ultimate conviction of 12 VBBC members. Six of these members are on parole and still reside in Virtual; two others are currently in the county detention center awaiting trial for new criminal charges and four others are confined to the State prison near Virtual.A similar sweep three years ago produced nearly identical results. These sweeps appear to have been ineffective. In short, the VBBC has a network of members in jail, in prison, on parole in the community and free on the street. The current police investigation has affirmed that all of these VBBC members are in near constant communications with each other.Robert “Buddy” Pole is the “president” of the VBBC. While currently on parole for manufacturing methamphetamine, Buddy Pole continues to orchestrate the criminal enterprise that is VBBC. Provisions of his parole agreement that prohibit association with known criminals have gone unenforced. Robert Pole, Jr, (a.k.a. “Little Buddy” or “Bud Lite”) is currently in the Virtual Detention Center awaiting trial for carrying a concealed weapon. He seems to be in no hurry to make the affordable bail. Jail officials believe he is trying to organize a drug network within the jail. Two Detention Center correctional officers were recently disciplined for attempting to smuggle cell phones into the lock-up. It is believed they were destined for Little Buddy’s use. The youngest member of the Pole family is Patricia (a.k.a. “Tripper”). A chronic truant and trouble maker in school, Tripper was suspected of providing marijuana to her junior high school classmates and has continued the practice in high school. At age 19 and legally an adult, she is just about to complete her senior year of high school. Tripper’s collections of miscreant friends, most of whom are VBBC members or “wannabes”, congregate regularly around the Virtual Mall and commercial centers. Her boyfriend, John Henry Maxwell applied for a job as a Dunbar Security Force officer but was rejected because of his record.In order to rid the city of Virtual of this criminal gang, Virtual Police Department Chief Clayton Moore called upon his criminal justice partners:The head of the Virtual Police Department VBBC task force, Captain Jay SilverheelsThe chief criminal prosecutor from the Office of the District Attorney, Raymond BurrThe Security Chief of the state correctional facility, Major Allen IrongatesThe District Supervisor for the state department of parole, Martha StreetThe Operations Director of the Virtual Security Force, James DunbarThe Virtual Security Force, a private security company hired by the Virtual Commercial Merchants Association to provide security personnel, equipment, etc. to supplement the resources of the Virtual Police Department in designated business and commercial areas of the city. VSF personnel hold special police commissions, have arrest authority on the property of their clients and may or may not be armed depending on their assignment and qualifications.At their initial meeting Chief Moore made it clear to these partners that they had a single goal, to end the reign of terror emanating from the VBBC and victimizing Virtual’s citizens. Clearly if there was any hope of success, each criminal justice partner has to do their part for the collective good of all. The Chief’s remarks were met with wholesale agreement. It was decided the Virtual Criminal Justice Alliance would attack the VBBC on two levels (1) the pursuit of the current police investigations and prosecutions, and (2) a strategic plan to work collaboratively to reduce crime in Virtual. When the initial meeting adjourned Chief Moore had designated Captain Siverheels as his delegate. He was not sure, however, that every agency representative in the room felt his level of commitment or truly understood the consequences of failure. He was also curious as to what resources each “partner” was willing to bring to this operation and what would be held back.Major Irongate has her own issues with VBBC. Their presence in the state prison has settled down what had previously been a powder keg of gang-related unrest. VBBC has become the dominate force in the prison. John “Jacky” Pole has been able to get the warring national/international gang members in the prison to suspend their violence and focus on drug-related profits.With tensions simmering just below the surface, Irongate knows the self-serving truce may be short lived. Major Irongate was also asked to represent the Virtual Detention Center. This facility holds arrestees awaiting a bail hearing, denied bail prior to trial or in transitional housing from the state prison to attend court. The jail also holds offenders serving short sentences for convictions on misdemeanor charges. Nearly all of the prison’s inmate population came through the Detention Center and may return there to be available for court appearances. Major Irongate is convinced that these “traveling” inmates are being used as “mules” for drugs and contraband cell phones.Of the persons assembled by Chief Moore, only Dunbar represents a commercial, profit-driven agency. Simply put, these profits are the difference between the costs for the security provided and the fees Dunbar charges. Dunbar is eager to demonstrate a successful partnership with VPD and the Virtual Commercial Merchants’ Association as a stepping stone to contracts with larger jurisdictions. In any case, Dunbar’s primary motivation is to make money.Raymond Burr would applaud Chief Moore’s plan if he could, but as a pragmatist he feels that this is a waste of time. He understands, if no one else at the table does, that plea bargaining is to only way the criminal justice system can do business. He has also warned the chief before that his detectives need additional training on establishing probable cause, proper interrogation procedures, appropriate charging, etc. If the VPD could get its act together he would love to prosecute a good solid case against the VBBC, but prosecuting a “looser” case will not solve the problem or help his own political ambitions.NOTE: Each student will be assigned a role as one of the five members of the Chief’s team. The student should fully take on the persona of that member. Not all of the details can be provided. Students are encouraged to (reasonably) embellish on the character of the person they are assigned and play that role to the fullest.
CCJS 495 UMUC Impact of Inaction on Criminal Justice System Virtual CJ Alliance Essay