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The Achievements And Limitations Of Technological Transfer Economics Essay

Introduction The fact that food is one of the basic needs of world population needs no referencing. In the early times, increase in the production of crop was due to increase in the area of cultivation but in today’s era, scenario has changed. The production of agricultural products is increased with the increase in the productivity of the land (per acre or per hectare). The system of agricultural production has undergone a drastic change from the basis of natural resources to scientific bases, which involved technology revolution in the agricultural sector. The traditional variety of seeds was not able to yield maximum productivity from the land with dependence on uncertain climatic conditions, which resulted in disastrous situation like famine (Freebairn, 1995). On the other side, government also moved focus from agro-based economy to industrial based economy. This shifted the labor force from crop production to industrial goods production and resulted in low productivity of agriculture with the increase in population worldwide. The biggest technological revolution in the history of agriculture in developing countries was High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of seeds with the help of various institutions and federations, particularly International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines in 1960 and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (IMWIC) in Mexico in 1967. These new seeds increased the productivity of land quantitatively as well as qualitatively by enabling to produce 2-3 crops per year (Hazarika, 2002). By 1982-83 more than half of the area of cultivation of wheat and rice in developing countries including India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, Sri Lanka was adopted through these high yielding varieties of seeds (Dalrymple, 1985; Basu, 2009). India introduced these hybrid seeds in 1961 named ‘Green Revolution’ with the help of government, adopting new policies and programs like Intensive Agricultural Development Programme (IADP) started in 16 districts to provide information to the farmers (Mann, 1989). Scenario of India By the early 1960’s India faced the problem of food shortage rather relied on PL480 food grant from US. Authors have argued about the success of government of India in solving food shortage problem in relation to poverty. With the introduction of high yielding variety seeds in India, government made the country self-sufficient for the food requirement but failed to solve the issue of poverty by leaving the market to work itself. HYV increased the quantity of produced crop with the increase in the cost of production but it was found that in the Karnal district of Haryana in 1967-68 HYV wheat seeds gave Rs.207 more return per acre as compared to local variety whereas in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu in 1966-67 HYV rice seeds gave Rs.168.57 more return per acre. HYV seeds produce more yields in comparison to traditional local variety seeds. For instance, in case of wheat, average produce from HYV seeds was 12.3 quintals per acre and from traditional variety it was 7.5 quintals per acre of land whereas in case of rice seeds, it was 10.7 and 7.8 quintals per acre of land respectively. Authors have argued about the advantages and disadvantages of HYV and local variety seeds as shown in the table below: Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of HYV and Traditional Seeds HYV Seeds Traditional Seeds Advantages Disadvantages 1 Shorter Maturity duration Longer maturity duration 2 Higher yield per hectare Lower yield per hectare 3 Higher output price Lower output price 4 Higher Profit Lower profit 5 Multiple Cropping Season-specific Disadvantages Advantages 1 Higher Seed Price Lower Seed Price 2 Short height Long height 3 More prone to pests and diseases Less prone to pests and diseases 4 Less by-products More by-products like hay as taller plants 5 Higher cultivation cost Lower cultivation cost 6 Higher fluctuation(variation) in yield Lower fluctuation (variation) in yield Source: Goyari and Sharma (2008) HYV seeds required assured water supply, large doses of fertilizers and pesticides depending upon the land fertility and soil moisture conditions, which further enhance the requirement of inputs including irrigation facilities like tractors, tube wells, threshing and harvesting machines. This made the private sector interested in the HYV seeds. The success of HYV seeds in India depended upon the government support, financial means of farmers and the supply of inputs. In mid-1960’s the irrigation system from canals, tube wells and dug wells was under developed as three quarters of land depended upon rainfall. The role of government in the green revolution in India is quite vital. Due to incomplete information available about the farmers’ financial strength in relation to cost of production with HYV seeds, private sector was reluctant to invest. In the early 1970’s, cost of production of HYV was Rs. 1,125 per hectare but a small or marginal farmer with ownership of 2 hectares of land could had afford to invest just Rs. 350 per hectare. This made the requirement of loan from the banks and it required minimum of 10 acres of land to get loan. About 80% of the farmers were holding less than 10 acres of land resulting in benefits to middle class and rich farmers only, further making unequal distribution of wealth and consequently increasing poverty to 61% within three years after the introduction of HYVP. Thus, the government intervention was quite essential. Furthermore, the government of India adopted new programmes like ‘Garabi Hatao’ and policies to distribute irrigation facilities to the poor and providing finance by nationalizing 14 of its largest banks in 1969. In order to control the prices of inputs for HYV seeds government took production of inputs in its own hands and offered substantial subsidies on the purchase of inputs. Despite of the government intervention, large farmers took benefit of HYV seeds and changed the whole structure of the rural economy due to large mechanization on the fields. Large land owners instead of leasing out to tenants, got access to inputs easily and took help of hired labor (Rosset, 2000). In short, development in the agriculture sector in India in 1960’s solved the problem of food shortage but not the poverty. Scenario of Pakistan Pakistan was also one of the countries during the green revolution period which adopted the new miracle seeds technology to increase the yield of the land from the dispersion of semi dwarf wheat and rice varieties. The growth of agricultural output was increased from 6% to 15% in 1961-65 and 1967-68 respectively (Byerlee and Siddiq, 1994). Pakistan also got the location advantage due to its homogeneous environment and contiguous irrigation system, which made the fertile land of the country more capable of adopting HYV seeds. During 1966-69 in West Pakistan the production of wheat increased by 79% whereas production of rice increased by 61% (Child and Kaneda, 1975). Pakistan has showed the relation of growth in the small scale manufacturing industries with the growth in the agriculture sector during green revolution period. With the increase in the demand of inputs like diesel engines, tube wells, pumps, tractors, harvesting machines, etc. the small scale engineering industry got a chance to expand and grow to enhance the new technology in the agricultural sector. The development in the manufacturing industry was very impulsive as the government of Pakistan did not notice this development in the industry and it grew without getting any help from the government in terms of no subsidies, no tax concessions, no special credit arrangements or technical assistance (Azhar, 1991). Though West Pakistan, mainly Punjab, showed development from the new technology but unable to keep up with its planning. The contribution of HYV seeds was found to be limited with the type of crops (wheat, rice, maize, bajra and jowar) in Pakistan. Wasim (2007) in a study of 44 years from 1951-52 to 1994-95 of HYV seeds in Pakistan, demonstrated that during the period of green revolution the growth of HYV wheat seeds in the production, yield and area is significant. In case of rice and maize, production and yield had been increased due to the usage of HYV seeds whereas jowar HYV seeds showed a growth in the yield of land per unit area but with a decrease in production and area of cultivation of jowar in the same period of green revolution. Limitations of technology development The introduction of HYV seeds was with the expectation of removing hunger and poverty in the countries by increasing the output of food grains and the income of farmers. Rosset (2000) found the use of these magical seeds in half of the production of wheat in Asia, Africa and Latin America, about 75 percent of rice in Asia and 70 percent of world’s corn. But the increase in the productivity of food grains was at the cost of increasing poverty as most of the benefits of these seeds were gained by large farmers. For instance, in Muzaffarnagar (Uttar Pradesh, India) 60 percent of the income of households’ farm was declined in 1967-69 while in Ferozepur (Punjab, India) mainly large farmers gained the advantage with the increase in income from Rs. 90 in 1956-57 to Rs. 432 in 1969-70 but the small farmers’ share of income declined from 8.18 percent to 7.84% in the same period (Basu, 2009). It was also evident that the ownership of land by large farmers’ increased by 9.5 percent between 1955-56 and 1967-68 in Punjab with just a 4% increase in the farm sizes of 20-25 acres and 40% increase in the farm size of 100-150 acres (Basu, 2009). The technological advancement in the agriculture sector resulted in the unequal distribution of income and increase in poverty in India and Pakistan (Falcon, 1970). High yielding variety seeds with shorter maturity period enabled farmers to do multiple cropping on the same fields which resulted in the increase in the number of days of working in a year in the rural areas. The government with a thought of ‘trickle down’ effect taking care of poverty left the market to work itself. It was assumed that with the increase in output food price will diminish and employment will increase. But during the period of green revolution there was an increase in poverty from 18% in 1960-61 to 31.8% in 1964-65 and to 63.1% in 1967-68 with Punjab being the most affected (Basu, 2009). The large mechanization required with HYV seeds provided benefits to rich and middle class farmers, which resulted in the decrease of tenancy cultivation and demand of hired labor. Due to the absence of strict government intervention, banks provided loans to the rich and middle class farmers with assured water supply, making loans available at a cheaper rate and reduced collateral requirements for the loan arrangements. This increased the availability and demand of loans to purchase labor-saving devices like tractors, threshing and harvesting machines by the landlords. This large technological change in the agriculture sector changed the structure of agricultural economy of tenancy cultivation, which was a predominant feature of Indian agriculture, by reducing the demand of labor and decreasing the loans to tenants from the landlords. Therefore, this effect prohibited the so called trickle down effect to take place. Socio-economic and Ecological Impact Despite the introduction of new miracle seeds and technology the problem of poverty was not improved even the food production was not at the same level in different areas in a country rather the term ‘revolution’ can be related to only about 10-15% of Asia (Falcon,1970). The new technology was restricted to limited number of farmers as seen in Ferozepur (Punjab, India) with only 10% of households having access to the technology (Basu and Mallick, 2008). In 1970’s government realized the market failure of reducing poverty and took step forward to undertake anti-poverty programmes like poverty alleviation programmes, Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), etc. The IRDP helped about 30 million families to become self employed during the sixth and seventh plan periods. From mid-1970’s government started to shift the focus from green revolution and thus, this period is referred as post-green revolution period. The government widened the area of supplying of inputs by nationalized banks, offering loans to small and marginal farmers with low interest rates and cautiously distribution of inputs like fertilizers. This empowered a higher growth rate at all-India level during the post green revolution period to 2.87% in contrast to 2.49% in 1967-68. Furthermore, it also declined the number of people below the poverty line from 45.90 % in 1972-73 to 25.97% in 1990-91 (Basu, 2009). HYV seeds provided the opportunity to do multiple cropping in the same field. These seeds required assured water supply and large doses of fertilizers and pesticides to increase the yield. But due to excessive usage of chemical fertilizers and flooding of soil it lead to depletion of natural nutrients in the soil and made it less fertile. The table below shows the increase use of fertilizers in India and Pakistan during green revolution period: Source: Falcon (1970) High usage of fertilizers and pesticides kills the natural organisms in the soil and leads to soil diseases. The overflow from the excessive usage of fertilizer applications called for by the new technology results in the obliteration of proteins and massive eutrophication of lakes, streams and rivers and thus, affecting the sea life. Not only sea life but due to toxins present in these biocides the water used in the cultivation of crops gets contaminated and leaves harmful residues in the crops consumed by human beings (Cleaver, 2001). Conclusion Technological advancement in the agriculture sector named green revolution was a boom for the growth of agricultural economy in the developing countries. HYV seeds helped to generate self sufficiency in the food requirements of the developing countries like India and Pakistan. With the development in the technology, the requirement for advanced inputs like fertilizers, tractors and other irrigation facilities increased, which enabled farmers to do multiple cropping and higher yield per unit of area from HYV seeds. However, due to improper implementation of the new technology it resulted in some drawbacks in the agriculture sector. Rich and middle class farmers took maximum benefits from HYV programme with the help of easy access to credit market to purchase inputs and new technology. Due to this landlords replaced the structure of agricultural economy from tenancy cultivation with hired labors. The expected trickle down effect from the increase in food production and thus increasing employment from multiple cropping, did not take place and poverty issue remain unsolved in India and Pakistan. The shift of economy and technology from labor intensive to capital intensive formation with the excessive usage of chemical fertilizers, water resources and pesticides, lead to environmental deprivation and rise in poverty. The unsolved issue of poverty in the developing countries forced the governments to intervene in the market and take necessary measures to create new employment opportunities. India realized this soon and took a lead with the introduction of anti-poverty programmes and making easy access of the new technology (HYV) and the inputs in the less productive areas of the country (Basu, 2009).
Comparing Transnational Crime. Paper details For this assignment, you will select one transnational crime and two countries (from the six model nations in Chapter 4 of your text) in order to research the similarities and differences of the transnational crime between the two countries. Use the Internet and the Strayer Library to conduct your research. Write a 2–3 page paper in which you: Describe the transnational crime along with an introduction to each of the countries being compared. Compare and contrast both countries’ definitions of the crime, crime rates, and tools used to measure the crime. Determine each country’s legal traditions and their major influences on crime definition, rate, and measurement. Examine the extent to which crime statistics compiled in different countries can adequately be compared. Provide support for the response. Provide at least three quality references. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not count as quality references Transnational crime is drug trafficking 2 countries is China and japanComparing Transnational Crime
Resurrection University Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Case Study.

Case Study: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)Mr. Smith is a 65-year old businessman. He is a chain smoker for more than 40 years and had indulged in the lifestyle of the rich since he became a successful businessman at the age of 35. Now in his 60s, he is experiencing the consequences of the sedentary lifestyle he once lived. He has frequent trips to the bathroom at night and even at day. He sometimes could not contain the urges to urinate. And lately, he noticed that his urine stream is going weak and dribbles. He consulted a urologist and he was diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Describe the pathophysiology of BPH.
What symptom would the patient present with. Explain what is cause of the symptoms based on the pathophysiology.
What physical examination would be performed?
What are the diagnostic tests would be used to evaluate the prostate gland?
What medications are used to manage BPH? What are potential side effects? What is the nursing implementation?
Describe the surgical procedure of a TURP.
What is CBI used after a TURP? Describe the care for the patient. This should include general care as well as directly related to the CBI. Be sure to address pain-bladder spasm related to the CBI.
What would be discharge instructions.
References-please use APA formatting
Resurrection University Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Case Study

CUR 535 UOPX Wk 7 Improved Practice Research Proposal.

I’m working on a writing report and need a sample draft to help me learn.

CUR/535: Research for Improved PracticeWk 7 – Signature Assignment: Action Research Proposal: Section Four [due Mon] Assignment Content Complete Section Four: Outcomes and Evaluation of your Action Research Proposal. Write a minimum 3–4-page paper that includes the following information: Expected outcomes For each action goal you presented in Section Three, provide specific outcomes you hope to see if you were to implement this action research project. The primary action goal identified for this study is to increase the active engagement of 7th-grade math students in online classes by up to 90% from the current 40%, through the implementation of a communication plan. The first specific action goal is to increase communication between the teacher and the students. The second specific goal is to increase communication between the teacher and parents. Each goal may have several outcomes; therefore, number each outcome and present it in list form. The outcomes should be stated in observable, measurable terms (example: The researcher anticipates that the intervention will result in 50% of the participants having increased reading scores). The outcomes should relate specifically to the documentation you provide. Measurement of outcomes (Discuss data collection methods such as observations, interviews, grades, test scores, etc.). Describe how you plan to measure each projected outcome. Be specific about particular instruments and methods you would use. This information is intended to aid another researcher interested in replicating your study. Where possible, include copies of tests, questionnaires, or other instruments in an Appendix. Analysis of results Describe how you plan to analyze your results. Will you use bar graphs, pie charts, etc.? Will you use coding to look for patterns or themes that may emerge? Will you conduct an interim data analysis? Explain how you would determine if your solution strategy was effective. Explain how you would present your report of findings and to whom you would present them. References List all sources you used to complete and support your action research proposal, particularly those used for the literature review. You should have at minimum the 7 sources from your literature review that were listed on the ARP Section Two reference page. Ensure your sources are cited according to APA guidelines throughout the paper. Be sure to format the reference page, per APA format. REFERENCES LISTED in attachments FOR SECTIONS 1-3 INCLUDE ANY ADDITIONAL REFERENCES AS WELL. Reminders: Use APA format. Always include a title page, an introduction, and a conclusion.
CUR 535 UOPX Wk 7 Improved Practice Research Proposal

Watch the video in this week’s content folder and answer the questions below: 1 What were two or three

Watch the video in this week’s content folder and answer the questions below: 1 What were two or three take away messages that you learned from the video. 2 Describe how the video connects with what you learned from this week’s chapter 2 reading on maternal health and influences on prenatal development. 3 What is a question that you have from the video that you would like a classmate to answer? video :

need help with psychology HW

essay helper free need help with psychology HW. I’m trying to learn for my Psychology class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

I need help with question 1 to 3, please.
The purpose of this assignment is for students to show an understanding of Social Psychology, specifically cognitive dissonance. Students must then apply this understanding to an example from their own life. Read the textbook psychology in your life third edition and answer the following questions
To successfully complete this assignment, students must: . Answer every question in complete sentences!
. Include textbook citations within the answer in APA style.
. Make sure that there is an APA reference page attached to the assignment.
. Make sure to follow all directions in the assignment, including word counts.
. Upload the assignment by the due date, including the APA Reference page.
Hint: When using Google docs the formatting gets messed up on the Reference page when the document is uploaded. This means you will lose points for APA style since formatting is important. You might want to save your assignment as a PDF file and then upload it!
For this assignment answer the following questions:

Define cognitive dissonance. Make sure you cite the textbook in the answer using APA style. Explain why are we motivated to reduce cognitive dissonance. Make sure you describe both ways that cognitive dissonance can be reduced (7 pts; Minimum 100 words, include word count)
Provide an example from your life about an incidence of cognitive dissonance you are currently experiencing or experienced in the past. Make sure you describe the behavior and the attitude, or both attitudes specifically. This example must be something from your own life, NOT one described in the textbook! (6 pts; Minimum 60 words, include word count)
Explain how you reduced your cognitive dissonance. Include whether your efforts to reduce your cognitive dissonance worked only for a short time period or if it is still working. When answering this question explain how postdecisional dissonance may help reduce cognitive dissonance for the long term. Make sure you cite the textbook in the answer using APA style. (6 pts; Minimum 60 words, include word count)

need help with psychology HW

Management Ethics

For this assignment, you will assume the fictitious role of the Human Resource Director for Xtra Office Supplies and write seven ethics policies for your organization. Here are some parameters to help you with this assignment:

Your company has 30 employees, 7 of which are managers.

You will write 7 ethics policies that will guide both rank-and-file employees and their managers as they make business decisions. Each policy should discuss a specific decision-making process, such as the external hiring process, the internal promotion process, employee discipline, approval of time-off, vendor relations, financial reporting process, accepting gifts, reporting expenses, customer returns and refunds, etc. These are just example, you may select any appropriate topics you wish for your policies.

Each policy should clearly state the decision-making process it covers, giving guidance on how managers and employees should address the situation. The policy should outline specific expectations, give advice on available resources, and state when a situation should be escalated to the next level of management. Ensure each policy details any consequences for breaking it, such as discipline or termination.

Keep in mind the scope of these policies. The company is rather small, so the management structure most likely consists of several department managers that oversee rank-and-file employees (you are one of those managers) and the company owner or president. Therefore, you can specifically state who to escalate certain problems to. For example, in the case of an allegation of workplace harassment, you may want to state that the reporting party goes directly to the Director of Human Resources.

Keep your policies practical. This is a small, local printing company, so chances are they will not have as many detailed policies as a Fortune 500 corporation. Remember, the policies are a guide for all employees and managers as they make day-to-day decisions, so select appropriate topics. For example, a fair time-off policy is very practical, as a small company cannot afford to have too many individuals taking vacation at the same time. However, this policy should comply with any legal requirements such as FMLA, employment contracts, or wage and hour laws.

University of California San Diego Saudi Telecom Company Strategy Planning Discussion

University of California San Diego Saudi Telecom Company Strategy Planning Discussion.

This week, our discussion thread is centered on the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm and clarifying capabilities. Select a Saudi Arabian company with which you are familiar and reinforce the approach to resource and capability analysis by appraising the strategic worth of key resources and capabilities using Barney’s VRIO (Valuable, Rare, Imitable, Organization) Framework (See Strategy Capsule 5.6).
1.Identify three key resources and/or capabilities of the company.
a.Vet each of the three against the VRIO (Valuable, Rare, Imitable, Organization) Framework.
b.Explain each resource/capability’s score given the VRIO rubric. For instance, does the resource/capability impart sufficient value, is the resource/capability rare, etc.
c.What is the likely competitive outcome for each resource/capability? That is, given its VRIO score is it likely to impart a sustainable competitive advantage, a temporary competitive advantage, competitive parity, or competitive disadvantage?
d.Make recommendations to the firm’s management as to which of the resources/capabilities you have identified should be invested (built up), divested and/or which additional resources should be acquired to supplement/leverage existing resources/capabilities.
2.In your response to student posts, focus on the viability of the suggestions made by other students: To which degree do these suggestions make sense regarding the possibility of gaining a sustainable competitive advantage?
Follow (APA) style
Two scholarly peer-reviewed references supporting the answer.
University of California San Diego Saudi Telecom Company Strategy Planning Discussion